Publications by authors named "Mayra Guerrero"

129 Publications

Clinical predictors and impact of postoperative mean gradient on outcome after transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: The predictors and clinical significance of increased Doppler-derived mean diastolic gradient (MG) following transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (MVTEER) remain controversial.

Objective: We sought to examine baseline correlates of Doppler-derived increased MG post-MVTEER and its impact on intermediate-term outcomes.

Methods: Patients undergoing MVTEER were analyzed retrospectively. Post-MVTEER increased MG was defined as >5 mmHg or aborted clip implantation due to increased MG intraprocedurally. Baseline MG and 3D-guided mitral valve area (MVA) by planimetry were retrospectively available in 233 and 109 patients.

Results: 243 patients were included; 62 (26%) had MG > 5 mmHg post-MVTEER or aborted clip insertion, including 7 (11%) that had aborted clip implantation. Mortality occurred in 63 (26%) during a median follow up of 516 days (IQR 211, 1021). Increased post-MVTEER MG occurred more frequently in females (44% vs. 16%, p <  0.001), those with baseline MVA <4.0 cm (71% vs. 16%), baseline MG ≥4 mmHg (61% vs. 20%), or multiple clips implanted (33% vs. 21%, p = 0.04). Increased post-MVTEER MG was associated with increased subsequent mortality compared to those with normal gradient (HR 1.91 95% CI 1.15-3.18 p = 0.016) as was aborted clip insertion compared to all others (HR 5.23 95% CI 2.06-13.28 p <  0.001).

Conclusions: Smaller baseline MVA and increased baseline MG are associated with increased MG post-MVTEER and patients with a Doppler-derived post-MVTEER MG >5 mmHg suffered excess subsequent mortality. In high risk patients considered for MVTEER, identification of those at risk of iatrogenic mitral stenosis with MVTEER is important as they may be optimally treated with alternate surgical or transcatheter therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29867DOI Listing
July 2021

"It's like a Brotherhood": Thematic analysis of veterans' identity processes in substance abuse recovery homes.

J Community Psychol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Community Research, DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

This exploratory study aimed to understand how veterans' social identity influenced their experiences living in Oxford Houses (OH)-the largest network of substance use recovery homes in the United States. We conducted three focus groups, with 20 veterans who were current or former OH residents. Thematic analysis revealed several ways in which participants' veteran identity influenced their experiences living in OH, including: (1) thriving through OH organizational similarities with the military, (2) relationships with other OH residents, and (3) and growth and reintegration. The themes were interpreted using the Social Identity Theory and the Social Identity Model of Identity Change perspectives. Social identity processes were found to play an influential role in veterans' experiences in their recovery homes and reintegration into civilian life. Findings highlight the importance of veterans developing a community within a culturally congruent setting to facilitate their recovery from substance use disorders and adjustment to life post-military service.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcop.22623DOI Listing
June 2021

Advice seeking and loaning of money related to relapse in recovery homes.

J Community Appl Soc Psychol 2021 Jan-Feb;31(1):39-52. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Oregon Research Institute, Portland, Oregon.

Recovery homes help individuals who have completed substance use treatment programs re-integrate back into the community. However, it is unclear what factors determine who will succeed in these settings and how these factors may be reinforced or undermined by the social interactions and social networks between residents living in the Oxford House recovery homes. In an effort to better understand these factors, the current study evaluated (a) the extent to which the density of social networks (i.e., friendship, willingness to loan money, and advice-seeking relationships) is associated with social capital (i.e., sense of community, quality of life, hopefulness, self-efficacy), and (b) whether the density of social networks predicts relapse over time. Among the findings, willingness to loan money was positively associated with all four individual-level social capital variables, suggesting that availability of instrumental resources may be important to ongoing recovery. To test whether these house-level social network factors then support recovery, a survival analysis was conducted, finding associations between relapse risk and the network densities over a 28-month span. In particular, more dense advice-seeking networks were associated with higher rates of relapse, suggesting that the advice-seeking might represent a sign of organisational house problems, with many residents unsure of issues related to their recovery. In contrast, more dense loaning networks were associated with less relapse, so willingness to lend money could be measuring a willingness to help those in need. The implications of these findings are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/casp.2486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186298PMC
September 2020

Social Network Cohesion among Veterans Living in Recovery Homes.

Mil Behav Health 2021 3;9(1):55-68. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Center for Community Research, DePaul University, Chicago, IL.

Recovery homes for individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) called Oxford House (OH) have been shown to improve the prospects of a successful recovery across different sub-populations, and these homes may be particularly beneficial for veterans in recovery. An estimated 18% of OH residents are veterans; however, not much is known about their experiences living in these homes. Participants included 85 veterans and non-veterans living in 13 OHs located in different regions of the United States. Using social network analysis and multi-level modeling, we investigated whether the social networks of veterans residing with other veterans were more cohesive compared to veterans living with only non-veterans. Results indicated that veterans residing with other veterans had stronger relationships with other OH residents compared to veterans that reside with all non-veterans. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. Further research is needed to determine if greater social network cohesion leads to better recovery outcomes for veterans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21635781.2020.1796859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184014PMC
August 2020

Short- and mid-term outcomes in percutaneous mitral valve replacement using balloon expandable valves.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Center for Structural Heart Disease, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Background: Due to elevated surgical risk, transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) is used as an alternative for treating failed bioprosthetic valves, annuloplasty repairs and mitral annular calcification (MAC). We report the procedural and longitudinal outcomes for each subtype: Mitral valve-in-valve (MVIV), mitral valve-in-ring (MViR), and valve-in-MAC (ViMAC).

Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing TMVR from October 2013 to December 2019 were assessed. Patients at high risk for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction had either alcohol septal ablation or intentional laceration of the anterior leaflet (LAMPOON).

