Publications by authors named "Maxwell G Machani"

9 Publications

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Insecticide resistance exerts significant fitness costs in immature stages of Anopheles gambiae in western Kenya.

Malar J 2021 Jun 9;20(1):259. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Despite increasing documentation of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors against public health insecticides in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a paucity of information on the potential fitness costs of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, which is important in improving the current resistant management strategies. This study aimed to assess the fitness cost effects of insecticide resistance on the development and survival of immature Anopheles gambiae from western Kenya.

Methods: Two-hour old, first instar larvae (L1) were introduced and raised in basins containing soil and rainwater in a semi-field set-up. Each day the number of surviving individuals per larval stage was counted and their stage of development were recorded until they emerged as adults. The larval life-history trait parameters measured include mean larval development time, daily survival and pupal emergence. Pyrethroid-resistant colony of An. gambiae sensu stricto and susceptible colony originating from the same site and with the same genetic background were used. Kisumu laboratory susceptible colony was used as a reference.

Results: The resistant colony had a significantly longer larval development time through the developmental stages than the susceptible colony. The resistant colony took an average of 2 days longer to develop from first instar (L1) to fourth instar (L4) (8.8 ± 0.2 days) compared to the susceptible colony (6.6 ± 0.2 days). The development time from first instar to pupa formation was significantly longer by 3 days in the resistant colony (10.28 ± 0.3 days) than in susceptible colony (7.5 ± 0.2 days). The time from egg hatching to adult emergence was significantly longer for the resistant colony (12.1 ± 0.3 days) than the susceptible colony (9.6 ± 0.2 days). The pupation rate (80%; 95% (CI: 77.5-83.6) vs 83.5%; 95% (CI: 80.6-86.3)) and adult emergence rate (86.3% vs 92.8%) did not differ between the resistant and susceptible colonies, respectively. The sex ratio of the females to males for the resistant (1:1.2) and susceptible colonies (1:1.07) was significantly different.

Conclusion: The study showed that pyrethroid resistance in An. gambiae had a fitness cost on their pre-imaginal development time and survival. Insecticide resistance delayed the development and reduced the survivorship of An. gambiae larvae. The study findings are important in understanding the fitness cost of insecticide resistance vectors that could contribute to shaping resistant management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-021-03798-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188659PMC
June 2021

Secondary malaria vectors in western Kenya include novel species with unexpectedly high densities and parasite infection rates.

Parasit Vectors 2021 May 12;14(1):252. Epub 2021 May 12.

Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, 46556, USA.

Background: Malaria vector control has been implemented chiefly through indoor interventions targeting primary vectors resulting in population declines-pointing to a possible greater proportional contribution to transmission by secondary malaria vectors with their predominant exophagic and exophilic traits. With a historical focus on primary vectors, there is paucity of data on secondary malaria vectors in many countries in Africa. This study sought to determine the species compositions and bionomic traits, including proportions infected with Plasmodium falciparum and phenotypic insecticide resistance, of secondary vectors in three sites with high malaria transmission in Kisumu County, western Kenya.

Methods: Cross-sectional sampling of adult Anopheles was conducted using indoor and outdoor CDC light traps (CDC-LT) and animal-baited traps (ABTs) in Kakola-Ombaka and Kisian, while larvae were sampled in Ahero. Secondary vectors captured were exposed to permethrin using WHO bioassays and then analyzed by ELISA to test for proportions infected with P. falciparum sporozoites. All Anopheles were identified to species using morphological keys with a subset being molecularly identified using ITS2 and CO1 sequencing for species identification.

