Publications by authors named "Max Guyll"

32 Publications

Mobilization and resistance in response to interrogation threat.

Law Hum Behav 2019 08;43(4):307-318

Department of Psychology.

This research tested whether the perception of threat during a police interrogation mobilizes suspects to cope with interrogation demands and bolsters their resistance to self-incrimination pressures. Experimental procedures led university undergraduates (N = 296) to engage in misconduct or not, thereby making them guilty or innocent. An experimenter then accused all participants of misconduct in either a threatening or nonthreatening way. High threat produced a broad pattern of mobilization entailing physiologic, cognitive, and behavioral components. Specifically, in comparison to the low threat accusation, the high threat accusation produced greater cardiovascular reactions, increased attentional bias and memory for accusation-relevant information, and strengthened resistance to self-incrimination. Furthermore, with the exception of physiologic reactions, these effects were similar for both guilty and innocent participants. Consistent with the phenomenology of innocence wherein the innocent perceive less threat from interrogation than do the guilty, the innocent evidenced smaller cardiovascular responses to high threat than did the guilty. Results suggest that the more threat that suspects experience, the more they will be mobilized to cope with interrogation demands and resist interpersonal pressure to self-incriminate, at least initially. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000337DOI Listing
August 2019

The accumulation of stereotype-based self-fulfilling prophecies.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Nov;115(5):825-844

Psychology Department, Central Michigan University.

A recurring theme in the psychological literature is that the self-fulfilling effect of stereotypes can accumulate across perceivers. This article provides the first empirical support for this long-standing hypothesis. In three experiments (Ns = 123-241), targets more strongly confirmed a stereotype as the number of perceivers who held stereotypic expectations about them increased. A fourth experiment (N = 121) showed that new perceivers judged targets according to the stereotypic behaviors they had previously been channeled to adopt, an effect that even occurred among perceivers who were privy to the fact that targets' behavior had been shaped by the actions of others. The authors discuss ways in which these effects may contribute to group inequalities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000142DOI Listing
November 2018

Reducing threat responses to help-seeking information: Influences of self-affirmations and reassuring information.

J Couns Psychol 2019 Apr 15;66(3):375-383. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Psychology, Iowa State University.

This research was an examination of the effects of two types of self-affirmation interventions in reducing threat responses associated with receiving help-seeking information. Help-seeking information can be threatening to one's positive self-perceptions and people may avoid seeking such information to protect themselves. There is evidence that reflecting on personal values (values affirmation) may bolster self-integrity and mitigate this avoidance, and it is possible that reflecting on safe, close social relationships (social affirmation) could exhibit similar effects. To experimentally examine this theoretical idea, we applied a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design in the present study on 384 participants and experimentally manipulated their values affirmations (values affirmation vs. no values affirmation) and social affirmations (social affirmation vs. no social affirmation). In addition, because there is no consensus as to the most effective presentation of help-seeking information, the type of help-seeking information presented to potential help-seekers was also manipulated (reassuring help-seeking information vs. nonreassuring help-seeking information). Results indicated that values affirmation and reassuring information were linked to lower threat responses, but social affirmation was not. Values affirmation and reassuring information might be effective strategies for reducing threat responses associated with the presentation of psychological help-seeking information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cou0000313DOI Listing
April 2019

Relationship Closeness and Self-reported Willingness to Falsely Take the Blame.

Behav Sci Law 2016 Nov 27;34(6):767-783. Epub 2017 Jan 27.

Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA.

One reason people falsely confess is to protect the true perpetrator. The current study examined whether relationship closeness influences people's self-reported willingness to falsely take the blame. Utilizing theoretical work from the prosocial area, three potential mediators were investigated. Participants (N = 131) were randomly assigned to think of either a close or a casual friend and then read one of two scenarios that described a minor offense committed by the friend. Participants' willingness to take the blame was assessed, as well as their perceptions of reciprocity, feelings of empathy, and distress concerns related to their relationship with the offending friend. Results showed that, in both scenarios, participants more often took the blame in the close friend condition than in the casual friend condition. Reciprocity and empathy each uniquely and independently mediated relationship closeness, whereas distress concerns did not. Differences in the two scenarios, which describe different offenses, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bsl.2270DOI Listing
November 2016

The interrogation decision-making model: A general theoretical framework for confessions.