Results: Eight-eight patients underwent TMVR; 38 MViV, 31 MViR, and 19 ViMAC procedures were performed. The median Society of Thoracic Surgery 30-day predicted risk of mortality was 8.2% (IQR 5.2, 19.9) for all. Sapien 3 (78%) and transseptal access (98%) were utilized in most cases. All-cause in-hospital mortality, technical, and procedural success were 8%, 83%, and 66% respectively. Median follow up was 1.4 years (IQR 0.5-2.9 years) and overall survival was 40% at 4 years. Differential survival rates were observed with MViV doing the best, followed by MViR and ViMAC having a <20% survival at 4 years. After adjusting for co-variates, MViV procedure was the strongest predictor of survival (HR 0.24 [95% CI 0.079-0.7]).

Conclusion: TMVR is performed in at high-risk patients with attenuated long-term survival. MViV has the best success and survival rate, but long-term survival in MViR and ViMAC is guarded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29783DOI Listing
June 2021

Hemolysis after transcatheter mitral valve replacement in degenerated bioprostheses, annuloplasty rings, and mitral annular calcification: Incidence, patient characteristics, and clinical outcomes.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Objectives: To determine the incidence, characteristics, and outcomes of patients with hemolysis after transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR).

Background: Hemolysis is an increasingly recognized complication of TMVR. Clinical outcomes and optimal management for patients with hemolysis after TMVR are unclear.

Methods: Patients that underwent mitral valve-in-valve (MViV), valve-in-ring (MViR), and valve-in-mitral annular calcification (ViMAC) at a single center were retrospectively assessed.

Results: A total of 101 patients had TMVR, including 69 with MViV, 14 with MViR, and 18 with ViMAC. ViMAC patients had an increased frequency of mild or greater paravalvular leak (PVL) (ViMAC, 72.2%; MViR, 14.3%; MViV, 13.0%; p < .001). Hemolysis occurred in eight patients and was more common after ViMAC (ViMAC, 33.3%; MViR, 7.1%; MViV, 1.5%; p < .001). This required transfusion in five (ViMAC, 4; MViV, 1) and was associated with acute kidney injury in five with ViMAC. Among the ViMAC patients, four had transcatheter re-intervention to treat hemolysis with resolution of anemia in three and mild residual anemia in one with persistent mild PVL. The two ViMAC patients without re-intervention had persistent anemia and died within 6 months. Both MViV and MViR patients with hemolysis did not have PVL but had turbulent flow from left ventricular outflow tract narrowing and their hemolysis was self-limited.

Conclusions: Hemolysis occurs with greater frequency and increased clinical severity after ViMAC as compared to MViV or MViR and is likely related to increased incidence of PVL. These findings demonstrate the need to investigate novel strategies that can reduce the burden of hemolysis with ViMAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29779DOI Listing
May 2021

The Lancet women and cardiovascular disease Commission: reducing the global burden by 2030.

Lancet 2021 Jun 16;397(10292):2385-2438. Epub 2021 May 16.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Decades of grassroots campaigns have helped to raise awareness about the impact of cardiovascular disease in women, and positive changes affecting women and their health have gained momentum. Despite these efforts, there has been stagnation in the overall reduction of cardiovascular disease burden for women in the past decade. Cardiovascular disease in women remains understudied, under-recognised, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. This Commission summarises existing evidence and identifies knowledge gaps in research, prevention, treatment, and access to care for women. Recommendations from an international team of experts and leaders in the field have been generated with a clear focus to reduce the global burden of cardiovascular disease in women by 2030. This Commission represents the first effort of its kind to connect stakeholders, to ignite global awareness of sex-related and gender-related disparities in cardiovascular disease, and to provide a springboard for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00684-XDOI Listing
June 2021

Incidence, Causes, and Outcomes Associated With Urgent Implantation of a Supplementary Valve During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Importance: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) failure is often managed by an urgent implantation of a supplementary valve during the procedure (2-valve TAVR [2V-TAVR]). Little is known about the factors associated with or sequelae of 2V-TAVR.

Objective: To examine the incidence, causes, and outcomes of 2V-TAVR.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A retrospective cohort study was performed using data from an international registry of 21 298 TAVR procedures performed from January 1, 2014, through February 28, 2019. Among the 21 298 patients undergoing TAVR, 223 patients (1.0%) undergoing 2V-TAVR were identified. Patient-level data were available for all the patients undergoing 2V-TAVR and for 12 052 patients (56.6%) undergoing 1V-TAVR. After excluding patients with missing 30-day follow-up or data inconsistencies, 213 2V-TAVR and 10 010 1V-TAVR patients were studied. The 2V-TAVR patients were compared against control TAVR patients undergoing a 1-valve TAVR (1V-TAVR) using 1:4 17 propensity score matching. Final analysis included 1065 (213:852) patients.

Exposures: Urgent implantation of a supplementary valve during TAVR.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Mortality at 30 days and 1 year.

Results: The 213 patients undergoing 2V-TAVR had similar age (mean [SD], 81.3 [0.5] years) and sex (110 [51.6%] female) as the 10 010 patients undergoing 1V-TAVR (mean [SD] age, 81.2 [0.5] years; 110 [51.6%] female). The 2V-TAVR incidence decreased from 2.9% in 2014 to 1.0% in 2018 and was similar between repositionable and nonrepositionable valves. Bicuspid aortic valve (odds ratio [OR], 2.20; 95% CI, 1.17-4.15; P = .02), aortic regurgitation of moderate or greater severity (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.49-2.73; P < .001), atrial fibrillation (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.07-1.93; P = .02), alternative access (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.72-3.89; P < .001), early-generation valve (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.69-3.19; P < .001), and self-expandable valve (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.17-2.43; P = .004) were associated with higher 2V-TAVR risk. In 165 patients (80%), the supplementary valve was implanted because of residual aortic regurgitation after primary valve malposition (94 [46.4%] too high and 71 [34.2%] too low). In the matched 2V-TAVR vs 1V-TAVR cohorts, the rate of device success was 147 (70.4%) vs 783 (92.2%) (P < .001), the rate of coronary obstruction was 5 (2.3%) vs 3 (0.4%) (P = .10), stroke rate was 9 (4.6%) vs 13 (1.6%) (P = .09), major bleeding rates were 25 (11.8%) vs 46 (5.5%) (P = .03) and annular rupture rate was 7 (3.3%) vs 3 (0.4%) (P = .03). The hazard ratios for mortality were 2.58 (95% CI, 1.04-6.45; P = .04) at 30 days, 1.45 (95% CI, 0.84-2.51; P = .18) at 1 year, and 1.20 (95% CI, 0.77-1.88; P = .42) at 2 years. Nontransfemoral access and certain periprocedural complications were independently associated with higher risk of death 1 year after 2V-TAVR.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study, valve malposition was the most common indication for 2V-TAVR. Incidence decreased over time and was low overall, although patients with a bicuspid or regurgitant aortic valve, nontransfemoral access, and early-generation or self-expandable valve were at higher risk. These findings suggest that compared with 1V-TAVR, 2V-TAVR is associated with high burden of complications and mortality at 30 days but not at 1 year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.1145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8135057PMC
May 2021

