Publications by authors named "Mauricette Michallet"

240 Publications

Patterns of Sequelae in Women with a History of Localized Breast Cancer: Results from the French VICAN Survey.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 8;13(5). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department Prevention, Cancer, Environment, Léon Bérard Cancer Center, 69008 Lyon, France.

Breast cancer (BC) remains complex for women both physically and psychologically. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess the evolution of the main sequelae and treatment two and five years after diagnosis in women with early-stage breast cancer, (2) explore patterns of sequelae associated with given sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors. The current analysis was based on 654 localized BC patients enrolled in the French nationwide longitudinal survey "vie après cancer" VICAN (January-June 2010). Information about study participants was collected at enrollment, two and five years after diagnosis. Changes over time of the main sequelae were analyzed and latent class analysis was performed to identify patterns of sequelae related to BC five years after diagnosis. The mean age (±SD) of study participants at inclusion was 49.7 (±10.5) years old. Six main classes of sequelae were identified two years and five years post-diagnosis (functional, pain, esthetic, fatigue, psychological, and gynecological). A significant decrease was observed for fatigue ( = 0.03) and an increase in cognitive sequelae was reported ( = 0.03). Two latent classes were identified-functional and esthetic patterns. Substantial sequelae remain up to five years after BC diagnosis. Changes in patient care pathways are needed to identify BC patients at a high risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13051161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962808PMC
March 2021

Treating secondary antibody deficiency in patients with haematological malignancy: European expert consensus.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Apr 2;106(4):439-449. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Département de Recherche Clinique, Avicenne Hospital, Sorbonne Paris Nord University, Bobigny, France.

Objectives: Secondary antibody deficiency (SAD), associated with severe, recurrent or persistent infections, is common in patients with haematological malignancies (HM), but unifying guidance on immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT) in these patients is lacking. We aimed to develop consensus statements for the use of IgRT in patients with HM.

Methods: A Delphi exercise was employed to test the level of agreement on statements developed by a Task Force based on available data and their clinical experience. In Round 1, an Expert Panel, comprising specialist EU physicians caring for patients with HM, helped to refine the statements. In Round 2, experts rated their agreement with the statements. In Round 3, experts who had scored their agreement as ≤4 were invited to review their agreement based on the overall feedback.

Results: Three definitions and 20 statements were formulated and tested for consensus, covering measurement of IgG levels, initiation and discontinuation of IgRT, dosing, and the use of subcutaneous IgG. Consensus (agreement ≥70% on Likert-type scale) was reached for all three definitions and 18 statements.

Conclusions: Recommendations have been developed with the aim of providing guidance for the use of IgRT to prevent severe, recurrent or persistent infections in patients with HM and SAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13580DOI Listing
April 2021

Outcomes of Antifungal Prophylaxis in High-Risk Haematological Patients (AML under Intensive Chemotherapy): The SAPHIR Prospective Multicentre Study.

J Fungi (Basel) 2020 Nov 12;6(4). Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Blood Diseases Department, Hospital Group Haut Leveque, Avenue de Magellan, 33604 Pessac, France.

Antifungal prophylaxis (AFP) is recommended by international guidelines for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) undergoing induction chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Nonetheless, treatment of breakthrough fungal infections remains challenging. This observational, prospective, multicentre, non-comparative study of patients undergoing myelosuppressive and intensive chemotherapy for AML who are at high-risk of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs), describes AFP management and outcomes for 404 patients (65.6% newly diagnosed and 73.3% chemotherapy naïve). Ongoing chemotherapy started 1.0 ± 4.5 days before inclusion and represented induction therapy for 79% of participants. In 92.3% of patients, posaconazole was initially prescribed, and 8.2% of all patients underwent at least one treatment change after 17 ± 24 days, mainly due to medical conditions influencing AFP absorption (65%). The mean AFP period was 24 ± 32 days, 66.8% stopped their prophylaxis after the high-risk period and 31.2% switched to a non-prophylactic treatment (2/3 empirical, 1/3 pre-emptive/curative). Overall, 9/404 patients (2.2%) were diagnosed with probable or proven IFDs. During the follow-up, 94.3% showed no signs of infection. Altogether, 20 patients (5%) died, and three deaths (0.7%) were IFD-related. In conclusion, AFP was frequently prescribed and well tolerated by these AML patients, breakthrough infections incidence and IFD mortality were low and very few treatment changes were required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof6040281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712136PMC
November 2020

Treatment patterns and clinical outcomes of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic-phase CML in clinical practice: 3-year European SIMPLICITY data.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Jan 9;106(1):82-89. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

John Theurer Cancer Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ, USA.

Objectives: SIMPLICITY (NCT01244750) is an observational study of patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) in routine clinical practice receiving first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We evaluated TKI treatment changes and how switching affects clinical response in patients recruited in Europe with ≥3 years of follow-up.

Methods: The SIMPLICITY European cohort (France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Russia, and Spain) included 431 patients. 370 (86%) were followed for ≥3 years.