Law Hum Behav 2017 02 20;41(1):80-92. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

Department of Psychology, Iowa State University.

This article presents a new model of confessions referred to as the . This model provides a theoretical umbrella with which to understand and analyze suspects' decisions to deny or confess guilt in the context of a custodial interrogation. The model draws upon expected utility theory to propose a mathematical account of the psychological mechanisms that not only underlie suspects' decisions to deny or confess guilt at any specific point during an interrogation, but also how confession decisions can change over time. Findings from the extant literature pertaining to confessions are considered to demonstrate how the model offers a comprehensive and integrative framework for organizing a range of effects within a limited set of model parameters. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000220DOI Listing
February 2017

A biphasic process of resistance among suspects: The mobilization and decline of self-regulatory resources.

Law Hum Behav 2017 04 20;41(2):159-172. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

Department of Psychology, Illinois State University.

We conducted two experiments to test whether police interrogation elicits a biphasic process of resistance from suspects. According to this process, the initial threat of police interrogation mobilizes suspects to resist interrogative influence in a manner akin to a fight or flight response, but suspects' protracted self-regulation of their behavior during subsequent questioning increases their susceptibility to interrogative influence in the long-run. In Experiment 1 (N = 316), participants who were threatened by an accusation of misconduct exhibited responses indicative of mobilization and more strongly resisted social pressure to acquiesce to suggestive questioning than did participants who were not accused. In Experiment 2 (N = 160), self-regulatory decline that was induced during questioning about misconduct undermined participants' ability to resist suggestive questioning. These findings support a theoretical account of the dynamic and temporal nature of suspects' responses to police interrogation over the course of questioning. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000221DOI Listing
April 2017

The perfect match: Do criminal stereotypes bias forensic evidence analysis?

Law Hum Behav 2016 Aug 5;40(4):420-9. Epub 2016 May 5.

Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale.

This research provided the first empirical test of the hypothesis that stereotypes bias evaluations of forensic evidence. A pilot study (N = 107) assessed the content and consensus of 20 criminal stereotypes by identifying perpetrator characteristics (e.g., sex, race, age, religion) that are stereotypically associated with specific crimes. In the main experiment (N = 225), participants read a mock police incident report involving either a stereotyped crime (child molestation) or a nonstereotyped crime (identity theft) and judged whether a suspect's fingerprint matched a fingerprint recovered at the crime scene. Accompanying the suspect's fingerprint was personal information about the suspect of the type that is routinely available to fingerprint analysts (e.g., race, sex) and which could activate a stereotype. Participants most often perceived the fingerprints to match when the suspect fit the criminal stereotype, even though the prints did not actually match. Moreover, participants appeared to be unaware of the extent to which a criminal stereotype had biased their evaluations. These findings demonstrate that criminal stereotypes are a potential source of bias in forensic evidence analysis and suggest that suspects who fit criminal stereotypes may be disadvantaged over the course of the criminal justice process. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000190DOI Listing
August 2016

Popularity as a predictor of early alcohol use and moderator of other risk processes.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2014 Nov;75(6):919-28

Department of Psychology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

Objective: This study tested the relationship between popularity and early adolescent alcohol use and examined whether popularity moderated the influence of several risk processes.

Method: Longitudinal data provided by 1,196 youth (590 girls) were analyzed to assess main and interactive effects of popularity, friends' alcohol use attitudes, own alcohol use attitude, risk taking, and aggressive-disruptive behavior on changes in alcohol use during seventh grade.

Results: When we controlled for demographic variables and baseline alcohol use, popularity and the other predictors of interest exhibited linear main effects on alcohol use, with popularity and the attitude variables also demonstrating curvilinear relationships. Further analysis indicated that popularity moderated the effect of aggressive-disruptive behavior, the latter being associated with greater alcohol use among more popular adolescents. Additional moderation results revealed that friends' favorable attitudes toward alcohol use also potentiated aggressive-disruptive behavior's relationship with alcohol use and that male youth were more likely than female youth to use alcohol, but only among low risk takers.