Results: Two morphologically identified secondary vectors captured-An. coustani and An. pharoensis-were determined to consist of four species molecularly. These included An. christyi, An. sp. 15 BSL-2014, an unidentified member of the An. coustani complex (An. cf. coustani) and a species similar to that of An. pharoensis and An. squamosus (An. cf. pharoensis). Standardized (Anopheles per trap per night) capture rates demonstrate higher proportions of secondary vectors across most trapping methods-with overall indoor and outdoor CDC-LTs and ABT captures composed of 52.2% (n = 93), 78.9% (n = 221) and 58.1% (n = 573) secondary vectors respectively. Secondary vectors were primarily caught outdoors. The overall proportion of secondary vectors with P. falciparum sporozoite was 0.63% (n = 5), with the unidentified species An. cf. pharoensis, determined to carry Plasmodium. Overall secondary vectors were susceptible to permethrin with a > 99% mortality rate.

Conclusions: Given their high densities, endophily equivalent to primary vectors, higher exophily and Plasmodium-positive proportions, secondary vectors may contribute substantially to malaria transmission. Unidentified species demonstrate the need for further morphological and molecular identification studies towards further characterization. Continued monitoring is essential for understanding their temporal contributions to transmission, the possible elevation of some to primary vectors and the development of insecticide resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04748-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117294PMC
May 2021

Insecticide resistance status of indoor and outdoor resting malaria vectors in a highland and lowland site in Western Kenya.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(3):e0240771. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) represent powerful tools for controlling malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. The success of these interventions relies on their capability to inhibit indoor feeding and resting of malaria mosquitoes. This study sought to understand the interaction of insecticide resistance with indoor and outdoor resting behavioral responses of malaria vectors from Western Kenya.

Methods: The status of insecticide resistance among indoor and outdoor resting anopheline mosquitoes was compared in Anopheles mosquitoes collected from Kisumu and Bungoma counties in Western Kenya. The level and intensity of resistance were measured using WHO-tube and CDC-bottle bioassays, respectively. The synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was used to determine if metabolic activity (monooxygenase enzymes) explained the resistance observed. The mutations at the voltage-gated sodium channel (Vgsc) gene and Ace 1 gene were characterized using PCR methods. Microplate assays were used to measure levels of detoxification enzymes if present.

Results: A total of 1094 samples were discriminated within Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 289 within An. funestus s.l. In Kisian (Kisumu county), the dominant species was Anopheles arabiensis 75.2% (391/520) while in Kimaeti (Bungoma county) collections the dominant sibling species was Anopheles gambiae s.s 96.5% (554/574). The An. funestus s.l samples analysed were all An. funestus s.s from both sites. Pyrethroid resistance of An.gambiae s.l F1 progeny was observed in all sites. Lower mortality was observed against deltamethrin for the progeny of indoor resting mosquitoes compared to outdoor resting mosquitoes (Mortality rate: 37% vs 51%, P = 0.044). The intensity assays showed moderate-intensity resistance to deltamethrin in the progeny of mosquitoes collected from indoors and outdoors in both study sites. In Kisian, the frequency of vgsc-L1014S and vgsc-L1014F mutation was 0.14 and 0.19 respectively in indoor resting malaria mosquitoes while those of the outdoor resting mosquitoes were 0.12 and 0.12 respectively. The ace 1 mutation was present in higher frequency in the F1 of mosquitoes resting indoors (0.23) compared to those of mosquitoes resting outdoors (0.12). In Kimaeti, the frequencies of vgsc-L1014S and vgsc-L1014F were 0.75 and 0.05 respectively for the F1 of mosquitoes collected indoors whereas those of outdoor resting ones were 0.67 and 0.03 respectively. The ace 1 G119S mutation was present in progeny of mosquitoes from Kimaeti resting indoors (0.05) whereas it was absent in those resting outdoors. Monooxygenase activity was elevated by 1.83 folds in Kisian and by 1.33 folds in Kimaeti for mosquitoes resting indoors than those resting outdoors respectively.