Early outcomes from the CLASP IID trial roll-in cohort for prohibitive risk patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Atlantic Health System Morristown Medical Center, Morristown, New Jersey, USA.

Objectives: We report the 30-day outcomes from the roll-in cohort of the CLASP IID trial, representing the first procedures performed by each site.

Background: The currently enrolling CLASP IID/IIF pivotal trial is a multicenter, prospective, randomized trial assessing the safety and effectiveness of the PASCAL transcatheter valve repair system in patients with clinically significant MR. The trial allows for up to three roll-in patients per site.

Methods: Eligibility criteria were: DMR ≥3+, prohibitive surgical risk, and deemed suitable for transcatheter repair by the local heart team. Trial oversight included a central screening committee and echocardiographic core laboratory. The primary safety endpoint was a 30-day composite MAE: cardiovascular mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), new need for renal replacement therapy, severe bleeding, and non-elective mitral valve re-intervention, adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee. Thirty-day echocardiographic, functional, and quality of life outcomes were assessed.

Results: A total of 45 roll-in patients with mean age of 83 years and 69% in NYHA class III/IV were treated. Successful implantation was achieved in 100%. The 30-day composite MAE rate was 8.9% including one cardiovascular death (2.2%) due to severe bleeding from a hemorrhagic stroke, one MI, and no need for re-intervention. MR≤1+ was achieved in 73% and ≤2+ in 98% of patients. 89% of patients were in NYHA class I/II (p < .001) with improvements in 6MWD (30 m; p = .054) and KCCQ (17 points; p < .001).

Conclusions: Early results representing sites with first experience with the PASCAL repair system showed favorable 30-day outcomes in patients with DMR≥3+ at prohibitive surgical risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29749DOI Listing
May 2021

Prospective Evaluation of Transseptal TMVR for Failed Surgical Bioprostheses: MITRAL Trial Valve-in-Valve Arm 1-Year Outcomes.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Apr;14(8):859-872

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess 1-year clinical outcomes among high-risk patients with failed surgical mitral bioprostheses who underwent transseptal mitral valve-in-valve (MViV) with the SAPIEN 3 aortic transcatheter heart valve (THV) in the MITRAL (Mitral Implantation of Transcatheter Valves) trial.

Background: The MITRAL trial is the first prospective study evaluating transseptal MViV with the SAPIEN 3 aortic THV in high-risk patients with failed surgical mitral bioprostheses.

Methods: High-risk patients with symptomatic moderate to severe or severe mitral regurgitation (MR) or severe mitral stenosis due to failed surgical mitral bioprostheses were prospectively enrolled. The primary safety endpoint was technical success. The primary THV performance endpoint was absence of MR grade ≥2+ or mean mitral valve gradient ≥10 mm Hg (30 days and 1 year). Secondary endpoints included procedural success and all-cause mortality (30 days and 1 year).

Results: Thirty patients were enrolled between July 2016 and October 2017 (median age 77.5 years [interquartile range (IQR): 70.3 to 82.8 years], 63.3% women, median Society of Thoracic Surgeons score 9.4% [IQR: 5.8% to 12.0%], 80% in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV). The technical success rate was 100%. The primary performance endpoint in survivors was achieved in 96.6% (28 of 29) at 30 days and 82.8% (24 of 29) at 1 year. Thirty-day all-cause mortality was 3.3% and was unchanged at 1 year. The only death was due to airway obstruction after swallowing several pills simultaneously 29 days post-MViV. At 1-year follow-up, 89.3% of patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I or II, the median mean mitral valve gradient was 6.6 mm Hg (interquartile range: 5.5 to 8.9 mm Hg), and all patients had MR grade ≤1+.

Conclusions: Transseptal MViV in high-risk patients was associated with 100% technical success, low procedural complication rates, and very low mortality at 1 year. The vast majority of patients experienced significant symptom alleviation, and THV performance remained stable at 1 year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.02.027DOI Listing
April 2021

Prospective Evaluation of TMVR for Failed Surgical Annuloplasty Rings: MITRAL Trial Valve-in-Ring Arm 1-Year Outcomes.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Apr;14(8):846-858

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Objectives: The authors report 1-year outcomes of high-risk patients with failed surgical annuloplasty rings undergoing transseptal mitral valve-in-ring (MViR) with the SAPIEN 3 aortic transcatheter heart valve (THV).

Background: The MITRAL (Mitral Implantation of Transcatheter Valves) trial is the first prospective study evaluating transseptal MViR with the SAPIEN 3 aortic THV in high-risk patients with failed surgical annuloplasty rings.

Methods: Prospective enrollment of high-risk patients with symptomatic moderate to severe or severe mitral regurgitation (MR) or severe mitral stenosis and failed annuloplasty rings at 13 U.S. sites. The primary safety endpoint was technical success. The primary THV performance endpoint was absence of MR grade ≥2+ or mean mitral valve gradient ≥10 mm Hg (30 days and 1 year). Secondary endpoints included procedural success and all-cause mortality (30 days and 1 year).