Conclusions: Popular youth may attempt to maintain status through early alcohol use, and their social competencies may facilitate risk processes associated with aggressive-disruptive behavior. Findings suggest the utility of providing universal prevention at developmentally crucial times to address substance use overall, and particularly to decrease early use among popular youth, which may serve to slow the growth of substance use in the larger cohort. Although aggressive-disruptive youth who are popular seem to be at particular risk, they may resist traditional interventions, indicating the potential value of less obvious intervention strategies.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4211333PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2014.75.919DOI Listing
November 2014

Short-sighted confession decisions: the role of uncertain and delayed consequences.

Law Hum Behav 2015 Feb 18;39(1):44-52. Epub 2014 Aug 18.

Department of Psychology, Iowa State University.

Suspects have a propensity to focus on short-term contingencies, giving disproportionate weight to the proximal consequences that are delivered by police during an interrogation, and too little consideration to the distal (and often more severe) consequences that may be levied by the judicial system if they are convicted. In this research, the authors examined whether the perceived uncertainty and temporal distance of distal consequences contribute to this propensity. Using the repetitive question paradigm (Madon et al., 2012), participants (N = 209) were interviewed about 20 prior criminal and unethical behaviors and were required to admit or deny each one. Participants' denials and admissions were paired with both a proximal consequence and a distal consequence, respectively. Results indicated that the distal consequence had less impact on participants' admission decisions when it was uncertain and temporally remote. These results provide evidence that the perceived uncertainty and temporal distance of future punishment are key factors that lead suspects to confess to crimes in exchange for short-term gains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000100DOI Listing
February 2015

Standardizing economic analysis in prevention will require substantial effort.

Authors:
Max Guyll

Prev Sci 2014 Dec;15(6):803-6

Department of Psychology, Iowa State University, W112 Lagomarcino, Ames, IA, 50011-3180, USA,

It is exceedingly difficult to compare results of economic analyses across studies due to variations in assumptions, methodology, and outcome measures, a fact which surely decreases the impact and usefulness of prevention-related economic research. Therefore, Crowley et al. (Prevention Science, 2013) are precisely correct in their call for increased standardization and have usefully highlighted the issues that must be addressed. However, having made the need clear, the questions become what form the solution should take, and how should it be implemented. The present discussion outlines the rudiments of a comprehensive framework for promoting standardized methodology in the estimation of economic outcomes, as encouraged by Crowley et al. In short, a single, standard, reference case approach should be clearly articulated, and all economic research should be encouraged to apply that standard approach, with results from compliant analyses being reported in a central archive. Properly done, the process would increase the ability of those without specialized training to contribute to the body of economic research pertaining to prevention, and the most difficult tasks of predicting and monetizing distal outcomes would be readily completed through predetermined models. These recommendations might be viewed as somewhat forcible, insomuch as they advocate for prescribing the details of a standard methodology and establishing a means of verifying compliance. However, it is unclear that the best practices proposed by Crowley et al. will be widely adopted in the absence of a strong and determined approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-013-0450-2DOI Listing
December 2014

The Role Of The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy In Young Adolescents' Responsiveness To A Substance Use Prevention Program.

J Appl Soc Psychol 2013 Sep;43(9):1784-1798

Iowa State University.

This research examined whether naturally-occurring self-fulfilling prophecies influenced adolescents' responsiveness to a substance use prevention program. The authors addressed this issue with a unique methodological approach that was designed to enhance the internal validity of research on naturally-occurring self-fulfilling prophecies by experimentally controlling for prediction without influence. Participants were 321 families who were assigned to an adolescent substance use prevention program that either did or did not systematically involve parents. Results showed that parents' perceptions about the value of involving parents in adolescent substance use prevention predicted adolescents' alcohol use more strongly among families assigned to the prevention program that systematically involved parents than to the one that did not. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3780413PMC
September 2013

Reducing the stigma associated with seeking psychotherapy through self-affirmation.

J Couns Psychol 2013 Oct 19;60(4):508-519. Epub 2013 Aug 19.

Department of Psychology, Iowa State University.

