Publications by authors named "Maxine R Fields"

4 Publications

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The fermented soy beverage Q-CAN® plus induces beneficial changes in the oral and intestinal microbiome.

BMC Nutr 2021 Mar 4;7(1). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pediatrics (General Pediatrics), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, USA.

Background: Soy products are associated with many beneficial health consequences, but their effects on the human intestinal microbiome are poorly characterized.

Objectives: To identify the changes in the oral and fecal microbiome in lean and obese participants due to consumption of Q-CAN®, and to assess the expected consequences of these changes based on the published literature.

Methods: Prospective study of lean (10) and obese (9) participants consuming Q-CAN® twice daily for 4 weeks with 8 weeks follow-up. Microbial DNA was extracted from saliva and stool samples, amplified against the V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and data analyzed using QIIME 1.9.1 bioinformatics. Four hundred forty-four samples were collected in total, 424 of which were productive and yielded good quality data.

Results: STOOL. In the lean population Bifidobacteria and Blautia show a significant increase while taking Q-CAN®, and there was a trend for this in the obese population. ORAL. There were relatively fewer major changes in the oral microbiome with an increase in the family Veillonellaceae in the lean population while on Q-CAN®.

Conclusion: Q-CAN® consumption induced a number of significant changes in the fecal and oral microbiome. Most notably an increase in the stool microbiome of Bifidobacteria and Blautia, both of which are associated with positive health benefits, and in the saliva an increase in Veillonellaceae.

Trial Registration: This trial was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov on January 14th 2016. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02656056.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40795-021-00408-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7931600PMC
March 2021

Fermented Soy Beverage Q-CAN Plus Consumption Improves Serum Cholesterol and Cytokines.

J Med Food 2020 May 22;23(5):560-563. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Department of Pediatrics (General Pediatrics), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Soy-based beverages are well recognized for their rich nutritional contents and positive health benefits. However, there is little information regarding the composition of various commercially available soy-based beverages and uncertainty among patients regarding the utility of fermented soy products. Current study evaluates the health benefits of QCAN Plus-an easily available fermented soy drink. This study was performed in lean ( = 10) and obese ( = 10) subjects. The subjects were observed during pre-soy (weeks -2, -1, and 0), on-soy (weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4), and post-soy (weeks 6, 8, 10, and 12) periods. The serum samples during these visits were subjected to lipid profile analysis and multiplex assay for cytokines. The results revealed that total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly reduced in both lean and obese individuals during on-soy ( ≤ .05). Furthermore, cytokines such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) AA and AB/BB were significantly lowered on-soy compared with pre-soy ( ≤ .05) in lean subjects and PDGF AA, IL-1RA, and GMCSF were significantly reduced on-soy ( ≤ .05) in obese subjects. In addition, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the Q-CAN Plus by a third-party laboratory confirmed its chemical and microbial safety. Our preliminary study on Q-CAN Plus ensures its safety for consumption and highlights its hypolipidemic and suppressive effect on certain cytokines. These observations and relevant studies in future might guide clinicians in future to consider Q-CAN Plus as a therapeutic nutritional supplement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2019.0116DOI Listing
May 2020

Efficacy of individualised diets in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open Gastroenterol 2017 20;4(1):e000164. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Background: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are often placed on diets guided by food intolerance assays, although these have not been validated. We assessed the effects of individualised diets in patients with IBS guided by a leucocyte activation test.

Methods: This is a parallel-group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial of 58 adults with IBS seen at an academic health centre in Northeast USA. Peripheral venous blood was analysed using a leucocyte activation test; individual foods were reported to produce positive or negative results. Participants were randomised to a 4-week diet with either individualised guidance to eliminate foods with positive assay results and allow foods with negative assay results (intervention), or with individualised guidance, matched in rigour and complexity, to eliminate foods with negative assay results and allow foods with positive assay results (comparison). The primary outcome was between-group differences in the IBS Global Improvement Scale (GIS). Secondary outcomes included reductions in IBS Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) scores and increases in IBS Adequate Relief (AR) and Quality of Life (QOL) scores. An aptamer-based proteomic analysis was conducted in strong responders.

Results: The intervention group had significantly greater increases in mean GIS score after 4 weeks (0.86 vs comparison; 95% CI 0.05 to 1.67; p=0.04) and 8 weeks (1.22 vs comparison; 95% CI 0.22 to 2.22; p=0.02). The intervention group also had significantly greater reductions in mean SSS score at 4 weeks (-61.78 vs comparison; 95% CI -4.43 to -119.14; p=0.04) and 8 weeks (-66.42 vs comparison; 95% CI -5.75 to -127.09; p=0.03). There were no significant differences between intervention and comparison groups in mean AR or QOL scores. A reduction in neutrophil elastase concentration was associated with reduced symptoms.

Conclusions: Elimination diets guided by leucocyte activation tests reduced symptoms. These findings could lead to insights into the pathophysiology of IBS.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02186743.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgast-2017-000164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5628288PMC
September 2017

Alcohol reward is increased after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in dietary obese rats with differential effects following ghrelin antagonism.

PLoS One 2012 7;7(11):e49121. Epub 2012 Nov 7.

Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is one of the most successful treatments for severe obesity and associated comorbidities. One potential adverse outcome, however, is increased risk for alcohol use. As such, we tested whether RYGB alters motivation to self-administer alcohol in outbred dietary obese rats, and investigated the involvement of the ghrelin system as a potential underlying mechanism. High fat (60%kcal from fat) diet-induced obese, non-diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats underwent RYGB (n = 9) or sham operation (Sham, n = 9) and were tested 4 months after surgery on a progressive ratio-10 (PR10) schedule of reinforcement operant task for 2, 4, and 8% ethanol. In addition, the effects of the ghrelin-1a-receptor antagonist D-[Lys3]-GHRP-6 (50, 100 nmol/kg, IP) were tested on PR10 responding for 4% ethanol. Compared to Sham, RYGB rats made significantly more active spout responses to earn reward, more consummatory licks on the ethanol spout, and achieved higher breakpoints. Pretreatment with a single peripheral injection of D-[Lys3]-GHRP-6 at either dose was ineffective in altering appetitive or consummatory responses to 4% ethanol in the Sham group. In contrast, RYGB rats demonstrated reduced operant performance to earn alcohol reward on the test day and reduced consummatory responses for two subsequent days following the drug. Sensitivity to threshold doses of D-[LYS3]-GHRP-6 suggests that an augmented ghrelin system may contribute to increased alcohol reward in RYGB. Further research is warranted to confirm applicability of these findings to humans and to explore ghrelin-receptor targets for treatment of alcohol-related disorders in RYGB patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0049121PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3492295PMC
May 2013
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