Results: Thirty patients were enrolled between January 2016 and October 2017 (median age 71.5 years [interquartile range: 67.0 to 76.8 years], 36.7% women, median Society of Thoracic Surgeons score 7.6% [interquartile range: 5.1% to 11.8%], 76.7% in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV). Technical success was 66.7% (driven primarily by need for a second valve in 6 patients). There was no intraprocedural mortality or conversion to surgery. The primary performance endpoint was achieved in 85.7% of survivors at 30 days (24 of 28) and 89.5% of patients alive at 1 year with echocardiographic data available (17 of 19). All-cause mortality at 30 days was 6.7% and at 1 year was 23.3%. Among survivors at 1-year follow-up, 84.2% were in New York Heart Association functional class I or II, the median mean mitral valve gradient was 6.0 mm Hg (interquartile range: 4.7 to 7.3 mm Hg), and all had ≤1+ MR.

Conclusions: Transseptal MViR was associated with a 30-day mortality rate lower than predicted by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons score. At 1 year, transseptal MViR was associated with symptom improvement and stable THV performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.01.051DOI Listing
April 2021

Prospective Study of TMVR Using Balloon-Expandable Aortic Transcatheter Valves in MAC: MITRAL Trial 1-Year Outcomes.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Apr;14(8):830-845

Center for Structural Heart Disease, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate 1-year outcomes of valve-in-mitral annular calcification (ViMAC) in the MITRAL (Mitral Implantation of Transcatheter Valves) trial.

Background: The MITRAL trial is the first prospective study evaluating the feasibility of ViMAC using balloon-expandable aortic transcatheter heart valves.

Methods: A multicenter prospective study was conducted, enrolling high-risk surgical patients with severe mitral annular calcification and symptomatic severe mitral valve dysfunction at 13 U.S. sites.

Results: Between February 2015 and December 2017, 31 patients were enrolled (median age 74.5 years [interquartile range (IQR): 71.3 to 81.0 years], 71% women, median Society of Thoracic Surgeons score 6.3% [IQR: 5.0% to 8.8%], 87.1% in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV). Access was transatrial (48.4%), transseptal (48.4%), or transapical (3.2%). Technical success was 74.2%. Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) with hemodynamic compromise occurred in 3 patients (transatrial, n = 1; transseptal, n = 1; transapical, n = 1). After LVOTO occurred in the first 2 patients, pre-emptive alcohol septal ablation was implemented to decrease risk in high-risk patients. No intraprocedural deaths or conversions to open heart surgery occurred during the index procedures. All-cause mortality at 30 days was 16.7% (transatrial, 21.4%; transseptal, 6.7%; transapical, 100% [n = 1]; p = 0.33) and at 1 year was 34.5% (transatrial, 38.5%; transseptal, 26.7%; p = 0.69). At 1-year follow-up, 83.3% of patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I or II, the median mean mitral valve gradient was 6.1 mm Hg (IQR: 5.6 to 7.1 mm Hg), and all patients had ≤1+ mitral regurgitation.

Conclusions: At 1 year, ViMAC was associated with symptom improvement and stable transcatheter heart valve performance. Pre-emptive alcohol septal ablation may prevent transcatheter mitral valve replacement-induced LVOTO in patients at risk. Thirty-day mortality of patients treated via transseptal access was lower than predicted by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons score. Further studies are needed to evaluate safety and efficacy of ViMAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.01.052DOI Listing
April 2021

Transcatheter mitral valve repair for severe functional mitral regurgitation and cardiogenic shock.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, United States of America.

Patients with acute mitral regurgitation and cardiogenic shock have poor outcomes. Many patients do not qualify for surgery and are left with no treatment options. We present the case of a 76-year-old woman with severe mitral regurgitation, cardiogenic shock, and prohibitive surgical risk who was successfully treated with transcatheter mitral valve edge to edge repair. We also review the existing data that supports transcatheter mitral valve edge to edge repair in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2021.03.026DOI Listing
April 2021

The Emergence, Role, and Impact of Recovery Support Services.

Alcohol Res 2021 25;41(1):04. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Center for Community Research, DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois.

Various community recovery support services help sustain positive behavior change for individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders. This article reviews the rationale, origins, emergence, prevalence, and empirical research on a variety of recovery support services in U.S. communities that may influence the likelihood of sustained recovery. The community recovery support services reviewed include recovery high schools, collegiate recovery programs, recovery homes, recovery coaches, and recovery community centers. Many individuals are not provided with the types of environmental supports needed to solidify and support their recovery, so there is a need for more research on who may be best suited for these services as well as when, why, and how they confer benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.35946/arcr.v41.1.04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996242PMC
March 2021

Association of Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair Availability With Outcomes of Mitral Valve Surgery.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Apr 23;10(7):e019314. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery Mayo Clinic School of Medicine Rochester MN.

Background Transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) is currently offered at selected centers that meet certain operator and institutional requirements. We sought to explore the hypothesis that the availability of TMVr is associated with improved outcomes of MV surgery. Methods and Results We used the Nationwide Readmissions Database to identify patients who underwent MV surgery at centers with or without TMVr capabilities between January 1 and December 31, 2017. The primary end point was in-hospital mortality. Secondary end points were postoperative complications, resource use, and 30-day readmissions. A total of 24 477 patients from 595 centers (446 TMVr, 149 non-TMVr) were included. There were modest but statistically significant differences in the prevalence of comorbidities between the groups. Patients at non-TMVr centers had higher unadjusted in-hospital mortality than those at TMVr centers (5.6% versus 3.6%, <0.001). They also had higher rates of postoperative complications, longer hospitalizations, higher cost, and fewer home discharges but similar 30-day readmission rates. After propensity matching, mortality remained higher at non-TMVr centers (5.5% versus 4.0%, <0.001). Rates of postoperative complications, prolonged hospitalizations, and nonhome discharges also remained higher. Postoperative mortality was consistently higher at non-TMVr centers in multiple risk-adjustment analyses incrementally accounting for differences in risk factors, surgical volume, availability of surgical repair, and excluding concomitant procedures. In the most comprehensive model, surgery at non-TMVr centers was associated with higher odds of death (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.14-1.73; =0.002). Conclusions Mitral valve surgery at TMVr centers is associated with improved in-hospital outcomes compared with non-TMVr centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174333PMC
April 2021

Surgical and Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement in Mitral Annular Calcification: A Systematic Review.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Apr 17;10(7):e018514. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery Mount Sinai Health System New York NY.