Conclusion: The study recorded high phenotypic, metabolic and genotypic insecticide resistance in indoor resting populations of malaria vectors compared to their outdoor resting counterparts. The indication of moderate resistance intensity for the indoor resting mosquitoes is alarming as it could have an operational impact on the efficacy of the existing pyrethroid based vector control tools. The use of synergist (PBO) in LLINs may be a better alternative for widespread use in these regions recording high insecticide resistance.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240771PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920366PMC
March 2021

Phenotypic, genotypic and biochemical changes during pyrethroid resistance selection in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

Sci Rep 2020 11 4;10(1):19063. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

The directional selection for insecticide resistance due to indiscriminate use of insecticides in public health and agricultural system favors an increase in the frequency of insecticide-resistant alleles in the natural populations. Similarly, removal of selection pressure generally leads to decay in resistance. Past investigations on the emergence of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes mostly relied on field survey of resistance in vector populations that typically had a complex history of exposure to various public health and agricultural pest control insecticides in nature, and thus the effect of specific insecticides on rate of resistance emergency or resistance decay rate is not known. This study examined the phenotypic, genotypic, and biochemical changes that had occurred during the process of selection for pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae, the most important malaria vector in Africa. In parallel, we also examined these changes in resistant populations when there is no selection pressure applied. Through repeated deltamethrin selection in adult mosquitoes from a field population collected in western Kenya for 12 generations, we obtained three independent and highly pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae populations. Three susceptible populations from the same parental population were generated by removing selection pressure. These two lines of mosquito populations differed significantly in monooxygenase and beta-esterase activities, but not in Vgsc gene mutation frequency, suggesting metabolic detoxification mechanism plays a major role in generating moderate-intensity resistance or high-intensity resistance. Pre-exposure to the synergist piperonyl butoxide restored the susceptibility to insecticide among the highly resistant mosquitoes, confirming the role of monooxygenases in pyrethroid resistance. The rate of resistance decay to become fully susceptible from moderate-intensity resistance took 15 generations, supporting at least 2-years interval is needed when the rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action is considered for resistance management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75865-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7642378PMC
November 2020

Species Composition, Phenotypic and Genotypic Resistance Levels in Major Malaria Vectors in Teso North and Teso South Subcounties in Busia County, Western Kenya.

J Parasitol Res 2020 25;2020:3560310. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Eastern and Southern Africa Centre for International Parasite Control (ESACIPAC) KEMRI, P.O. Box 54840-00200, Nairobi, Kenya.

Introduction: Knockdown resistance () is strongly linked to pyrethroid insecticide resistance in in Africa, which may have vital significance to the current increased use of pyrethroid-treated bed net programmes. The study is aimed at determining species composition, levels of insecticide resistance, and knockdown patterns in sensu lato in areas with and areas without insecticide resistance in Teso North and Teso South subcounties, Western Kenya.

Materials And Methods: For WHO vulnerability tests, mosquito larvae were sampled using a dipper, reared into 3-5-day-old female mosquitoes (4944 at 100 mosquitoes per insecticide) which were exposed to 0.75% permethrin, 0.05% deltamethrin, and 0.1% bendiocarb using the WHO tube assay method. Species identification and East gene PCRs were also performed on randomly selected mosquitoes from the collections; including adult mosquitoes (3448) sampled using standard collection methods.