Results: Proportions of patients experiencing treatment interruptions, TKI switching, and discontinuations decreased over 3 years' follow-up. Intolerance was a key driver for treatment changes. Complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) was achieved in 87.5% of patients switching TKI within 3 years of initiation vs 91.7% of non-switchers. Major molecular response (MMR) was achieved in 82.4% of switchers vs 92.9% of non-switchers. Over 3 years, not switching TKI was a strong predictor for achieving CCyR or MMR (both P < .05). Three-year survival remained high, irrespective of treatment changes (95.3% switchers, 96.4% non-switchers).

Conclusions: European patients with CP-CML who do not switch TKI are more likely to achieve clinical response, while intolerance is a key driver for switching. Successful CML management may require careful selection of initial TKI, with early monitoring of response and intolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7756290PMC
January 2021

Antifungal Stewardship in Hematology: Reflection of a Multidisciplinary Group of Experts.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Jan 18;21(1):35-45. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Strasbourg University Hospitals and Strasbourg University, Strasbourg, France.

We have presented a practical guide developed by a working group of experts in infectious diseases and hematology to summarize the different recommendations issued by the different international groups on antifungal agents used for hematology patients. In addition, a working group of experts in the domains of nephrology, hepatology, and drug interactions have reported their different recommendations when administering antifungal agents, including dose adjustments, monitoring, and management of their side effects. This guide will enable prescribers to have a document available that will allow for better and optimal use of antifungal agents for hematology patients with consideration of the toxicity and interactions adjusted to each indication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2020.08.010DOI Listing
January 2021

A personalized approach to guide allogeneic stem cell transplantation in younger adults with acute myeloid leukemia.

Blood 2021 Jan;137(4):524-532

Université de Paris, Génomes, Biologie Cellulaire et Thérapeutique U944, INSERM, CNRS, Paris, France.

A multistage model instructed by a large dataset (knowledge bank [KB] algorithm) has recently been developed to improve outcome predictions and tailor therapeutic decisions, including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We assessed the performance of the KB in guiding HSCT decisions in first complete remission (CR1) in 656 AML patients younger than 60 years from the ALFA-0702 trial (NCT00932412). KB predictions of overall survival (OS) were superior to those of European LeukemiaNet (ELN) 2017 risk stratification (C-index, 68.9 vs 63.0). Among patients reaching CR1, HSCT in CR1, as a time-dependent covariate, was detrimental in those with favorable ELN 2017 risk and those with negative NPM1 minimal residual disease (MRD; interaction tests, P = .01 and P = .02, respectively). Using KB simulations of survival at 5 years in a scenario without HSCT in CR1 (KB score), we identified, in a similar time-dependent analysis, a significant interaction between KB score and HSCT, with HSCT in CR1 being detrimental only in patients with a good prognosis based on KB simulations (KB score ≥40; interaction test, P = .01). We could finally integrate ELN 2017, NPM1 MRD, and KB scores to sort 545 CR1 patients into 278 (51.0%) HSCT candidates and 267 (49.0%) chemotherapy-only candidates. In both time-dependent and 6-month landmark analyses, HSCT significantly improved OS in HSCT candidates, whereas it significantly shortened OS in chemotherapy-only candidates. Integrating KB predictions with ELN 2017 and MRD may thus represent a promising approach to optimize HSCT timing in younger AML patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020005524DOI Listing
January 2021

Reduced-Intensity versus Myeloablative Conditioning in Cord Blood Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia (40-60 years) across Highly Mismatched HLA Barriers-On Behalf of Eurocord and the Cellular Therapy & Immunobiology Working Party (CTIWP) of EBMT.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 11 26;26(11):2098-2104. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Eurocord, Hopital Saint Louis-EA3518, Paris, France; Haematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

The use of myeloablative conditioning (MAC) in umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) has been associated with high nonrelapse mortality (NRM) in patients aged >40 years, especially those having a high HLA disparity, thus limiting wider applications. We hypothesized that the NRM advantage of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and higher graft-versus-leukemia effect associated with greater HLA disparities would expand its use for patients (aged 40 to 60 years) without compromising efficacy and compared outcomes between RIC and MAC regimens. In total, 288 patients aged 40 to 60 years, with de novo acute myeloid leukemia, receiving UCBT with at least 2 HLA mismatches with RIC (n = 166) or MAC (n = 122) regimens were included. As compared to RIC, the MAC cohort included relatively younger patients, having received more single UCBT, with lower total nucleated cell counts and more in vivo T cell depletion. Median time to neutrophil engraftment, infections (bacterial, viral, and fungal), and grade II to IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were similar in both groups. In the multivariate analysis, overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.98; P = .9), NRM (HR, 0.68; P = .2), and relapse (HR, 1.24; P = .5) were not different between RIC and MAC. Refractory disease was associated with worse survival. Outcomes of UBCT for patients aged 40 to 60 years having ≥2 HLA mismatches are comparable after the RIC or MAC regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.07.025DOI Listing
November 2020

Added prognostic value of secondary AML-like gene mutations in ELN intermediate-risk older AML: ALFA-1200 study results.