Mitral annular calcification with mitral valve disease is a challenging problem that could necessitate surgical mitral valve replacement (SMVR). Transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) is emerging as a feasible alternative in high-risk patients with appropriate anatomy. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception to December 25, 2019 for studies discussing SMVR or TMVR in patients with mitral annular calcification; 27 of 1539 articles were selected for final review. TMVR was used in 15 studies. Relevant data were available on 82 patients who underwent hybrid transatrial TMVR, and 354 patients who underwent transapical or transseptal TMVR. Outcomes on SMVR were generally reported as small case series (447 patients from 11 studies); however, 1 large study recently reported outcomes in 9551 patients. Patients who underwent TMVR had a shorter median follow-up of 9 to 12 months (range, in-hospital‒19 months) compared with patients with SMVR (54 months; range, in-hospital‒120 months). Overall, those undergoing TMVR were older and had higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk scores. SMVR showed a wide range of early (0%-27%; median 6.3%) and long-term mortality (0%-65%; median at 1 year, 15.8%; 5 years, 38.8%, 10 years, 62.4%). The median in-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality rates were 16.7%, 22.7%, and 43%, respectively, for transseptal/transapical TMVR, and 9.5%, 20.0%, and 40%, respectively, for transatrial TMVR. Mitral annular calcification is a complex disease and TMVR, with a versatile option of transatrial approach in patients with challenging anatomy, offers a promising alternative to SMVR in high-risk patients. However, further studies are needed to improve technology, patient selection, operative expertise, and long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174336PMC
April 2021

Temporal outcomes of transcatheter mitral valve replacement in native mitral valve disease with annular calcification.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Surgical intervention in patients with native mitral disease due to severe mitral annular calcification (MAC) carries significant risk. Transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) using balloon-expandable aortic transcatheter heart valve (THV) in MAC had emerged as alternative treatment.

Objectives: We aim to study the temporal change in clinical outcomes of the procedure at a single center.

Methods: We retrospectively studied 23 patients who underwent TMVR in MAC at Mayo Clinic from January, 14, 2014 to March, 15, 2019. Cases were divided into early (n = 11) and late (n = 12) experience. The primary end point was 30-day all-cause mortality. The secondary end points were immediate technical success, 30-day procedural success, and 1-year all-cause mortality.

Results: Mean age of patients was 75.2 ± 8.9 years and 17 (74.0%) were female. Median STS score for 30-day mortality was 8 (Interquartile range 4.3-13.4) for the entire population. Immediate technical success was achieved in 21 out of 23 patients (two failures in the early experience were related to tamponade and procedural death). Thirty-day procedural success was higher in the late experience (10 out of 12 patients) compared to early experience (5 out of 11 patients, p = .06). Four deaths in the first 30-days were observed in the early experience while all patients survived to hospital discharge in the late experience (p = .01).

Conclusions: Procedural success and 30-day survival of transcatheter mitral valve replacement in severe mitral annular calcification procedure using balloon-expandable aortic prosthesis had improved over the years. This is likely attributed to significant advancement in procedural planning, valve design, and techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29515DOI Listing
February 2021

Risk for Increased Mean Diastolic Gradient after Transcatheter Edge-to-Edge Mitral Valve Repair: A Quantitative Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiographic Analysis.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 Jun 29;34(6):595-603.e2. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address:

Background: Iatrogenic mitral stenosis is a known limitation of transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (TMVr), but determinants of increased postprocedural mean diastolic gradient (MG) are not well defined. The aim of this study was to determine correlates of increased post-TMVr MG or aborted clip implantation due to increased MG.

Methods: Procedural three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) data sets of 112 patients who underwent TMVr were retrospectively analyzed. Three-dimensional TEE mitral valve area (MVA) planimetry and mitral annular calcification (MAC) were quantified using multiplanar reconstruction. When MAC extension into the mitral leaflets was present, MAC with leaflet calcification (MAC-LC) length was recorded as the maximum distance from the mitral annulus to the most distal leaflet calcification. Increased MG after TMVr, measured on intraprocedural TEE imaging, was defined as ≥5 mm Hg or aborted clip implantation due to increased MG.

Results: Baseline MVA was 5.9 ± 1.7 cm, baseline MG was 2.1 ± 1.2 mm Hg, and MAC-LC length was 4.0 ± 4.5 mm. Thirty-two patients (29%) had increased post-TMVr MG. Risk for increased post-TMVr MG was 86%, 28%, and 14% in patients with baseline MVA < 4.0, 4.0 to 6.0, and >6.0 cm, respectively (P < .001). In patients with baseline MVA 4.0 to 6.0 cm, concurrent baseline MG ≥ 4 mm Hg or MAC-LC ≥ 6 mm was associated with higher risk for increased post-TMVr MG (53% vs 12%, P = .002). In patients with baseline MVA < 4.0 and >6.0 cm, the risk for increased post-TMVr MG was similar in the presence or absence of baseline MG ≥ 4 mm Hg or MAC-LC ≥ 6 mm (P > .05 for both).