Results: sensu stricto were the majority in terms of species composition at 78.9%. Bendiocarb caused 100% mortality while deltamethrin had higher insecticidal effects (77%) on female mosquitoes than permethrin (71%). Susceptible Kengatunyi cluster had higher proportion of (20.9%) than resistant Rwatama (10.7%). Kengatunyi mosquitoes exposed to deltamethrin had the highest KDT R of 8.2. Both sensu stricto and had equal S allelic frequency of 0.84. Indoor resting mosquitoes had 100% mortality rate after 24 h since exposure. Overall SS genotypic frequency in Teso North and Teso South subcounties was 79.4% against 13.7% homozygous LL genotype and 6.9% heterozygous LS genotype. There was a significant difference ( < 0.05) in S allele frequencies between Kengatunyi (0.61) and Rwatama (0.95). Mosquito samples collected in 2013 had the highest S allelic frequency of 0.87. . Most likely, the higher the selection pressure exerted indoors by insecticidal nets, the higher were the resistance alleles. Use of pyrethroid impregnated nets and agrochemicals may have caused female mosquitoes to select for pyrethroid resistance. Different modes of action and chemical properties in different types of pyrethroids aggravated by a variety of edaphic and climatic factors may have caused different levels of susceptibility in both indoor and outdoor vectors to pyrethroids and carbamate. Species composition and populations in each collection method may have been influenced by insecticide resistance capacity in different species. . Both phenotypic and genotypic insecticide resistance levels have been confirmed in Teso North and Teso South subcounties in Western Kenya. Insecticide resistance management practices in Kenya should be fast tracked and harmonized with agricultural sector agrochemical-based activities and legislation, and possibly switch to carbamate use in order to ease selection pressure on pyrethroids which are useable in insecticidal nets and indoor residual spray due to their low human toxicity. The implication of such high resistance levels in mosquitoes collected in Teso subcounties is that resistance is likely to persist and or even increase if monomolecules of permethrin and deltamethrin or both continue to be used in all net- and nonnet-based mosquito control purposes. Usage of mutually reinforcing piperonyl butoxide (PBO) that prohibits particular enzymes vital in metabolic activities inside mosquito systems and has been integrated into pyrethroid-LLINs to create pyrethroid-PBO nets is an extremely viable option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3560310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204121PMC
January 2020

Impact of Insecticide Resistance on Vectors' Biting, Feeding, and Resting Behaviour in Selected Clusters in Teso North and South Subcounties in Busia County, Western Kenya.

J Parasitol Res 2020 8;2020:9423682. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Eastern and Southern Africa Centre for International Parasite Control (ESACIPAC) KEMRI, P.O Box 54840 - 00200, Nairobi, Kenya.

Introduction: Behavioural resistance to insecticides restrains the efficacy of vector control tools against mosquito-transmitted diseases. The current study is aimed at determining the impact of insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors' biting, feeding, and resting behaviour in areas with and areas without insecticide resistance in Teso North and Teso South, Busia County, Western Kenya.

Methods: Mosquito larvae were sampled using a dipper, reared into 3-5-day-old female mosquitoes [4944] which were exposed to 0.75% permethrin and 0.05% deltamethrin using World Health Organization tube assay method. Blood meal, species identification, and Eastgene PCRs were also performed on adult mosquitoes sampled using mosquito collection methods [3448]. Biting, feeding, resting, and exiting behaviours of field-collected mosquitoes from five selected clusters were analysed.

Results: The lowest genotypic frequency (SS) proportion was found in female collected in Kengatunyi at 58% while Rwatama had the highest genotypic frequency at 93%, thus susceptible and resistant clusters, respectively. The peak hour for mosquito seeking a human bite was between 0300 and 0400 hrs in the resistant cluster and 0400-0500 hrs in the susceptible cluster. The heterozygous mosquitoes maintained the known 2100-2200 hrs peak hour. There was a higher proportion of homozygous susceptible vectors (86.4%) seeking humans indoor than outdoor bitters (78.3%). Mosquito blood meals of human origin were 60% and 87% in susceptible Kengatunyi and resistant Rwatama cluster, respectively. There was significant difference between homozygous-resistant vectors feeding on human blood compared to homozygous susceptible mosquitoes ( ≤ 0.05). The proportion of bovine blood was highest in the susceptible cluster. A higher proportion of homozygous-resistant anophelines were feeding and resting indoors. No heterozygous mosquito was found resting indoor while 4.2% of the mosquitoes were caught while exiting the house through the window. . A shift in resistant sl highest peak hour of aggressiveness from 2100-2200 hrs to 0300-0400 hrs is a key change in its biting pattern. Due to the development of resistance, mosquitoes no longer have to compete against the time the human host enters into the formerly lethal chemical and or physical barrier in the form of long-lasting insecticide-treated net. No heterozygous LS mosquito rested indoors possibly due to disadvantages of heterozygosity which could have increased their fitness costs as well as energy costs in the presence of the insecticidal agents in the treated nets. . Out of bed biting by female mosquitoes and partial susceptibility may contribute to residual malaria transmission. Insecticide-resistant vectors have become more endophagic and anthropophillic. Hence, insecticidal nets, zooprophylaxis, and novel repellents are still useful chemical, biological, and physical barriers against human blood questing female mosquitoes. Further studies should be done on genetic changes in mosquitoes and their effects on changing mosquito behaviour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9423682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7168709PMC
April 2020

