Publications by authors named "Maxim Grymonprez"

7 Publications

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Non-vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs) Versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Using P-gp and/or CYP450-Interacting Drugs: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Bioanalysis, Pharmaceutical Care Unit, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Purpose: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are excreted by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and some are metabolized by CYP450 enzymes such as CYP3A4. Although fewer drug interactions are present with NOACs, it is unclear whether NOACs should also be preferred over vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) using pharmacokinetically interacting drugs. Therefore, the benefit-risk profile of NOACs versus VKAs was investigated in AF patients treated with P-gp and/or CYP450-interacting drugs.

Methods: Using PubMed and Embase, randomized controlled trials and observational studies on the effectiveness and safety of NOACs versus VKAs in AF patients using P-gp and/or CYP450-interacting drugs were included. A meta-analysis was performed, calculating relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with the Mantel-Haenszel method.

Results: Twelve studies were included, investigating 10,793 NOAC and 10,096 VKA users treated with P-gp/CYP3A4 inhibitors, whereas no studies on P-gp and/or CYP450-inducing drugs were identified. Compared to VKAs, NOACs were associated with a borderline non-significantly lower stroke or systemic embolism (stroke/SE) risk (RR 0.85, 95%CI (0.72-1.01)), significantly lower intracranial bleeding (RR 0.47, 95%CI (0.34-0.65)) and all-cause mortality risks (RR 0.87, 95%CI (0.79-0.95), but significantly higher gastrointestinal bleeding risk (RR 1.74, 95%CI (1.06-2.86)). Among AF patients using amiodarone, NOACs were associated with significantly lower stroke/SE (RR 0.71, 95%CI (0.54-0.93)) and intracranial bleeding risks (RR 0.51, 95%CI (0.29-0.88)), but significantly higher gastrointestinal bleeding risk (RR 2.15, 95%CI (1.24-3.72)) than VKAs.

Conclusion: The benefit-risk profile of NOACs compared to VKAs was preserved in AF patients using P-gp/CYP3A4 inhibitors, including amiodarone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10557-021-07279-8DOI Listing
October 2021

The impact of underweight and obesity on outcomes in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation: A systematic review and meta-analysis on the obesity paradox.

Clin Cardiol 2021 May 26;44(5):599-608. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Bioanalysis, Pharmaceutical Care Unit, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Although obesity is associated with the development and progression of atrial fibrillation (AF), an obesity paradox may be present, illustrated by seemingly protective effects of obesity on AF-related outcomes. Body mass index (BMI) has an impact on outcomes in AF patients using oral anticoagulants. After searching Medline and Embase, meta-analysis of results of four randomized and five observational studies demonstrated significantly lower risks of stroke or systemic embolism (RR 0.80, 95%CI [0.73-0.87]; RR 0.63, 95%CI [0.57-0.70]; and RR 0.42, 95%CI [0.31-0.57], respectively) and all-cause mortality (RR 0.73, 95%CI [0.64-0.83]; RR 0.61, 95%CI [0.52-0.71]; and RR 0.56, 95%CI [0.47-0.66], respectively) in overweight, obese and morbidly obese anticoagulated AF patients (BMI 25 to <30, ≥30 and ≥40 kg/m , respectively) compared to normal BMI anticoagulated AF patients (BMI 18.5 to <25 kg/m ). In contrast, thromboembolic (RR 1.92, 95%CI [1.28-2.90]) and mortality (RR 3.57, 95%CI [2.50-5.11]) risks were significantly increased in underweight anticoagulated AF patients (BMI <18.5 kg/m ). In overweight and obese anticoagulated AF patients, the risks of major bleeding (RR 0.86, 95%CI [0.76-0.99]; and RR 0.88, 95%CI [0.79-0.98], respectively) and intracranial bleeding (RR 0.75, 95%CI [0.58-0.97]; and RR 0.57, 95%CI [0.40-0.80], respectively) were also significantly lower compared to normal BMI patients, while similar risks were observed in underweight and morbidly obese patients. This meta-analysis demonstrated lower thromboembolic and mortality risks with increasing BMI. However, as this paradox was driven by results from randomized studies, while observational studies rendered more conflicting results, these seemingly protective effects should still be interpreted with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8119828PMC
May 2021

Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs) Versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and (Morbid) Obesity or Low Body Weight: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Bioanalysis, Pharmaceutical Care Unit, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Purpose: Oral anticoagulants are crucial for preventing systemic thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation (AF), with guidelines preferring non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) over vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in the general AF population. However, as NOACs are administered in fixed doses, concerns of unintentional underdosing in morbidly obese patients and unintentional overdosing in underweight patients have emerged. Therefore, a critical appraisal of the benefit-risk profile of NOACs in AF patients across the body weight spectrum is needed.