Conclusions: Patients with baseline three-dimensional TEE MVA < 4.0 cm are at high risk for increased post-TMVr MG. Additionally, patients with borderline MVA (4.0-6.0 cm) and concurrent MAC-LC length ≥ 6 mm or baseline MG ≥ 4 mm Hg are at moderate risk for increased MG after TMVr.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2021.01.018DOI Listing
June 2021

30-day patient reported outcomes can be predicted by change in left atrial pressure and not change in transmitral gradient following MitraClip.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 May 27;97(6):1244-1249. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

Background: Change in left atrial pressure (LAP) has been shown to be associated with symptom improvement post-MitraClip; however, the association between acute procedural changes in transmitral diastolic mean gradient (MG) compared to LAP and symptom improvement is not well established.

Methods: 164 consecutive patients undergoing MitraClip at Mayo Clinic between June 2014 and May 2018 were included. Preclip and postclip MG and LAP were recorded. Baseline demographics, clinical, and echocardiographic outcomes, including 30-day New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional status were obtained from patient charts.

Results: Median age was 81.5 years (IQR: 76.3, 87), 34% were female and 94.5% had NYHA class III and IV functional status at baseline. At baseline, median MG was 4 mmHg (IQR: 3, 5) and LAP was 19 mmHg (IQR: 16, 23.5). Following MitraClip deployment, the median MG was 4 mmHg (IQR: 3, 6) and the median LAP was 17 mmHg (IQR: 14, 21), 69.5% of patients had less than moderate MR. There was no statistically significant association between change in MG and NYHA functional class at 30 days (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.76-1.20). However, a reduction in LAP following MitraClip deployment was significantly associated with improvement in NYHA functional status at 30 days following adjustments for age and sex (aOR 3.36, 95% CI: 1.34-8.65). There was no significant correlation between change in mean LAP and change in MG (p = .98).

Conclusion: Unlike change in left atrial pressure, change in MG post-MitraClip was not associated with patient reported outcomes at 30 days and did not correlate with change in left atrial pressure. Long-term follow up is needed to evaluate the impact of LA pressure on symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29477DOI Listing
May 2021

Transcatheter Replacement of Transcatheter Versus Surgically Implanted Aortic Valve Bioprostheses.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 01;77(1):1-14

Herzzentrum Duisburg, Duisburg, Germany.

Background: Surgical aortic valve replacement and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are now both used to treat aortic stenosis in patients in whom life expectancy may exceed valve durability. The choice of initial bioprosthesis should therefore consider the relative safety and efficacy of potential subsequent interventions.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare TAVR in failed transcatheter aortic valves (TAVs) versus surgical aortic valves (SAVs).

Methods: Data were collected on 434 TAV-in-TAV and 624 TAV-in-SAV consecutive procedures performed at centers participating in the Redo-TAVR international registry. Propensity score matching was applied, and 330 matched (165:165) patients were analyzed. Principal endpoints were procedural success, procedural safety, and mortality at 30 days and 1 year.

Results: For TAV-in-TAV versus TAV-in-SAV, procedural success was observed in 120 (72.7%) versus 103 (62.4%) patients (p = 0.045), driven by a numerically lower frequency of residual high valve gradient (p = 0.095), ectopic valve deployment (p = 0.081), coronary obstruction (p = 0.091), and conversion to open heart surgery (p = 0.082). Procedural safety was achieved in 116 (70.3%) versus 119 (72.1%) patients (p = 0.715). Mortality at 30 days was 5 (3%) after TAV-in-TAV and 7 (4.4%) after TAV-in-SAV (p = 0.570). At 1 year, mortality was 12 (11.9%) and 10 (10.2%), respectively (p = 0.633). Aortic valve area was larger (1.55 ± 0.5 cm vs. 1.37 ± 0.5 cm; p = 0.040), and the mean residual gradient was lower (12.6 ± 5.2 mm Hg vs. 14.9 ± 5.2 mm Hg; p = 0.011) after TAV-in-TAV. The rate of moderate or greater residual aortic regurgitation was similar, but mild aortic regurgitation was more frequent after TAV-in-TAV (p = 0.003).

Conclusions: In propensity score-matched cohorts of TAV-in-TAV versus TAV-in-SAV patients, TAV-in-TAV was associated with higher procedural success and similar procedural safety or mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.10.053DOI Listing
January 2021

Emerging Adults' Social Justice Engagement: Motivations, Barriers, and Social Identity.

Am J Community Psychol 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Pier Labs, Halifax, NS, Canada.

This study examines emerging adults' perceived motivations and barriers to social justice engagement, and how their social identities shape involvement. We conducted in-depth interviews with service-learning students (n = 30). Thematic analysis of interview data revealed that participants perceived several motivations and barriers to engagement, including the following: (a) the current political climate, (b) self-efficacy to make small-scale changes, (c) social support in action, (d) proximity to the social issue, (e) knowledge of resources, and (f) limited personal resources. Participants also described how their identities shaped engagement such that participants reflected upon their multiple privileged and marginalized identities and how their identities influenced their approach to engaging with a particular social issue. Findings have implications for recruiting and sustaining emerging adults' involvement in activities aimed at changing social issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12495DOI Listing
January 2021

Reducing health disparities among black individuals in the post-treatment environment.

J Ethn Subst Abuse 2020 Dec 30:1-17. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR, USA.

An important step in reducing health disparities among racial and ethnic minorities with substance use disorders involves identifying interventions that lead to successful recovery outcomes for this population. The current study evaluated outcomes of a community-based recovery support program for those with substance use disorders. Participants included 632 residents of recovery homes in three states in the US. A multi-item recovery factor was found to increase over time for these residents. However, rates of improvement among Black individuals were higher than for other racial/ethnic groups. Black Americans perhaps place a higher value on communal relationships relative to all other racial/ethnic groups, and by adopting such a communitarian perspective, they might be even more receptive to living in a house that values participation and involvement. The implications of these findings for health disparities research are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15332640.2020.1861497DOI Listing
December 2020

Transcatheter Treatment of Residual Significant Mitral Regurgitation Following TAVR: A Multicenter Registry.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 12;13(23):2782-2791

CIBERCV, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe baseline characteristics, and periprocedural and mid-term outcomes of patients undergoing transcatheter mitral valve interventions post-transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and examine their clinical benefit.