Psychotherapy may be underutilized because people experience self-stigma-the internalization of public stigma associated with seeking psychotherapy. The purpose of this study was to experimentally test whether the self-stigma associated with seeking psychotherapy could be reduced by a self-affirmation intervention wherein participants reflected on an important personal characteristic. Compared with a control group, we hypothesized that a self-affirmation writing task would attenuate self-stigma, and thereby evidence indirect effects on intentions and willingness to seek psychotherapy. Participants were 84 undergraduates experiencing psychological distress. After completing pretest measures of self-stigma, intentions, and willingness to seek psychotherapy, participants were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or a control writing task, and subsequently completed posttest measures of self-stigma, intentions, and willingness to seek psychotherapy. Consistent with hypotheses, participants who engaged in self-affirmation reported lower self-stigma at posttest. Moreover, the self-affirmation writing task resulted in a positive indirect effect on willingness to seek psychotherapy, though results failed to support an indirect effect on intentions to seek psychotherapy. Findings suggest that self-affirmation theory may provide a useful framework for designing interventions that seek to address the underutilization of psychological services through reductions in self-stigma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0033789DOI Listing
October 2013

Innocence and resisting confession during interrogation: effects on physiologic activity.

Law Hum Behav 2013 Oct 5;37(5):366-75. Epub 2013 Aug 5.

Department of Psychology, Iowa State University.

Innocent suspects may not adequately protect themselves during interrogation because they fail to fully appreciate the danger of the situation. This experiment tested whether innocent suspects experience less stress during interrogation than guilty suspects, and whether refusing to confess expends physiologic resources. After experimentally manipulating innocence and guilt, 132 participants were accused and interrogated for misconduct, and then pressured to confess. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and preejection period (PEP) responses quantified stress reactions. As hypothesized, the innocent evidenced smaller stress responses to interrogation for SBP, DBP, HR, and RSA than did the guilty. Furthermore, innocents who refused to confess exhibited greater sympathetic nervous system activation, as evidenced by shorter PEPs, than did innocent or guilty confessors. These findings suggest that innocent suspects underestimate the threat of interrogation and that resisting pressures to confess can diminish suspects' physiologic resources and lead to false confessions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000044DOI Listing
October 2013

How factors present during the immediate interrogation situation produce short-sighted confession decisions.

Law Hum Behav 2013 Feb 27;37(1):60-74. Epub 2012 Aug 27.

Department of Psychology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

Suspects have a preexisting vulnerability to make short-sighted confession decisions, giving disproportionate weight to proximal, rather than distal, consequences. The findings of the current research provided evidence that this preexisting vulnerability is exacerbated by factors that are associated with the immediate interrogation situation. In Experiment 1 (N = 118), a lengthy interview exacerbated participants' tendency to temporally discount a distal consequence when deciding whether or not to admit to criminal and unethical behaviors. This effect was especially pronounced among less serious behaviors. In Experiment 2 (N = 177), participants' tendency to temporally discount a distal consequence when making admission decisions was exacerbated by the expectation of a lengthy interview; an effect that became stronger the longer the interview continued. These findings suggest that conditions of the immediate interrogation situation may capitalize on an already-present vulnerability among suspects to make short-sighted confession decisions, thereby increasing the chances that even innocent suspects might confess.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000011DOI Listing
February 2013

Substance misuse prevention and economic analysis: challenges and opportunities regarding international utility.

Subst Use Misuse 2012 Jun-Jul;47(8-9):877-88

Department of Psychology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

Economic analyses of substance misuse prevention assess the intervention cost necessary to achieve a particular outcome, and thereby provide an additional dimension for evaluating prevention programming. This article reviews several types of economic analysis, considers how they can be applied to substance misuse prevention, and discusses challenges to enhancing their international relevance, particularly their usefulness for informing policy decisions. Important first steps taken to address these challenges are presented, including the disease burden concept and the development of generalized cost-effectiveness, advances that facilitate international policy discussions by providing a common framework for evaluating health care needs and program effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10826084.2012.663276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3724523PMC
October 2012

Temporal discounting: the differential effect of proximal and distal consequences on confession decisions.

