Publications by authors named "Maykel Cerdas"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Development and characterization of two equine formulations towards SARS-CoV-2 proteins for the potential treatment of COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2021 05 10;11(1):9825. Epub 2021 May 10.

Facultad de Microbiología, Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

In the current global emergency due to SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, passive immunotherapy emerges as a promising treatment for COVID-19. Among animal-derived products, equine formulations are still the cornerstone therapy for treating envenomations due to animal bites and stings. Therefore, drawing upon decades of experience in manufacturing snake antivenom, we developed and preclinically evaluated two anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal equine formulations as potential alternative therapy for COVID-19. We immunized two groups of horses with either S1 (anti-S1) or a mixture of S1, N, and SEM mosaic (anti-Mix) viral recombinant proteins. Horses reached a maximum anti-viral antibody level at 7 weeks following priming, and showed no major adverse acute or chronic clinical alterations. Two whole-IgG formulations were prepared via hyperimmune plasma precipitation with caprylic acid and then formulated for parenteral use. Both preparations had similar physicochemical and microbiological quality and showed ELISA immunoreactivity towards S1 protein and the receptor binding domain (RBD). The anti-Mix formulation also presented immunoreactivity against N protein. Due to high anti-S1 and anti-RBD antibody content, final products exhibited high in vitro neutralizing capacity of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 80 times higher than a pool of human convalescent plasma. Pre-clinical quality profiles were similar among both products, but clinical efficacy and safety must be tested in clinical trials. The technological strategy we describe here can be adapted by other producers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89242-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110969PMC
May 2021

Development of a new polyspecific antivenom for snakebite envenoming in Sri Lanka: Analysis of its preclinical efficacy as compared to a currently available antivenom.

Toxicon 2016 Nov 6;122:152-159. Epub 2016 Oct 6.

Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. Electronic address:

A new whole IgG, freeze-dried, polyspecific antivenom was prepared from the plasma of horses immunized with the venoms of the snakes Daboia russelii, Echis carinatus, Hypnale hypnale, and Naja naja from Sri Lanka. The preclinical neutralizing ability of this antivenom against several toxic and enzymatic activities of these four venoms was analyzed, and compared with that of a batch of VINS antivenom (India) being currently used in Sri Lanka. The activities tested were: lethality, hemorrhagic, in vitro coagulant, proteinase and phospholipase A. Both antivenoms neutralized, to a different extent, these activities of the venom of D. russelii, E. carinatus, and N. naja. In general, the polyspecific Sri Lankan antivenom was more effective than the Indian antivenom in the neutralization of the venoms of D. russelii and E. carinatus, whereas the Indian antivenom showed a higher efficacy against the venom of N. naja. Regarding H. hypnale, the new Sri Lankan antivenom was effective in the neutralization of all activities tested, whereas the Indian antivenom neutralized lethality but not hemorrhagic, coagulant, proteinase and PLA activities, in agreement with the fact that this venom is not included in the immunization mixture for this antivenom. Results suggest that the new polyspecific Sri Lankan antivenom has a satisfactory preclinical neutralizing profile and compares favorably with the Indian antivenom. This is ready to be tested in a clinical trial to evaluate its efficacy and safety in human victims of snakebite envenomings by D. russelii, E. carinatus and H. hypnale in Sri Lanka.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.10.007DOI Listing
November 2016

Freeze-dried snake antivenoms formulated with sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol: comparison of their stability in an accelerated test.

Toxicon 2014 Nov 1;90:56-63. Epub 2014 Aug 1.

Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

Freeze-drying is used to improve the long term stability of pharmaceutical proteins. Sugars and polyols have been successfully used in the stabilization of proteins. However, their use in the development of freeze-dried antivenoms has not been documented. In this work, whole IgG snake antivenom, purified from equine plasma, was formulated with different concentrations of sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol. The glass transition temperatures of frozen formulations, determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), ranged between -13.5 °C and -41 °C. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the different stabilizers, the freeze-dried samples were subjected to an accelerated stability test at 40 ± 2 °C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity. After six months of storage at 40 °C, all the formulations presented the same residual humidity, but significant differences were observed in turbidity, reconstitution time and electrophoretic pattern. Moreover, all formulations, except antivenoms freeze-dried with mannitol, exhibited the same potency for the neutralization of lethal effect of Bothrops asper venom. The 5% (w:v) sucrose formulation exhibited the best stability among the samples tested, while mannitol and sorbitol formulations turned brown. These results suggest that sucrose is a better stabilizer than mannitol and sorbitol in the formulation of freeze-dried antivenoms under the studied conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2014.07.015DOI Listing
November 2014

Snake venomics and antivenomics of Protobothrops mucrosquamatus and Viridovipera stejnegeri from Taiwan: keys to understand the variable immune response in horses.

J Proteomics 2012 Oct 18;75(18):5628-45. Epub 2012 Aug 18.

Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

The proteomes of the venoms of the snakes Viridovipera stejnegeri and Protobothrops mucrosquamatus from Taiwan were characterized by N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting, and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of in-gel generated tryptic peptides. Proteins belonging to the following toxin classes were identified: metalloproteinase, phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), serine proteinase, C-type lectin-like, CRISP, l-amino acid oxidase, disintegrin, and peptides (vasoactive and inhibitors of SVMPs). Nine horses were immunized with a mixture of these venoms. All horses developed a satisfactory immune response against lethality of the venom of V. stejnegeri, whereas only three horses reached the accepted neutralizing potency against the venom of P. mucrosquamatus. Antivenoms were prepared from pools of 'good responder' (GR) and 'poor responder' (PR) horses and compared by antivenomics and neutralization tests. A similar neutralizing response was observed between the GR and PR antivenoms against the venom of V. stejnegeri, whereas antivenom from PR had a lower neutralizing activity against effects of P. mucrosquamatus venom than antivenom from GR. The low potency of the plasma of some horses against this venom is a consequence of the low immunogenicity of the neurotoxic PLA(2) trimucrotoxin. Our results provide clues for innovating the immunization scheme to generate improved antivenoms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2012.08.008DOI Listing
October 2012

Preclinical evaluation of caprylic acid-fractionated IgG antivenom for the treatment of Taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) envenoming in Papua New Guinea.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2011 May 17;5(5):e1144. Epub 2011 May 17.

Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

Background: Snake bite is a common medical emergency in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The taipan, Oxyuranus scutellatus, inflicts a large number of bites that, in the absence of antivenom therapy, result in high mortality. Parenteral administration of antivenoms manufactured in Australia is the current treatment of choice for these envenomings. However, the price of these products is high and has increased over the last 25 years; consequently the country can no longer afford all the antivenom it needs. This situation prompted an international collaborative project aimed at generating a new, low-cost antivenom against O. scutellatus for PNG.

Methodology/principal Findings: A new monospecific equine whole IgG antivenom, obtained by caprylic acid fractionation of plasma, was prepared by immunising horses with the venom of O. scutellatus from PNG. This antivenom was compared with the currently used F(ab')(2) monospecific taipan antivenom manufactured by CSL Limited, Australia. The comparison included physicochemical properties and the preclinical assessment of the neutralisation of lethal neurotoxicity and the myotoxic, coagulant and phospholipase A(2) activities of the venom of O. scutellatus from PNG. The F(ab')(2) antivenom had a higher protein concentration than whole IgG antivenom. Both antivenoms effectively neutralised, and had similar potency, against the lethal neurotoxic effect (both by intraperitoneal and intravenous routes of injection), myotoxicity, and phospholipase A(2) activity of O. scutellatus venom. However, the whole IgG antivenom showed a higher potency than the F(ab')(2) antivenom in the neutralisation of the coagulant activity of O. scutellatus venom from PNG.

Conclusions/significance: The new whole IgG taipan antivenom described in this study compares favourably with the currently used F(ab')(2) antivenom, both in terms of physicochemical characteristics and neutralising potency. Therefore, it should be considered as a promising low-cost candidate for the treatment of envenomings by O. scutellatus in PNG, and is ready to be tested in clinical trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096592PMC
May 2011