Background: The optimal management of residual mitral regurgitation (MR) post-TAVR is challenging.

Methods: This was an international registry of 23 TAVR centers.

Results: In total, 106 of 24,178 patients (0.43%) underwent mitral interventions post-TAVR (100 staged, 6 concomitant), most commonly percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (PMVR). The median interval post-TAVR was 164 days. Mean age was 79.5 ± 7.2 years, MR was >moderate in 97.2%, technical success was 99.1%, and 30-day device success rate was 88.7%. There were 18 periprocedural complications (16.9%) including 4 deaths. During a median follow-up of 464 days, the cumulative risk for 3-year mortality was 29.0%. MR grade and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class improved dramatically; at 1 year, MR was moderate or less in 90.9% of patients (mild or less in 69.1%), and 85.9% of patients were in NYHA functional class I/II. Staged PMVR was associated with lower mortality versus medical treatment (57.5% vs. 30.8%) in a propensity-matched cohort (n = 156), but this was not statistically significant (hazard ratio: 1.75; p = 0.05).

Conclusions: For patients who continue to have significant MR, remain symptomatic post-TAVR, and are anatomically suitable for transcatheter interventions, these interventions are feasible, safe, and associated with significant improvement in MR grade and NYHA functional class. These results apply mainly to PMVR. A staged PMVR strategy was associated with markedly lower mortality, but this was not statistically significant. (Transcatheter Treatment for Combined Aortic and Mitral Valve Disease. The Aortic+Mitral TRAnsCatheter Valve Registry [AMTRAC]; NCT04031274).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.07.014DOI Listing
December 2020

Context Matters: Home-level But Not Individual-Level Recovery Social Capital Predicts Residents' Relapse.

Am J Community Psychol 2020 Dec 9. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR, USA.

The purpose of this study is to contribute to the literature on the prediction of substance use relapse, using sophisticated systems' approaches to individuals and their contexts. In the current study of 42 recovery homes, we investigated the construct of social capital from the perspective of both recovery home residents and the house level. A confirmatory factor analysis found a latent recovery factor (including elements of recovery capital, comprising resources such as wages, self-efficacy, stress, self-esteem, quality of life, hope, sense of community, and social support) at both the individual and the recovery house level. Next, using longitudinal data from homes, an individual's probability of relapse was found to be related to house rather than individual-level latent recovery scores. In other words, an individual's probability of relapse was primarily related to the average of the "recoveries" of his or her recovery home peers, and not of his or her own personal "recovery" status. The finding that resident relapse is based primarily upon the total recovery capital available in the homes highlights the importance of the social environment for recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12481DOI Listing
December 2020

Network measures of advice-seeking and resource sharing are related to well-being in recovery homes.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Jun 24;92:102970. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Ohio State University.

Background: There is a need to better understand the extent to which social capital (reflected in social networks tapping friendship, financial support, advice/informational support) can aid recovery for those residents living in abstinence-based recovery homes.

Methods: Social network characteristics of 42 recovery homes (Oxford Houses) were examined, including friendship, willingness to loan money, and advice-seeking to assess the extent to which house network patterns were related to house-level resident measures of proximal recovery outcomes of well-being (e.g. social support, self-esteem, stress) and financial health (e.g. earned wages).

Results: We found that the density of the willingness to loan money network within a house was positively associated with house-level earned wages, social support, and self-esteem, and negatively associated with stress. Conversely, the density of house advice-seeking relationships was positively related to house-level stress.

Conclusions: Houses in which residents are willing to share resources with other members who may be in need showed higher rates of well-being at the house-level. Advice-seeking in itself may signal stress, as stress may motivate residents to seek advice from more peers. The implications of these findings are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141538PMC
June 2021

Effect of a fourth-generation transcatheter valve enhanced skirt on paravalvular leak.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Apr 6;97(5):895-902. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the 30 day incidence of paravalvular leak (PVL) and need for aortic valve reintervention of a fourth generation balloon expandable transcatheter valve with enhanced skirt (4G-BEV) (SAPIEN 3 Ultra) compared with a third generation balloon expandable transcatheter valve (3G-BEV) (SAPIEN 3).

Background: The incidence of PVL has steadily declined with iterative improvements in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) technology and implantation strategies.

Methods: Patients who underwent TAVR at Mayo Clinic from 7/2018 to 7/2019 were included in a prospective institutional registry. 4G-BEV has been utilized since 2/2019, and, after this date, 3G-BEV and 4G-BEV were simultaneously used. 4G-BEV had three sizes (20, 23, and 26 mm) while 3G-BEV included four sizes (20, 23, 26, and 29 mm). Both cohorts were evaluated at 30 days post-TAVR with a transthoracic echocardiogram to assess for PVL.

Results: A total of 260 consecutive patients were included. Of these, 101 patients received a 4G-BEV and 159 patients received a 3G-BEV. There were more females (p = .0005) and a lower aortic valve calcium score (p = .02) in the 4G-BEV cohort at baseline. Age, STS risk score, NYHA Class, and aortic valve mean gradient did not differ between groups. 4G-BEV was associated with a lower incidence of mild PVL (10.8 vs. 36.5%; p < .0001) and moderate PVL (0 vs. 5.8%) compared to the 3G-BEV at 30 days. There was no association between PVL and valve size in either cohort.

Conclusions: Utilization of 4G-BEV is associated with reduced PVL at 30 days post-TAVR compared with 3G-BEV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29317DOI Listing
April 2021

Contemporary Outcomes of ViMAC and MViR: Is the Glass Half Full Already?

Authors:
Mayra Guerrero

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 10 30;13(20):2399-2401. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Mayo Clinic Hospital, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.08.033DOI Listing
October 2020

Hemodynamic response to transseptal transcatheter mitral valve replacement in patients with severe mitral stenosis due to severe mitral annular calcification.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jun 1;97(7):E992-E1001. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the invasive hemodynamic changes with transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) in patients with severe mitral stenosis due to severe mitral annular calcification.