Law Hum Behav 2012 Feb;36(1):13-20

Department of Psychology, Iowa State University, W112 Lagomarcino Hall, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

Drawing on the psychological principle that proximal consequences influence behavior more strongly than distal consequences, the authors tested the hypothesis that criminal suspects exhibit a short-sightedness during police interrogation that increases their risk for confession. Consistent with this hypothesis, Experiment 1 showed that participants (N = 81) altered how frequently they admitted to criminal and unethical behaviors during an interview to avoid a proximal consequence even though doing so increased their risk of incurring a distal consequence. Experiment 2 (N = 143) yielded the same pattern, but with a procedure that reversed the order of the proximal and distal consequences, thereby ruling out the possibility that it was the unique characteristics of the consequences rather than their proximity that influenced the admission rate. The authors discuss the supported psychological process as a potential explanation for several well-established findings reported in the literature on confessions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0093962DOI Listing
February 2012

Benefits of universal intervention effects on a youth protective shield 10 years after baseline.

J Adolesc Health 2012 Apr 15;50(4):414-7. Epub 2011 Aug 15.

Partnerships in Prevention Science Institute, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

Purpose: An earlier randomized controlled study found that a universal, family-focused preventive intervention produced protective shield effects-reduced adolescent exposures to illicit substance opportunities-among adolescents in grade 12. This study examined a follow-up assessment of the sample during young adulthood.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial evaluated the Iowa Strengthening Families Program that was implemented in 22 rural schools (N = 446 families) when the participants were in grade six. Measures included adolescent exposure to illicit substance use and young adult lifetime substance use (age 21; N = 331). Growth curve modeling examined indirect intervention effects through growth factors of adolescent exposure.

Results: Findings from this study confirm protective shield effects that mediate long-term reduction of illicit substance use (β = -.14, p = .02, Relative Reduction Rate = 28.2%).

Conclusions: The benefits of decreasing exposure to substance use during adolescence through universal interventions were supported, with positive effects extending into young adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.06.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3313466PMC
April 2012

Economic analysis of methamphetamine prevention effects and employer costs.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2011 Jul;72(4):577-85

Department of Psychology, Iowa State University, Ames, 50011-3180, USA.

Objective: The goal of this research was to evaluate economically three interventions designed to prevent substance use in general populations of adolescents, specifically focusing on the prevention of methamphetamine use and its subsequent benefits to employers.

Method: In a randomized, controlled trial, three preventive interventions were delivered to 6th- or 7th-grade youth in 58 Iowa school districts, with 905 of these youth (449 girls) providing follow-up assessments as 12th graders. Intervention conditions included the family-focused Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP), the school-based Life Skills Training (LST) program, and a combined condition of both the Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP10- 14; an ISFP revision) plus LST (LST + SFP10-14). Analyses based on intervention costs, 12th-grade methamphetamine use rates, and methamphetamine- related employer costs yielded estimates of intervention cost, cost-effectiveness, benefit-cost ratio, and net benefit.

Results: The ISFP lowered methamphetamine use by 3.9%, cost $25,385 to prevent each case, and had a benefit-cost ratio of 3.84, yielding a net benefit of $2,813 per youth. The LST program reduced methamphetamine use by 2.5%, required $5,122 per prevented case, and had a benefit-cost ratio of 19.04, netting $2,273 per youth. The combined LST + SFP10-14 prevention condition lowered methamphetamine use rates by 1.8%, cost $62,697 to prevent each case, had a benefit-cost ratio of 1.56, and netted $620 per youth. Findings were robust after varying a number of key parameters across a range of plausible values.

Conclusions: Substance use prevention programming is economically feasible, particularly for effective interventions that have lower per person treatment delivery costs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3125881PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2011.72.577DOI Listing
July 2011

Six-year sustainability of evidence-based intervention implementation quality by community-university partnerships: the PROSPER study.

Am J Community Psychol 2011 Dec;48(3-4):412-25

Partnerships in Prevention Science Institute, Iowa State University, ISU Research Park, Building 2, Suite 2400, 2625 North Loop Drive, Ames, IA 50010, USA.

There is a knowledge gap concerning how well community-based teams fare in implementing evidence-based interventions (EBIs) over many years, a gap that is important to fill because sustained high quality EBI implementation is essential to public health impact. The current study addresses this gap by evaluating data from PROSPER, a community-university intervention partnership model, in the context of a randomized-control trial of 28 communities. Specifically, it examines community teams' sustainability of implementation quality on a range of measures, for both family-focused and school-based EBIs. Average adherence ratings approached 90% for family-focused and school-based EBIs, across as many as 6 implementation cohorts. Additional indicators of implementation quality similarly showed consistently positive results. Correlations of the implementation quality outcomes with a number of characteristics of community teams and intervention leaders were calculated to explore their potential relevance to sustained implementation quality. Though several relationships attained statistical significance at particular points in time, none were stable across cohorts. The role of PROSPER's continuous, proactive technical assistance in producing the positive results is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10464-011-9430-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3727665PMC
December 2011

Self-verification as a mediator of mothers' self-fulfilling effects on adolescents' educational attainment.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2011 May 28;37(5):587-600. Epub 2011 Feb 28.

