Publications by authors named "Maxime Even"

4 Publications

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Comparing the self-perceived effects of a facial anti-aging product to those automatically detected from selfie images of Chinese women of different ages and cities.

Skin Res Technol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

ModiFace, A L'Oréal Group Company, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objective: To assess the agreement, after 1-month application of a popular and efficient anti-aging product, between self-perceived facial signs of aging and those detected and graded by an automatic A.I-based system, using smartphones' selfie images.

Material And Methods: Of 1065 Chinese women, aged 18-60 years, from eight different Chinese cities were recruited. They were asked to apply daily, for 1 month, a referential anti-aging product onto their whole face. Selfie images were taken by all subjects at D and D and sent to our facilities for being analyzed through 10 different facial signs. At D , all subjects were asked to fill a questionnaire on the status of their faces, through six general statements.

Results: A global agreement between both approaches is reached, particularly among women older than 40 years where the severity of facial signs is already more pronounced or among younger women who present at least facial signs scored above one grading units. This limit becomes, therefore, a prerequisite in the recruitment of Chinese subjects in the case of anti-aging applied studies and possible automatically based on automatic grading system. When respecting such conditions, the positive effects of the product on most facial signs can be demonstrated after 28 days of successive applications.

Conclusion: Such methodological approach paves the road in fulfilling the need of consumers of a better transparency in the claims of an anti-aging product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.13037DOI Listing
April 2021

The intestinal microbial composition in Greylag geese differs with steatosis induction mode: spontaneous or induced by overfeeding.

Anim Microbiome 2021 Jan 6;3(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, E2S UPPA, INRAE, NUMEA, Saint-Pée-sur- Nivelle, 64310, Pau, France.

Background: Relationships between microbial composition and steatosis are being extensively studied in mammals, and causal relations have been evidenced. In migratory birds the liver can transiently store lipids during pre-migratory and migratory phases, but little is known about the implications of the digestive microbiota in those mechanisms. The Landaise greylag goose (Anser anser) is a good model to study steatosis in migratory birds as it is domesticated, but is still, from a genetic point of view, close to its wild migratory ancestor. It also has a great ingestion capacity and a good predisposition for hepatic steatosis, whether spontaneous or induced by conventional overfeeding. The conventional (overfeeding) and alternative (spontaneous steatosis induction) systems differ considerably in duration and feed intake level and previous studies have shown that aptitudes to spontaneous steatosis are very variable. The present study thus aimed to address two issues: (i) evaluate whether microbial composition differs with steatosis-inducing mode; (ii) elucidate whether a digestive microbial signature could be associated with variable aptitudes to spontaneous liver steatosis.

Results: Performances, biochemical composition of the livers and microbiota differed considerably in response to steatosis stimulation. We namely identified the genus Romboutsia to be overrepresented in birds developing a spontaneous steatosis in comparison to those submitted to conventional overfeeding while the genera Ralstonia, Variovorax and Sphingomonas were underrepresented only in birds that did not develop a spontaneous steatosis compared to conventionally overfed ones, birds developing a spontaneous steatosis having intermediate values. Secondly, no overall differences in microbial composition were evidenced in association with variable aptitudes to spontaneous steatosis, although one OTU, belonging to the Lactobacillus genus, was overrepresented in birds having developed a spontaneous steatosis compared to those that had not.

Conclusions: Our study is the first to evaluate the intestinal microbial composition in association with steatosis, whether spontaneous or induced by overfeeding, in geese. Steatosis induction modes were associated with distinct digestive microbial compositions. However, unlike what can be observed in mammals, no clear microbial signature associated with spontaneous steatosis level was identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42523-020-00067-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934468PMC
January 2021

Composition of Intestinal Microbiota in Two Lines of Rainbow Trout () Divergently Selected for Muscle Fat Content.

Open Microbiol J 2018 31;12:308-320. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

INRA, Univ Pau & Pays Adour, E2S UPPA, UMR 1419, Nutrition, Métabolisme, Aquaculture, Saint Pée sur Nivelle, F-64310, France.

Background: Recently, studies suggest that gut microbiota contributes to the development of obesity in mammals. In rainbow trout, little is known about the role of intestinal microbiota in host physiology.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the link between intestinal microbiota and adiposity, by high-throughput 16S RNA gene based illumina Miseq sequencing in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content. Fish from these two lines of rainbow trout are known to have a differing lipid metabolism.

Methods: Samples from the two lines (L for lean and F for fat) were collected from Midgut (M) and Hindgut (H) in juvenile fish (18 months) to compare intestinal microbiota diversity.

Results: Whatever the lines and intestinal localisation, , and are the dominant phyla in the bacterial community of rainbow trout (at least 97%). The results indicate that richness and diversity indexes as well as bacterial composition are comparable between all groups even though 6 specific OTUs were identified in the intestinal microbiota of fish from the fat line and 2 OTUs were specific to the microbiota of fish from the lean line. Our work contributes to a better understanding in microbial diversity in intestinal microbiota of rainbow trout.

Conclusion: Altogether, our study indicates that no major modification of the intestinal microbiota is induced by selection for muscle lipid content and associated metabolic changes. Finally, we identified members of core microbiota in rainbow trout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874285801812010308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6142665PMC
August 2018

Probiotics Strains Modulate Gut Microbiota and Lipid Metabolism in Mule Ducks.

Open Microbiol J 2018 23;12:71-93. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

UMR 1419 INRA UPPA NuMéA, 371 rue du ruisseau, 40000 Mont de Marsan, France.

Background: Livestock production should respond to societal, environmental and economic changes. Since 2006 and the ban on antibiotics as growth factors in European Union, the use of probiotics has become widespread and has demonstrated the effect of intestinal microbiota on the performance of farm animals.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation with (as a probiotics strain or combined with other strains) on zootechnical performance, metabolic and immune gene expression and intestinal microbiota diversity in mule ducks using high-throughput sequencing and real-time PCR.

Method: The mule ducks were reared for 79 days and overfed for 12 days with or without probiotics. Samples were collected at 14 (starting period) and 91 days (end of overfeeding period), 3 hours post feeding.

Results: Irrespective of digestive content, age, level of feed intake or supplementation with probiotics, , and were the dominant phyla in the bacterial community in mule ducks. At 14 days, both the ileal and cecal samples were dominated by (in particular the order). Overfeeding induced a shift between and in the ileal samples whereas in the cecal samples, the relative abundance of decreased. Overfeeding also induced hepatic over-expression of Fatty Acid Synthase () and of the lipid transporter gene Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 (). This increase in lipid metabolism genes is associated with a decrease in inflammatory response.

Conclusion: Finally, probiotic supplementation had only a slight impact on gene expression and microbiota diversity, both at 14 days and after overfeeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874285801812010071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5925865PMC
April 2018