Publications by authors named "Maurizio Frezzato"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

MATRix-RICE therapy and autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with secondary CNS involvement (MARIETTA): an international, single-arm, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Feb;8(2):e110-e121

Department of Haematology, University College Hospital, London, UK.

Background: Secondary CNS lymphoma is a rare but potentially lethal event in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We aimed to assess the activity and safety of an intensive, CNS-directed chemoimmunotherapy consolidated by autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with secondary CNS lymphoma.

Methods: This international, single-arm, phase 2 trial was done in 24 hospitals in Italy, the UK, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. Adults (aged 18-70 years) with histologically diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and CNS involvement at the time of primary diagnosis or at relapse and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status of 3 or less were enrolled and received three courses of MATRix (rituximab 375 mg/m, intravenous infusion, day 0; methotrexate 3·5 g/m, the first 0·5 g/m in 15 min followed by 3 g/m in a 3 h intravenous infusion, day 1; cytarabine 2 g/m every 12 h, in 1 h intravenous infusions, days 2 and 3; thiotepa 30 mg/m, 30 min intravenous infusion, day 4) followed by three courses of RICE (rituximab 375 mg/m, day 1; etoposide 100 mg/m per day in 500-1000 mL over a 60 min intravenous infusion, days 1, 2, and 3; ifosfamide 5 g/m in 1000 mL in a 24 h intravenous infusion with mesna support, day 2; carboplatin area under the curve of 5 in 500 mL in a 1 h intravenous infusion, day 2) and carmustine-thiotepa and autologous HSCT (carmustine 400 mg/m in 500 mL glucose 5% solution in a 1-2 h infusion, day -6; thiotepa 5 mg/kg in saline solution in a 2 h infusion every 12 h, days -5 and -4). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 1 year. Overall and complete response rates before autologous HSCT, duration of response, overall survival, and safety were the secondary endpoints. Analyses were in the modified intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with, NCT02329080. The trial ended after accrual completion; the database lock was Dec 31, 2019.

Findings: Between March 30, 2015, and Aug 3, 2018, 79 patients were enrolled. 75 patients were assessable. 319 (71%) of the 450 planned courses were delivered. At 1 year from enrolment the primary endpoint was met, 42 patients were progression free (progression-free survival 58%; 95% CI 55-61). 49 patients (65%; 95% CI 54-76) had an objective response after MATRix-RICE, 29 (39%) of whom had a complete response. 37 patients who responded had autologous HSCT. At the end of the programme, 46 patients (61%; 95% CI 51-71) had an objective response, with a median duration of objective response of 26 months (IQR 16-37). At a median follow-up of 29 months (IQR 20-40), 35 patients were progression-free and 33 were alive, with a 2-year overall survival of 46% (95% CI 39-53). Grade 3-4 toxicity was most commonly haematological: neutropenia in 46 (61%) of 75 patients, thrombocytopenia in 45 (60%), and anaemia in 26 (35%). 79 serious adverse events were recorded in 42 (56%) patients; four (5%) of those 79 were lethal due to sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacteria (treatment-related mortality 5%; 95% CI 0·07-9·93).

Interpretation: MATRix-RICE plus autologous HSCT was active in this population of patients with very poor prognosis, and had an acceptable toxicity profile.

Funding: Stand Up To Cancer Campaign for Cancer Research UK, the Swiss Cancer Research foundation, and the Swiss Cancer League.
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February 2021

Long-lasting efficacy and safety of lenalidomide maintenance in patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who are not eligible for or failed autologous transplantation.

Hematol Oncol 2020 Aug 5;38(3):257-265. Epub 2020 May 5.

Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

We report final results of a phase II trial addressing efficacy and feasibility of lenalidomide maintenance in patients with chemosensitive relapse of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) not eligible for or failed after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Patients with relapsed DLBCL who achieved at least a partial response to salvage chemoimmunotherapy were enrolled and treated with lenalidomide 25 mg/day for 21 of 28 days for 2 years or until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Primary endpoint was 1-year PFS. Forty-six of 48 enrolled patients were assessable. Most patients had IPI ≥2, advanced stage and extranodal disease before the salvage treatment that led to trial registration; 28 (61%) patients were older than 70 years. Lenalidomide was well tolerated. With the exception of neutropenia, grade-4 toxicities occurred in <1% of courses. Three patients died of complications during maintenance and three died due to second cancers at 32 to 64 months. There were 13 SAEs recorded in 12 patients; all these patients but two recovered. Lenalidomide was interrupted due to toxicity in other 6 patients, and 25 patients required dose reduction (transient in 21). At 1 year from registration, 31 patients were progression free. After a median follow-up of 65 (range 39-124) months, 22 patients remain progression free, with a 5-year PFS of 48% ± 7%. The duration of response to lenalidomide was longer than response to prior treatment in 30 (65%) patients. Benefit was observed both in de novo and transformed DLBCL, germinal-center-B-cell and nongerminal-center-B-cell subtypes. Twenty-six patients are alive (5-year OS 62% ± 7%). With the limitations of a nonrandomized design, these long-term results suggest that lenalidomide maintenance might bring benefit to patients with chemosensitive relapse of DLBCL not eligible for or failed after ASCT. Lenalidomide was associated with durable disease control and was well tolerated in this elderly population. Further investigations on immunomodulatory drugs as maintenance in these high-risk patients are warranted.
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August 2020