Department of Psychology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

This research examined whether self-verification acts as a general mediational process of self-fulfilling prophecies. The authors tested this hypothesis by examining whether self-verification processes mediated self-fulfilling prophecy effects within a different context and with a different belief and a different outcome than has been used in prior research. Results of longitudinal data obtained from mothers and their adolescents (N=332) indicated that mothers' beliefs about their adolescents' educational outcomes had a significant indirect effect on adolescents' academic attainment through adolescents' educational aspirations. This effect, observed over a 6-year span, provided evidence that mothers' self-fulfilling effects occurred, in part, because mothers' false beliefs influenced their adolescents' own educational aspirations, which adolescents then self-verified through their educational attainment. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167211399777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3740396PMC
May 2011

Hostility, relationship quality, and health among African American couples.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2010 Oct;78(5):646-54

W112 Lagomarcino, Department of Psychology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3180, USA.

Objective: This study investigated the association between hostility and health and whether it is moderated by the quality of an individual's primary romantic relationship.

Method: Longitudinal data were provided by 184 African Americans, including 166 women. Participants averaged 38 years old and were married or in long-term marriagelike relationships. Hostility and relationship quality were measured at the first assessment. Hostility was based on participants' responses to items tapping cynical attitudes about relationships. Relationship quality was based on trained observer ratings of videotaped couple interactions on behavioral scales reflecting warmth, support, and communication skills. At 2 assessments approximately 5 and 7 years later, participants provided health data. Health index scores were formed from responses to five scales of the SF-12 (Ware, Kosinski, & Keller, 1998) as well as to responses to questions about the number of chronic health conditions and the number of prescribed medications.

Results: Stepwise regression analyses controlling for demographic variables and the earlier health score tested the main and interactive effects of hostility and relationship quality on longitudinal changes in health. Whereas no main effects were supported, the interaction of hostility and relationship quality was significant (p < .05). The form of the interaction was such that high-hostile individuals had better health outcomes if they were in a high-quality relationship.

Conclusion: Hostile persons in high-quality relationships may be at less risk for negative health outcomes because they do not regularly experience the physiologic reactivity and adverse psychosocial outcomes that they would otherwise experience as a result of recurring interpersonal conflict.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0020436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2948411PMC
October 2010

Universal intervention as a protective shield against exposure to substance use: long-term outcomes and public health significance.

Am J Public Health 2009 Nov 17;99(11):2026-33. Epub 2009 Sep 17.

Partnerships in Prevention Science Institute, ISU Research Park, Building 2, Suite 2500, 2625 North Loop Drive, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA.

Objectives: We examined universal preventive intervention effects on adolescents' exposure to opportunities for substance use and on illicit substance use in the long term.

Methods: Public schools (N = 22) were randomly assigned to the Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP) or a control condition. We used odds ratio (OR) calculations and structural modeling to test the effects of the ISFP in the 6th grade on exposure to substance use across adolescence, as well as on 12th-grade illicit substance use occurring via reductions in exposure.

Results: The ISFP was associated with reduced exposure to illicit substance use (1.25 < or = OR < or = 2.37) that was, in turn, associated with reduced 12th-grade substance use (2.87 < or = OR < or = 6.35). The ISFP also reduced the rate of increase in exposure across adolescence (B = -0.37; P < .001), which was associated with the likelihood of 12th-grade illicit substance use (B = 0.30; P = .021), with a significant indirect effect (B = -0.11; P = .048).

Conclusions: The ISFP in the 6th grade reduced substance use through a "protective shield" of reduced exposure. The relative reduction rate was 49%, which suggests that universal prevention shields can contribute to significant reductions in illicit substance use among adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.133298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2759806PMC
November 2009

Universal intervention effects on substance use among young adults mediated by delayed adolescent substance initiation.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2009 Aug;77(4):620-32

Partnerships in Prevention Science Institute, Iowa State University, Iowa StateUniversity, Ames, IA 50010, USA.