Resting behaviour of malaria vectors in highland and lowland sites of western Kenya: Implication on malaria vector control measures.

PLoS One 2020 25;15(2):e0224718. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Understanding the interactions between increased insecticide resistance and resting behaviour patterns of malaria mosquitoes is important for planning of adequate vector control. This study was designed to investigate the resting behavior, host preference and rates of Plasmodium falciparum infection in relation to insecticide resistance of malaria vectors in different ecologies of western Kenya.

Methods: Anopheles mosquito collections were carried out during the dry and rainy seasons in Kisian (lowland site) and Bungoma (highland site), both in western Kenya using pyrethrum spray catches (PSC), mechanical aspiration (Prokopack) for indoor collections, clay pots, pit shelter and Prokopack for outdoor collections. WHO tube bioassay was used to determine levels of phenotypic resistance of indoor and outdoor collected mosquitoes to deltamethrin. PCR-based molecular diagnostics were used for mosquito speciation, genotype for knockdown resistance mutations (1014S and 1014F) and to determine specific host blood meal origins. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to determine mosquito sporozoite infections.

Results: Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the most predominant species (75%, n = 2706) followed by An. funestus s.l. (25%, n = 860). An. gambiae s.s hereafter (An. gambiae) accounted for 91% (95% CI: 89-93) and An. arabiensis 8% (95% CI: 6-9) in Bungoma, while in Kisian, An. arabiensis composition was 60% (95% CI: 55-66) and An. gambiae 39% (95% CI: 34-44). The resting densities of An. gambiae s.l and An. funestus were higher indoors than outdoor in both sites (An. gambiae s.l; F1, 655 = 41.928, p < 0.0001, An. funestus; F1, 655 = 36.555, p < 0.0001). The mortality rate for indoor and outdoor resting An. gambiae s.l F1 progeny was 37% (95% CI: 34-39) vs 67% (95% CI: 62-69) respectively in Bungoma. In Kisian, the mortality rate was 67% (95% CI: 61-73) vs 76% (95% CI: 71-80) respectively. The mortality rate for F1 progeny of An. funestus resting indoors in Bungoma was 32% (95% CI: 28-35). The 1014S mutation was only detected in indoor resitng An. arabiensis. Similarly, the 1014F mutation was present only in indoor resting An. gambiae. The sporozoite rates were highest in An. funestus followed by An. gambiae, and An. arabiensis resting indoors at 11% (34/311), 8% (47/618) and 4% (1/27) respectively in Bungoma. Overall, in Bungoma, the sporozoite rate for indoor resting mosquitoes was 9% (82/956) and 4% (8/190) for outdoors. In Kisian, the sporozoite rate was 1% (1/112) for indoor resting An. gambiae. None of the outdoor collected mosquitoes in Kisian tested positive for sporozoite infections (n = 73).

Conclusion: The study reports high indoor resting densities of An. gambiae and An. funestus, insecticide resistance, and persistence of malaria transmission indoors regardless of the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). These findings underline the difficulties of controlling malaria vectors resting and biting indoors using the current interventions. Supplemental vector control tools and implementation of sustainable insecticide resistance management strategies are needed in western Kenya.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0224718PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041793PMC
May 2020

Epidemiological risk factors for clinical malaria infection in the highlands of Western Kenya.

