Publications by authors named "Mauro Xavier Neto"

3 Publications

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Transition to universal primary health care coverage in Brazil: Analysis of uptake and expansion patterns of Brazil's Family Health Strategy (1998-2012).

PLoS One 2018 10;13(8):e0201723. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Family Health Strategy, the primary health care program in Brazil, has been scaled up throughout the country, but its expansion has been heterogeneous across municipalities. We investigate if there are unique municipal characteristics that can explain the timing of uptake and the pattern of expansion of the Family Health Strategy from years 1998 to 2012. We categorized municipalities in six groups based on the relative speed of the Family Health Strategy uptake and the pattern of Family Health Strategy coverage expansion. We assembled data for 11 indicators for years 2000 and 2010, for 5,507 municipalities, and assessed differences in indicators across the six groups, which we mapped to examine spatial heterogeneities. Important factors differentiating early and late adopters of the Family Health Strategy were supply of doctors and population density. Sustained coverage expansion was related mainly to population size, marginal benefits of the program and doctors' supply. The uptake was widespread nationwide with no distinct patterns among regions, but highly heterogeneous at the state and municipal level. The Brazilian experience of expanding primary health care offers three lessons in relation to factors influencing diffusion of primary health care. First, the funding mechanism is critical for program implementation, and must be accompanied by ways to support the supply of primary care physicians in low density areas. Second, in more developed and bigger areas the main challenge is lack of incentives to pursue universal coverage, especially due to the availability of private insurance. Third, population size is a crucial element to guarantee coverage sustainability over time.
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February 2019

Brazil's Family Health Strategy: factors associated with programme uptake and coverage expansion over 15 years (1998-2012).

Health Policy Plan 2018 Apr;33(3):368-380

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, EUA.

Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is one of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Achieving UHC will require strong health systems to promote and deliver equitable and integrated healthcare services through primary healthcare (PHC). In Brazil, the Family Health Strategy (FHS) delivers PHC through the public health system. Created in 1994, the FHS covered almost 123 million individuals (63% of the Brazilian population) by 2015. The FHS has been associated with many health improvements, but gaps in coverage still remain. This article examines factors associated with the implementation and expansion of the FHS across 5419 Brazilian municipalities from 1998 to 2012. The proportion of the municipal population covered by the FHS over time was assessed using a longitudinal multilevel model for change that accounted for variables covering eight domains: economic development, healthcare supply, healthcare needs/access, availability of other sources of healthcare, political context, geographical isolation, regional characteristics and population size. Data were obtained from multiple publicly available sources. During the 15-year study period, national coverage of the FHS increased from 4.4% to 54%, with 58% of the municipalities having population coverage of 95% or more, and municipalities that had not adopted the programme decreased from 86.4% to 4.9%. The increase in FHS uptake and coverage was not homogenous across municipalities, and was positively associated with small population size, low population density, low coverage of private health insurance, low level of economic development, alignment of the political party of the Mayor and the state Governor, and availability of healthcare supply. Efforts to expand the FHS coverage will need to focus on increasing the availability of health personnel, devising financial incentives for municipalities to uptake/expand the FHS and devising new policies that encompass both private and public sectors.
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Source Listing
April 2018