Lenalidomide maintenance in patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who are not eligible for autologous stem cell transplantation: an open label, single-arm, multicentre phase 2 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2017 Mar 17;4(3):e137-e146. Epub 2017 Feb 17.

Unit of Lymphoid Malignancies, Department of Onco-Hematology, Milan, Italy; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Pathology Unit, Milan, Italy; San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Background: Patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) not eligible for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) or having relapse after ASCT have a low likelihood of cure. Single-drug maintenance after salvage therapy might be an attractive strategy to prolong survival in these patients. Lenalidomide is a suitable candidate for long-lasting maintenance as it is an oral drug, active against DLBCL that can be taken for years with an acceptable toxicity profile. We designed a study to investigate safety and efficacy of lenalidomide maintenance in patients with chemosensitive relapse of DLBCL not eligible for ASCT or having relapse after ASCT.

Methods: In this open-label, single group, multicentre phase 2 trial, we recruited HIV-negative adults with de novo or transformed DLBCL and relapsed disease responsive to conventional rituximab-containing salvage therapy from 12 oncology-haematology centres in Italy. All patients were given oral lenalidomide 25 mg per day for 21 of 28 days until lymphoma progression or unacceptable toxicity (severely compromises organ function, quality of life, or both). Primary endpoint was 1-year progression-free survival. The estimated sample size was 47 patients; maintenance was deemed efficacious if at least 19 patients were progression-free survivors at 1 year. All enrolled patients were included in primary analyses, with the exception of patients who post-hoc objectively did not meet the eligibility criteria (modified intention-to-treat). This study is registered with registry, number NCT00799513.

Findings: Between March 24, 2009, and Dec 22, 2015, we recruited 48 patients. 46 of 48 enrolled patients were assessable (two patients had unconfirmed diagnoses). 36 (78%) of 46 patients had de novo DLBCL and ten (22%) of 46 patients had transformed DLBCL. At a median follow-up of 25 months (IQR 12-56), 556 lenalidomide courses had been delivered, with an average mean of 12 courses (range 3-41) per patient; 19 patients were still in treatment at a median follow-up of 25 months. Lenalidomide was well tolerated; with the exception of neutropenia, grade 3-4 toxicities were uncommon. We recorded ten severe adverse events in nine patients due to febrile neutropenia (n=4), diarrhoea (n=2), melena, stroke, vomiting, and intestinal infarction; all but one patient recovered, and six of these patients continued with lenalidomide treatment. The exception was the only death due to toxicity (intestinal infarction). At 1 year from trial registration, 28 patients were progression free, which was much higher than the predetermined efficacy threshold. During the whole observation period, 21 events occurred: progressive lymphoma in 19 patients, death due to toxicity in one, death while off therapy in one, 1-year progression-free survival was 70% (95% CI 57-83).

Interpretation: With the limitations of a non-randomised design, this trial supports the use of lenalidomide maintenance in patients with chemo-sensitive relapse of DLBCL who are not eligible for ASCT or who had relapse after ASCT. These results warrant further investigation of immunomodulatory drugs as maintenance in high-risk patients with DLBCL.

Funding: Celgene Corp.
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March 2017

Randomized Trial Comparing R-CHOP Versus High-Dose Sequential Chemotherapy in High-Risk Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas.