Methods And Results: After searching Medline, this systematic review discusses the impact of body weight on the risk-benefit profile of NOACs versus VKAs. The meta-analysis demonstrated that NOAC use in obese and class III obese AF patients (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 and ≥ 40 kg/m, respectively) was associated with significantly lower stroke/systemic embolism (stroke/SE) risks (RR 0.82, 95%CI [0.71-0.96] and RR 0.75, 95%CI [0.64-0.87], respectively), similar to lower major bleeding risks (RR 0.83, 95%CI [0.69-1.00] and RR 0.74, 95%CI [0.57-0.95], respectively) and similar mortality risks (RR 0.92, 95%CI [0.73-1.15] and RR 1.17, 95%CI [0.83-1.64], respectively) compared to VKAs. In AF patients ≤ 60 kg, significantly lower stroke/SE (RR 0.63, 95%CI [0.56-0.71]) and major bleeding risks (RR 0.71, 95%CI [0.62-0.80]), but similar mortality risks (RR 0.68, 95%CI [0.42-1.10]), were observed for NOAC- versus VKA-treated patients.

Conclusion: The benefit-risk profile of NOACs seems preserved in (morbidly) obese AF patients and patients with low body weight. However, more data are needed on underweight AF patients (BMI < 18.5 kg/m) and on differences between NOACs in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10557-020-07122-6DOI Listing
January 2021

Impact of a single non-sex-related stroke risk factor on atrial fibrillation and oral anticoagulant outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Open Heart 2020 12;7(2)

Department of Bioanalysis, Pharmaceutical Care Unit, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Aims: Oral anticoagulants (OACs) are crucial for treating atrial fibrillation (AF) patients at high thromboembolic risk. However, in AF patients at intermediate thromboembolic risk with a single non-sex-related stroke risk factor (CHADS-VASc score 1 in men, 2 in women), guidelines advise to consider starting anticoagulation, which may result in OAC non-initiation due to underestimation of the thromboembolic risk of a single stroke risk factor and overestimation of the OAC-related bleeding risk. A critical appraisal of the role of OACs and the benefit-risk profile of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) compared with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in this patient subgroup are needed.

Methods And Results: This systematic review provides an overview of literature on the effectiveness and safety of OACs in AF patients with a single non-sex-related stroke risk factor after searching Medline and Embase. Differences between individual stroke risk factors regarding the ischaemic stroke risk in non-anticoagulated AF patients are identified in a meta-analysis, demonstrating the highest increased risk in patients aged 65-74 years old or with diabetes mellitus, followed by heart failure, hypertension and vascular disease. Furthermore, meta-analysis results favour NOACs over VKAs, given their equal effectiveness and superior safety in AF patients at intermediate thromboembolic risk (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.34 for stroke or systemic embolism; HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.80 for major bleeding; HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.59 for intracranial bleeding; HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.71 for mortality).

Conclusion: Our systematic review with meta-analysis favours the use of anticoagulation in AF patients with a single non-sex-related stroke risk factor, especially when age ≥65 years or diabetes mellitus is present, with a preference for NOACs over VKAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2020-001465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759963PMC
December 2020

Appropriateness of direct oral anticoagulant dosing in patients with atrial fibrillation according to the drug labelling and the EHRA Practical Guide.

Int J Cardiol 2021 04 3;328:97-103. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Pharmaceutical Care Unit, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and the appropriateness of direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) dosing according to both the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) and the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) Practical Guide in a 'real-world' sample of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients.

Methods And Results: Data of a cross-sectional observational study in a primary care sample of 654 long-term DOAC users were used for this sub-analysis. A total of 262 potential DDIs were identified in 220 patients (33.6%). Pharmacodynamic DDIs were present in 163 patients (24.9%) and pharmacokinetic DDIs in 82 patients (12.5%). One-third of patients (33.8%) received reduced DOAC dose. According to the dosing recommendations in the SmPC, 81.7% of DOACs were dosed appropriately. According to the EHRA recommendations, 76.6% of DOACs were dosed appropriately. Dosing recommendations were consistent for 90.7% of patients, with both the SmPC and EHRA Practical Guide considering DOACs dosed appropriately in 74.5% of patients, overdosed in 7.8%, underdosed in 7.6% and contraindicated in 0.8%. However, for the remaining 9.3% dosing recommendations differed between SmPC and EHRA.