In this article, the authors examine whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, achieved through universal family-focused interventions conducted in middle school, can reduce problematic substance use during young adulthood. Sixth-grade students enrolled in 33 rural midwestern schools and their families were randomly assigned to 3 experimental conditions. Self-report questionnaires provided data at 7 time points for the Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP), Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY), and control groups through young adulthood. Five young adult substance frequency measures (drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarettes, illicit drugs, and polysubstance use) were modeled as distal outcomes affected by the average level and rate of increase in substance initiation across the adolescent years in latent growth curve analyses. Results show that the models fit the data and that they were robust across outcomes and interventions, with more robust effects found for ISFP. The addition of direct intervention effects on young adult outcomes was not supported, suggesting long-term effects were primarily indirect. Relative reduction rates were calculated to quantify intervention-control differences on the estimated proportion of young adults indicating problematic substance use; they ranged from 19% to 31% for ISFP and from 9% to 16% for PDFY.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0016029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2876977PMC
August 2009

The mediation of mothers' self-fulfilling effects on their children's alcohol use: self-verification, informational conformity, and modeling processes.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2008 Aug;95(2):369-84

Department of Psychology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

This research examined whether self-fulfilling prophecy effects are mediated by self-verification, informational conformity, and modeling processes. The authors examined these mediational processes across multiple time frames with longitudinal data obtained from two samples of mother-child dyads (N-sub-1 = 486; N-sub-2 = 287), with children's alcohol use as the outcome variable. The results provided consistent support for the mediational process of self-verification. In both samples and across several years of adolescence, there was a significant indirect effect of mothers' beliefs on children's alcohol use through children's self-assessed likelihood of drinking alcohol in the future. Comparatively less support was found for informational conformity and modeling processes as mediators of mothers' self-fulfilling effects. The potential for self-fulfilling prophecies to produce long-lasting changes in targets' behavior via self-verification processes are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.95.2.369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2865849PMC
August 2008

PROSPER STUDY OF EVIDENCE-BASED INTERVENTION IMPLEMENTATION QUALITY BY COMMUNITY-UNIVERSITY PARTNERSHIPS.

J Community Psychol 2007 Oct;35(8):981-999

Partnerships in Prevention Science Institute, Iowa State University.

This study examined a community-university partnership model for sustained, high-quality implementation of evidence-based interventions. In the context of a randomized study, it assessed whether implementation quality for both family-focused and school-based universal interventions could be achieved and maintained through community-university partnerships. It also conducted exploratory analyses of factors influencing implementation quality. Results revealed uniformly high rates of both implementation adherence-averaging over 90%-and of other indicators of implementation quality for both family-focused and school-based interventions. Moreover, implementation quality was sustained across two cohorts. Exploratory analyses failed to reveal any significant correlates for family-intervention implementation quality, but did show that some team and instructor characteristics were associated with school-based implementation quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2849143PMC
October 2007

Universality of effects: an examination of the comparability of long-term family intervention effects on substance use across risk-related subgroups.

Prev Sci 2006 Jun;7(2):209-24

Partnerships in Prevention Science Institute, Iowa State University, ISU Research Park, Building 2, 2625 North Loop Drive, Suite 500, Ames, 50010-8296, USA.

This study extends earlier investigation of family risk-related moderation of two brief, family-focused preventive interventions. It examines effects on the trajectories of substance initiation over a period of six years after a pretest assessment, evaluating whether effects were comparable across higher- and lower-risk subgroups. The two interventions, designed for general-population families of adolescents, were the seven-session Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP) and the five-session Preparing for the Drug Free Years program (PDFY). Thirty-three rural public schools were randomly assigned to either the ISFP, the PDFY, or a minimal contact control condition. Curvilinear growth curve analyses were used to evaluate the universality of intervention effectiveness by testing for risk moderation of intervention effects on school-level substance use trajectories of initiation of alcohol and illicit substance use. Results were most consistent with the interpretation that both interventions provided comparable benefits for both outcome measures, regardless of family risk status. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for implementing universal preventive interventions in general populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-006-0036-3DOI Listing
June 2006

Self-fulfilling prophecy effects of mothers' beliefs on children's alcohol use: accumulation, dissipation, and stability over time.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2006 Jun;90(6):911-26

Department of Psychology, Iowa State University, Ames, 50011, USA.