J Clin Oncol 2016 11 31;34(33):4015-4022. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

Sergio Cortelazzo, Atto Billio, Andrea Piccin, and Giovanni Negri, Ospedale Centrale di Bolzano, Bolzano; Corrado Tarella and Riccardo Bruna, Azienda Ospedaliera Ordine Mauriziano and University of Turin; Marco Ladetto and Manuela Zanni, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria (AOU) Città della Salute e della Scienza, Turin; Alessandro Massimo Gianni, Paolo Corradini, and Massimo Di Nicola, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, University of Milano; Andrés J.M. Ferreri, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute; Valentina Tabanelli and Stefano Pileri, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia; Alessandro Rambaldi, University of Milano, Milan; Anna Maria Barbui, Andrea Rossi, Giuseppe Gritti, Arianna Masciulli, Federica Delaini, Cristina Boschini, and Alessandro Rambaldi, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo; Caterina Patti and Antonino Mulé, Azienda Ospedali Riuniti Villa Sofia-Cervello, Palermo; Valerio Zoli, Ospedale San Camillo Forlanini, Rome; Claudia Castellino, Ospedale S. Croce e Carle, Cuneo; Francesco Di Raimondo, AOU Policlinico Vittorio Emanuele University of Catania, Catania; Fabio Benedetti, University of Verona; Marco Chilosi, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata Verona, Verona; Giorgio La Nasa, Ospedale Binaghi, Cagliari; Guido Gini, Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona; Livio Trentin, Azienda Ospedaliera-Università di Padova, Padua; Maurizio Frezzato, Ospedale San Bortolo, Vicenza; Leonardo Flenghi, Azienda Ospedaliera di Perugia, Perugia; and Simona Falorio, Ospedale Civile Spirito Santo, Pescara, Italy.

Purpose The benefit of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) as first-line treatment in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas is still a matter of debate. To address this point, we designed a randomized phase III trial to compare rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP)-14 (eight cycles) with rituximab plus high-dose sequential chemotherapy (R-HDS) with ASCT. Patients and Methods From June 2005 to June 2011, 246 high-risk patients with a high-intermediate (56%) or high (44%) International Prognostic Index score were randomly assigned to the R-CHOP or R-HDS arm, and 235 were analyzed by intent to treat. The primary efficacy end point of the study was 3-year event-free survival, and results were analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis. Results Clinical response (complete response, 78% v 76%; partial response, 5% v 9%) and failures (no response, 15% v 11%; and early treatment-related mortality, 2% v 3%) were similar after R-CHOP versus R-HDS, respectively. After a median follow-up of 5 years, the 3-year event-free survival was 62% versus 65% ( P = .83). At 3 years, compared with the R-CHOP arm, the R-HDS arm had better disease-free survival (79% v 91%, respectively; P = .034), but this subsequently vanished because of late-occurring treatment-related deaths. No difference was detected in terms of progression-free survival (65% v 75%, respectively; P = .12), or overall survival (74% v 77%, respectively; P = .64). Significantly higher hematologic toxicity ( P < .001) and more infectious complications ( P < .001) were observed in the R-HDS arm. Conclusion In this study, front-line intensive R-HDS chemotherapy with ASCT did not improve the outcome of high-risk patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.
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November 2016

Salvage chemoimmunotherapy with rituximab, ifosfamide and etoposide (R-IE regimen) in patients with primary CNS lymphoma relapsed or refractory to high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy.

Hematol Oncol 2013 Sep 14;31(3):143-50. Epub 2012 Nov 14.

Unit of Lymphoid Malignancies, Division of Onco-Hematological Medicine, Department of Onco-Hematology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Despite a high proportion of patients with primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) experiences failure after/during first-line treatment, a few studies focused on salvage therapy are available, often with disappointing results. Herein, we report feasibility and activity of a combination of rituximab, ifosfamide and etoposide (R-IE regimen) in a multicentre series of patients with PCNSL relapsed or refractory to high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy. We considered consecutive HIV-negative patients ≤75 years old with failed PCNSL treated with R-IE regimen (rituximab 375 mg/m(2) , day 0; ifosfamide 2 g/m(2) /day, days1-3; etoposide 250 mg/m(2) , day 1; four courses). Twenty-two patients (median age 60 years; range 39-72; male/female ratio: 1:4) received R-IE as second-line (n = 18) or third-line (n = 4) treatment. Eleven patients had refractory PCNSL, and 11 had relapsing disease. Twelve patients had been previously irradiated. Sixty (68%) of the 88 planned courses were actually delivered; only one patient interrupted R-IE because of toxicity. Grade 4 hematological toxicity was manageable; a single case of grade 4 non-hematological toxicity (transient hepatotoxicity) was recorded. Response was complete in six patients and partial in three (overall response rate = 41%; 95%CI: 21-61%). Seven patients were successfully referred to autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection; four responders were consolidated with high-dose chemotherapy supported by autologous stem cell transplant. At a median follow-up of 24 months, eight responders did not experience relapse, two of them died of neurological impairment while in remission. Six patients are alive, with a 2-year survival after relapse of 25 ± 9%. We concluded that R-IE is a feasible and active combination for patients with relapsed/refractory PCNSL. This regimen allows stem cell collection and successful consolidation with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous transplant.
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September 2013

Identical IGHV-D-J gene rearrangement may precede the clinical onset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia by several years.