Conclusions: This 'real-world' analysis of DOAC dosing demonstrated that in about one-third of NVAF patients potential DDIs were present. In 18.3% and 23.4% of patients, DOACs were dosed inappropriately according to the SmPC and EHRA Practical Guide respectively. In almost 10% of the study population dosing advice was inconsistent between both references. More research is needed to ensure appropriate DOAC dosing in this 'grey zone' population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.11.062DOI Listing
April 2021

Effectiveness and Safety of Oral Anticoagulants in Older Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Pharmacol 2020 9;11:583311. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Pharmaceutical Care Unit, Department of Bioanalysis, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background And Objective: Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, typically increases with age. Oral anticoagulants (OACs) are the cornerstone of treatment to reduce the associated risk for systemic thromboembolism. Four large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are non-inferior to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in preventing stroke and systemic embolism, as well as regarding their risk for major bleeding. However, as vulnerable geriatric patients with AF were largely underrepresented in these trials, physicians are faced with the challenge of choosing the right anticoagulant for geriatric patients in real-life clinical practice. In this vulnerable patient group, NOACs tend to be underused or underdosed due to concerns of excessive fall-related intracranial bleeding, cognitive impairment, multiple drug-drug interactions, low body weight or impaired renal function. As life expectancy continues to rise worldwide, the number of geriatric patients substantially increases. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a critical appraisal of the added value of NOACs in geriatric patients with AF at high thromboembolic and bleeding risk.

Methods And Results: This systematic review provides an overview of the literature on the impact of increased age (≥75 years), multimorbidity, polypharmacy, increased falling risk, frailty and dementia on the effectiveness and safety of NOACs as compared to VKAs, after searching the Medline database. Moreover, a meta-analysis on the impact of increased age ≥75 years old was performed after pooling results from 6 analyses of RCTs and 6 longitudinal observational cohort studies, highlighting the superior effectiveness (hazard ratio (HR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.74-0.94] for stroke/SE; HR 0.77, 95%CI [0.65-0.92] for mortality) and non-inferior safety (HR 0.93, 95%CI [0.86-1.01] for major bleeding; HR 0.58, 95%CI [0.50-0.67] for intracranial bleeding; HR 1.17, 95%CI [0.99-1.38] for gastrointestinal bleeding) of NOACs versus VKAs in older AF patients.

Conclusion: Across geriatric subgroups, apixaban was consistently associated with the most favourable benefit-risk profile and should therefore be preferred in geriatric patients with AF. However, research gaps on the impact of increased falling risk, frailty and baseline dementia were identified, requiring careful consideration while awaiting more results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.583311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509201PMC
September 2020

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the development of atrial fibrillation.

Int J Cardiol 2019 Feb 15;276:118-124. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam 3000, CA, the Netherlands; Department of Bioanalysis, FFW, Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). More insight into the epidemiology and underlying mechanisms is required to optimize management.

Methods: The Rotterdam Study is a large, population-based cohort study with long-term follow-up. Time dependent Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to study the effect of COPD on incident AF, adjusted for age, sex and pack years of cigarette smoking, and additionally stratified according to exacerbation frequency, left atrial size and baseline systemic inflammatory levels.

Results: 1369 of 10,943 subjects had COPD, of whom 804 developed AF. The AF incidence rate was 14 per 1000 person years in COPD and 8 per 1000 person years in subjects without COPD. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for COPD subjects to develop AF as compared to subjects without COPD was 1.28 (95%CI [1.04, 1.57]). COPD subjects with frequent exacerbations had a twofold increased AF risk (HR 1.99 [1.42, 2.79]) and COPD subjects with a left atrial size ≥40 mm also had an elevated AF risk (HR 1.77 [1.07, 2.94]). COPD subjects with baseline systemic inflammatory levels above the median had significantly increased AF risks (hsCRP≥1.83 mg/L: HR 1.51 [1.13, 2.03] and IL6 ≥ 1.91 ng/L: HR 2.49 [1.18, 5.28]), whereas COPD subjects below the median had in both analyses no significantly increased AF risk.

Conclusions: COPD subjects had a 28% increased AF risk, which further increased with frequent exacerbations and an enlarged left atrium. The risk was driven by COPD subjects having elevated systemic inflammatory levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.09.056DOI Listing
February 2019
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