This research examined whether self-fulfilling prophecy effects accumulated, dissipated, or remained stable over time in terms of 2 complementary conceptual models. Analyses of longitudinal data from 2 samples of mother-child dyads (N(1) = 487; N(2) = 288) yielded 3 main findings. First, the degree to which mothers' inaccurate beliefs assessed at a single point in time predicted children's distal alcohol use did not differ from the degree to which they predicted children's proximal alcohol use, thereby supporting a pattern of stability for the samples on average. Second, mothers' inaccurate beliefs repeatedly assessed across time had additive self-fulfilling effects on their children's subsequent alcohol use assessed at a single later point in time. Third, these additive self-fulfilling effects served to exacerbate differences in the alcohol use of children who had been consistently exposed to unfavorable versus favorable beliefs year after year. The authors discuss these findings in terms of the link between self-fulfilling prophecies and social problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.90.6.911DOI Listing
June 2006

Self-fulfilling prophecies: the synergistic accumulative effect of parents' beliefs on children's drinking behavior.

Psychol Sci 2004 Dec;15(12):837-45

Department of Psychology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA.

This research examined whether mothers' and fathers' beliefs about their children's alcohol use had cumulative self-fulfilling effects on their children's future drinking behavior. Analyses of longitudinal data acquired from 115 seventh-grade children and their mothers and fathers were consistent with synergistic accumulation effects for negative beliefs: Parents' beliefs predicted the greatest degree of confirmatory behavior from children when both mothers and fathers overestimated their children's alcohol use. Results did not support synergistic accumulation effects for positive beliefs: Children's predicted future alcohol use was similar regardless of whether one parent or both underestimated their child's alcohol use. These findings suggest that the generally small self-fulfilling effects reported in the literature may underestimate the power of negative self-fulfilling prophecies to harm targets because studies have not taken into consideration the possibility that negative self-fulfilling prophecies may be more likely than positive ones to accumulate across multiple perceivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00764.xDOI Listing
December 2004

The self-fulfilling prophecy as an intrafamily dynamic.

J Fam Psychol 2004 Sep;18(3):459-69

Department of Psychology, Iowa State University 50010-8296, Ames, IA, USA.

This research examined whether parents' and children's perceptions of one another have reciprocal self-fulfilling effects on each other's behavior. Parents and their adolescent children completed self-report surveys and engaged in dyadic videotaped interaction tasks. The surveys assessed mothers', fathers', and children's perceptions of their own and the other's hostility and warmth. Observers coded the videotaped interactions to assess the actual hostility and warmth exhibited by parents and children. Data from 658 mother-child dyads were consistent with the conclusion that children had a self-fulfilling effect on their mothers' hostility but that mothers did not have a reciprocal self-fulfilling effect on their children's hostility. No other self-fulfilling prophecy effects emerged. Findings are discussed in terms of family relations and the differential power of negative versus positive self-fulfilling prophecies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.18.3.459DOI Listing
September 2004

Family-focused preventive interventions: evaluating parental risk moderation of substance use trajectories.

J Fam Psychol 2004 Jun;18(2):293-301

Institute for Social and Behavioral Research, Iowa State University, Ames, 50010-8296, USA.

Four years of longitudinal data from 373 families participating in a randomized intervention-control clinical trial were used to examine whether intervention effects on adolescent alcohol and tobacco use trajectories were moderated by family risk, as defined by parental social emotional maladjustment. Consistent with earlier outcome evaluations based on analyses of covariance, analyses confirmed that both the Preparing for the Drug Free Years program and the Iowa Strengthening Families Program favorably influenced alcohol use index trajectories across the time frame of the study; only the latter program, however, evidenced positive effects on a tobacco use index. Concerning the primary research question, analyses provided no support for family risk moderation of any intervention effect. Findings indicate the feasibility of developing universal preventive interventions that offer comparable benefits to all families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.18.2.293DOI Listing
June 2004