Am J Hematol 2010 Nov;85(11):868-71

Department of Cell Therapy and Hematology, S. Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.

The pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has not been fully elucidated. Moreover, the time required for the initial B lymphocyte IGH gene rearranged clone to manifest as a clinical entity remains unknown. We searched for previous IGH gene rearranged B lymphocyte clones in healthy people who developed CLL and estimated the time for the clone to become clinically detectable. To this aim, we identified all incident cases of CLL diagnosed in a cohort of 15,055 healthy subjects aged 18-65 years enrolled in a prospective survey on thrombophilia. Seven CLL cases were identified at a median follow-up of 54 months (range, 18-89). The estimated incidence was 0.46 cases/10,000 person-years (CI: 0.17-1.00). A PCR was performed to detect IGH gene rearrangement at enrollment and at CLL diagnosis. Comparison was possible in six subjects. In five, the same IGH gene rearrangement and gene sequence were already present 39-89 months before CLL diagnosis. A mutated status was identified in four of five cases. The median age at diagnosis was 66.2 years, and all subjects were asymptomatic. Two patients expressing the IGHV1-69 gene with an unmutated status required treatment 16 and 40 months after diagnosis. The IGHV4 family genes were rearranged in the remaining cases, all showing a mutated status. No additional rearrangements or mutations in the rearranged gene were found during follow-up. An identical clonal IGH gene rearrangement may precede CLL diagnosis by several years.
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November 2010

High-dose cytarabine plus high-dose methotrexate versus high-dose methotrexate alone in patients with primary CNS lymphoma: a randomised phase 2 trial.

Lancet 2009 Oct 18;374(9700):1512-20. Epub 2009 Sep 18.

Unit of Lymphoid Malignancies, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Background: Chemotherapy with high-dose methotrexate is the conventional approach to treat primary CNS lymphomas, but superiority of polychemotherapy compared with high-dose methotrexate alone is unproven. We assessed the effect of adding high-dose cytarabine to methotrexate in patients with newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma.

Methods: This open, randomised, phase 2 trial was undertaken in 24 centres in six countries. 79 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma exclusively localised into the CNS, cranial nerves, or eyes, aged 18-75 years, and with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 3 or lower and measurable disease were centrally randomly assigned by computer to receive four courses of either methotrexate 3.5 g/m(2) on day 1 (n=40) or methotrexate 3.5 g/m(2) on day 1 plus cytarabine 2 g/m(2) twice a day on days 2-3 (n=39). Both regimens were administered every 3 weeks and were followed by whole-brain irradiation. The primary endpoint was complete remission rate after chemotherapy. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with, number NCT00210314.

Findings: All randomly assigned participants were analysed. After chemotherapy, seven patients given methotrexate and 18 given methotrexate plus cytarabine achieved a complete remission, with a complete remission rate of 18% (95% CI 6-30) and 46% (31-61), respectively, (p=0.006). Nine patients receiving methotrexate and nine receiving methotrexate plus cytarabine achieved a partial response, with an overall response rate of 40% (25-55) and 69% (55-83), respectively, (p=0.009). Grade 3-4 haematological toxicity was more common in the methotrexate plus cytarabine group than in the methotrexate group (36 [92%] vs six [15%]). Four patients died of toxic effects (three vs one).

Interpretation: In patients aged 75 years and younger with primary CNS lymphoma, the addition of high-dose cytarabine to high-dose methotrexate provides improved outcome with acceptable toxicity compared with high-dose methotrexate alone.

Funding: Swiss Cancer League.
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October 2009

Nongastric marginal-zone B-cell MALT lymphoma: prognostic value of disease dissemination.