Malar J 2019 Jun 24;18(1):211. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Understanding the complex heterogeneity of risk factors that can contribute to an increased risk of malaria at the individual and household level will enable more effective use of control measures. The objective of this study was to understand individual and household factors that influence clinical malaria infection among individuals in the highlands of Western Kenya.

Methods: This was a matched case-control study undertaken in the Western Kenya highlands. Clinical malaria cases were recruited from health facilities and matched to asymptomatic individuals from the community who served as controls. Each participant was screened for malaria using microscopy. Follow-up surveys were conducted with individual households to collect socio-economic data. The houses were also checked using pyrethrum spray catches to collect mosquitoes.

Results: A total of 302 malaria cases were matched to 604 controls during the surveillance period. Mosquito densities were similar in the houses of both groups. A greater percentage of people in the control group (64.6%) used insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) compared to the families of malaria cases (48.3%). Use of ITNs was associated with lower level of clinical malaria episodes (odds ratio 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.68; P < 0.0001). Low income was the most important factor associated with higher malaria infections (adj. OR 4.70). Use of malaria prophylaxis was the most important factor associated with less malaria infections (adj OR 0.36). Mother's (not fathers) employment status (adj OR 0.48) and education level (adj OR 0.54) was important malaria risk factor. Houses with open eaves was an important malaria risk factor (adj OR 1.72).

Conclusion: The identification of risk factors for clinical malaria infection provides information on the local malaria epidemiology and has the potential to lead to a more effective and targeted use of malaria control measures. These risk factors could be used to assess why some individuals acquire clinical malaria whilst others do not and to inform how intervention could be scaled at the local level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2845-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6591804PMC
June 2019

Influence of blood meal and age of mosquitoes on susceptibility to pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae from Western Kenya.

Malar J 2019 Apr 2;18(1):112. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Physiological characteristics (age and blood feeding status) of malaria vectors can influence their susceptibility to the current vector control tools that target their feeding and resting behaviour. To ensure the sustainability of the current and future vector control tools an understanding of how physiological characteristics may contribute to insecticide tolerance in the field is fundamental for shaping resistance management strategies and vector control tools. The aim of this study was to determine whether blood meal and mosquito age affect pyrethroid tolerance in field-collected Anopheles gambiae from western Kenya.

Methods: Wild mosquito larvae were reared to adulthood alongside the pyrethroid-susceptible Kisumu strain. Adult females from the two populations were monitored for deltamethrin resistance when they were young at 2-5 days old and older 14-16 days old and whether fed or unfed for each age group. Metabolic assays were also performed to determine the level of detoxification enzymes. Mosquito specimens were further identified to species level using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

Results: Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was the predominant species comprising 96% of specimens and 2.75% Anopheles arabiensis. Bioassay results showed reduced pyrethroid induced mortality with younger mosquitoes compared to older ones (mortality rates 83% vs. 98%), independently of their feeding status. Reduced mortality was recorded with younger females of which were fed compared to their unfed counterparts of the same age with a mortality rate of 35.5% vs. 83%. Older blood-fed females showed reduced susceptibility after exposure when compared to unfed females of the same age (mortality rates 86% vs. 98%). For the Kisumu susceptible population, mortality was straight 100% regardless of age and blood feeding status. Blood feeding status and mosquito age had an effect on enzyme levels in both populations, with blood fed individuals showing higher enzyme elevations compared to their unfed counterparts (P < 0.0001). The interaction between mosquito age and blood fed status had significant effect on mosquito mortality.

Conclusion: The results showed that mosquito age and blood feeding status confers increased tolerance to insecticides as blood feeding may be playing an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin, allowing mosquitoes to rest on insecticide-treated materials despite treatment. These may have implications for the sustained efficacy of indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets based control programmes that target indoor resting female mosquitoes of various gonotrophic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2746-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444593PMC
April 2019
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