Background: The hemodynamic response to TMVR in patients with mitral stenosis related to degenerative mitral annular calcification has not been fully elucidated.

Methods: We conducted retrospective review of patients who underwent successful transseptal TMVR with balloon-expandable valves for symptomatic severe mitral stenosis due to mitral annular calcification at our institution between January 2014 and February 2020. Invasive hemodynamic measurements were obtained both before valve implantation (predeployment) and after (postdeployment).

Results: Eighteen patients (age 72 ± 10 years, 44% female) were included for the analysis. There was a significant reduction in mean left atrial pressure (23.7 ± 5.6 mmHg versus 20.6 ± 4.8 mmHg; p = .01), left atrial v-wave (mean 39.3 ± 10.2 mmHg versus 32.9 ± 9.9 mmHg; p = .01), and an increase in systemic mean blood pressure (72.6 mmHg ±11.2 versus 79.5 ± 9.9 mmHg; p = .02) postdeployment compared to predeployment. Patients who had symptom improvement at 30-day follow-up tended to have greater reduction in mean left atrial pressure (4.4 ± 4.4 mmHg versus 0.5 ± 5.2 mmHg; p = .16) and v-wave (8.6 ± 9.0 mmHg versus 0.7 ± 8.4 mmHg; p = .10) compared to those who did not experience improvement of symptoms.

Conclusions: Transseptal TMVR for severe mitral stenosis due to mitral annular calcification is associated with reductions in mean left atrial pressure and left atrial v-wave, and an increase in systemic arterial pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29285DOI Listing
June 2021

CT for Pre- and Postprocedural Evaluation of Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement.

Radiographics 2020 Oct;40(6):1528-1553

From the Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (P. Ranganath); Department of Radiology, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (A.M.); and Department of Cardiology (M.G.) and Department of Radiology (J.C., T.F., E.W., P. Rajiah), Mayo Clinic, 200 1st St SW, Rochester, MN 55905.

Transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) is a catheter-based interventional technique for treating mitral valve disease in patients who are at high risk for open mitral valve surgery and with unfavorable anatomy for minimally invasive edge-to-edge transcatheter mitral valve repair. There are several TMVR devices with different anchoring mechanisms, delivered by either transapical or transseptal approaches. Transthoracic echocardiography is the first-line imaging modality used for characterization and quantification of mitral valve disorders. CT is complementary to echocardiography and has several advantages, including high isotropic spatial resolution, good temporal resolution, large field of view, multiplanar reconstruction capabilities, and rapid turnaround time. CT is essential for multiple aspects of preprocedural planning. Accurate and reproducible techniques to prescribe the mitral annulus at CT have been described from which important measurements such as the area, perimeter, trigone-trigone distance, intercommissural distance, and septolateral distance are obtained. The neo-left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) can be simulated by placing a virtual prosthesis in the CT data to predict the risk of TMVR-induced LVOT obstruction. The anatomy of the landing zone and subvalvular apparatus as well as the relationship of the virtual device to adjacent structures such as the coronary sinus and left circumflex coronary artery can be evaluated. CT also stimulates procedural fluoroscopic angles. CT can be used to evaluate the chest wall for transapical access and the atrial septum for transseptal access. Follow-up CT is useful in identifying complications such as LVOT obstruction, paravalvular leak, pseudoaneurysm, and valve embolization. RSNA, 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.2020200027DOI Listing
October 2020

Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement After Surgical Repair or Replacement: Comprehensive Midterm Evaluation of Valve-in-Valve and Valve-in-Ring Implantation From the VIVID Registry.

Circulation 2021 Jan 25;143(2):104-116. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (M.Simonato, J.H.P., D.F.G.).

Background: Mitral valve-in-valve (ViV) and valve-in-ring (ViR) are alternatives to surgical reoperation in patients with recurrent mitral valve failure after previous surgical valve repair or replacement. Our aim was to perform a large-scale analysis examining midterm outcomes after mitral ViV and ViR.

Methods: Patients undergoing mitral ViV and ViR were enrolled in the Valve-in-Valve International Data Registry. Cases were performed between March 2006 and March 2020. Clinical endpoints are reported according to the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium (MVARC) definitions. Significant residual mitral stenosis (MS) was defined as mean gradient ≥10 mm Hg and significant residual mitral regurgitation (MR) as ≥ moderate.

Results: A total of 1079 patients (857 ViV, 222 ViR; mean age 73.5±12.5 years; 40.8% male) from 90 centers were included. Median STS-PROM score 8.6%; median clinical follow-up 492 days (interquartile range, 76-996); median echocardiographic follow-up for patients that survived 1 year was 772.5 days (interquartile range, 510-1211.75). Four-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 62.5% in ViV versus 49.5% for ViR (<0.001). Mean gradient across the mitral valve postprocedure was 5.7±2.8 mm Hg (≥5 mm Hg; 61.4% of patients). Significant residual MS occurred in 8.2% of the ViV and 12.0% of the ViR patients (=0.09). Significant residual MR was more common in ViR patients (16.6% versus 3.1%; <0.001) and was associated with lower survival at 4 years (35.1% versus 61.6%; =0.02). The rates of Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium-defined device success were low for both procedures (39.4% total; 32.0% ViR versus 41.3% ViV; =0.01), mostly related to having postprocedural mean gradient ≥5 mm Hg. Correlates for residual MS were smaller true internal diameter, younger age, and larger body mass index. The only correlate for residual MR was ViR. Significant residual MS (subhazard ratio, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.74-12.56; =0.002) and significant residual MR (subhazard ratio, 7.88; 95% CI, 2.88-21.53; <0.001) were both independently associated with repeat mitral valve replacement.

Conclusions: Significant residual MS and/or MR were not infrequent after mitral ViV and ViR procedures and were both associated with a need for repeat valve replacement. Strategies to improve postprocedural hemodynamics in mitral ViV and ViR should be further explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.049088DOI Listing
January 2021