Oncologist 2006 Mar;11(3):285-91

Division of Hematology, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, Viale Golgi 19, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and define the prognostic significance of disease dissemination in a large series of nongastric marginal-zone B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. We studied 208 patients with nongastric marginal-zone B-cell MALT lymphoma diagnosed and treated from 1991 to 2004. Ninety percent of the patients had a single site of MALT involvement--skin (26%), salivary glands (18%), orbit (14%), Waldeyer's ring (13%)--and 39% and 28% had nodal involvement and bone marrow involvement, respectively. After a median follow-up of 2.7 years, the median event-free survival (EFS) time was 2.4 years, and the median overall survival (OS) time was not reached. On univariate analysis, the features significantly associated with longer EFS and OS times were the following: single MALT site involvement (OS), localized disease (EFS and OS), no nodal disease (EFS and OS), skin and orbit lymphoma (OS), and stage IV disease without bone marrow involvement (OS). On multivariate analysis, both bone marrow and nodal involvement were associated with shorter OS. This study describes the clinical features and the natural history of nongastric marginal-zone lymphomas and highlights that the dissemination to lymph nodes and bone marrow is associated with a poorer outcome.
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March 2006

Splenic marginal zone lymphoma: a prognostic model for clinical use.

Blood 2006 Jun 21;107(12):4643-9. Epub 2006 Feb 21.

Division of Hematology, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The Integruppo Italiano Linfomi (IIL) carried out a study to assess the outcomes of splenic marginal zone lymphoma and to identify prognostic factors in 309 patients. The 5-year cause-specific survival (CSS) rate was 76%. In univariate analysis, the parameters predictive of shorter CSS were hemoglobin levels below 12 g/dL (P < .001), albumin levels below 3.5 g/dL (P = .001), International Prognostic Index (IPI) scores of 2 to 3 (P < .001), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels above normal (P < .001), age older than 60 years (P = .01), platelet counts below 100,000/microL (P = .04), HbsAg-positivity (P = .01), and no splenectomy at diagnosis (P = .006). Values that maintained a negative influence on CSS in multivariate analysis were hemoglobin level less than 12 g/dL, LDH level greater than normal, and albumin level less than 3.5 g/dL. Using these 3 variables, we grouped patients into 3 prognostic categories: low-risk group (41%) with no adverse factors, intermediate-risk group (34%) with one adverse factor, and high-risk group (25%) with 2 or 3 adverse factors. The 5-year CSS rate was 88% for the low-risk group, 73% for the intermediate-risk group, and 50% for the high-risk group. The cause-specific mortality rate (x 1000 person-years) was 20 for the low-risk group, 47 for the intermediate-risk group, and 174 for the high-risk group. This latter group accounted for 54% of all lymphoma-related deaths. In conclusion, with the use of readily available factors, this prognostic index may be an effective tool for evaluating the need for treatment and the intensity of therapy in an individual patient.
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June 2006

The rate of progression to polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia in patients with erythrocytosis or thrombocytosis.

Ann Intern Med 2003 Sep;139(6):470-5

S. Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.

Background: The clinical relevance of mild erythrocytosis (hematocrit > 0.48 in women or > 0.51 in men) or thrombocytosis (platelet count > 400 x 10(9) cells/L) in asymptomatic persons is uncertain.

Objective: To estimate the frequency of polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia in persons with erythrocytosis or thrombocytosis in a general population.

Design: Cohort study.

Setting: Vicenza, Italy.

Participants: 10 000 community dwellers age 18 to 65 years and enrolled in the Vicenza Thrombophilia and Atherosclerosis project.

Measurements: Platelet count and hematocrit at baseline in all participants and at second follow-up if baseline results were abnormal. Measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, peripheral arterial saturation, serum erythropoietin level, and leukocyte alkaline phosphatase level; chest radiography; abdominal ultrasonography; and occult fecal blood testing were done in persons with confirmed high hematocrit or platelet counts. Polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia were diagnosed according to the Polycythemia Study Group criteria.

Results: At baseline examination, 1 person had polycythemia vera, 1 had essential thrombocythemia, 88 had erythrocytosis, and 99 had thrombocytosis. Second examination confirmed erythrocytosis in 40% (95% CI, 29% to 51%) and thrombocytosis in 8% (CI, 4% to 15%) of those with abnormal baseline results. Among persons with confirmed abnormalities, further evaluation revealed 11 with idiopathic erythrocytosis, 2 with polycythemia vera (3/10 000 [CI, 0.6 to 8.7/10 000]), and 3 with essential thrombocythemia (4/10 000 [CI, 1.09 to 10.2/10 000]). After 5 years of follow-up, 1 additional person with a high platelet count developed essential thrombocythemia, and no persons developed hemorrhagic or thrombotic complications.

Conclusions: The prevalences of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia were higher than expected in this general population. However, the risks for developing polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, or associated vascular complications in persons with erythrocytosis or thrombocytosis were low.
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September 2003