Blood Adv 2020 05;4(9):1942-1949

Department of Hematology, Saint-Louis Institute for Research, Université de Paris, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

In this study, we aimed to refine prognostication of older with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after intensive chemotherapy. Five hundred and nine patients aged 60 years or older (median age, 68 years) were prospectively enrolled in the intensive Acute Leukemia French Association (ALFA)-1200 trial between 2012 and 2016, and 471 patient samples were submitted to multigene analysis. Mutations in any of 8 genes frequently altered in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), including ASXL1, SRSF2, STAG2, BCOR, U2AF1, EZH2, SF3B1, and ZRSR2, defined a secondary AML (sAML)-like disease, as reported. Of the samples analyzed, 48% included sAML-like gene mutations. These mutations were associated with a shorter event-free survival, both overall (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.79; P < .001) and within the European LeukemiaNet (ELN)-2017 intermediate-risk subgroup (hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-2.28; P = .044), which excludes ASXL1-mutated cases by definition. We therefore included patients with intermediate-risk AML carrying sAML-like mutations in a single high-risk patients group together with adverse-risk patients with AML, whereas other intermediate-risk patients were included in a standard-risk group together with favorable-risk patients (high-risk/standard-risk patient ratio, 1.00). Using this 2-class risk assessment, we observed that transplantation prolonged overall survival from remission in patients with high-risk AML only, not in patients with standard-risk AML. Routine analysis of sAML-like gene mutations may thus improve the definition of high-risk older patients with AML, and better identify the half of older patients who clearly derive survival benefit from allogeneic transplantation in first remission. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01966497.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218423PMC
May 2020

Compatibility at amino acid position 98 of MICB reduces the incidence of graft-versus-host disease in conjunction with the CMV status.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 07 14;55(7):1367-1378. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Laboratoire d'ImmunoRhumatologie Moléculaire, INSERM UMR_S1109, Plateforme GENOMAX, Faculté de Médecine, Fédération Hospitalo-Universitaire OMICARE, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg (FMTS), Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related complications are leading causes of mortality after unrelated-donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (UD-HCT). The non-conventional MHC class I gene MICB, alike MICA, encodes a stress-induced polymorphic NKG2D ligand. However, unlike MICA, MICB interacts with the CMV-encoded UL16, which sequestrates MICB intracellularly, leading to immune evasion. Here, we retrospectively analyzed the impact of mismatches in MICB amino acid position 98 (MICB98), a key polymorphic residue involved in UL16 binding, in 943 UD-HCT pairs who were allele-matched at HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and MICA loci. HLA-DP typing was further available. MICB98 mismatches were significantly associated with an increased incidence of acute (grade II-IV: HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.24; P < 0.001; grade III-IV: HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.56 to 3.34; P < 0.001) and chronic GVHD (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.33; P < 0.001). MICB98 matching significantly reduced the effect of CMV status on overall mortality from a hazard ratio of 1.77 to 1.16. MICB98 mismatches showed a GVHD-independent association with a higher incidence of CMV infection/reactivation (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.51; P < 0.001). Hence selecting a MICB98-matched donor significantly reduces the GVHD incidence and lowers the impact of CMV status on overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0886-5DOI Listing
July 2020

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in AML with t(6;9)(p23;q34);DEK-NUP214 shows a favourable outcome when performed in first complete remission.

Br J Haematol 2020 06 5;189(5):920-925. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

EBMT Paris Study Office, Department of Hematology and Cell Therapy, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Paris, France.

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) with t(6;9)(p23;q34) is a poor-risk entity, commonly associated with FLT3-ITD (internal tandem duplication). Allogeneic stem-cell tranplantation (allo-SCT) is recommended, although studies analysing the outcome of allo-SCT in this setting are lacking. We selected 195 patients with t(6;9) AML, who received a first allo-SCT between 2000 and 2016 from the EBMT (European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation) registry. Disease status at time of allo-SCT was the strongest independent prognostic factor, with a two-year leukaemia-free survival and relapse incidence of 57% and 19% in patients in CR1 (first complete remission), 34% and 33% in CR2 (second complete remission), and 24% and 49% in patients not in remission, respectively (P < 0·001). This study, which represents the largest one available in t(6;9) AML, supports the recommendation to submit these patients to allo-SCT in CR1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16433DOI Listing
June 2020

Conditioning-based outcomes after allogeneic transplantation for myeloma following a prior autologous transplant (1991-2012) on behalf of EBMT CMWP.

Eur J Haematol 2020 Mar 25;104(3):181-189. Epub 2019 Dec 25.

University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the intensity of conditioning approaches used in allogeneic transplantation in myeloma-reduced intensity conditioning (RIC), non-myeloablative (NMA), myeloablative conditioning (MAC) or Auto-AlloHCT-on outcomes in patients who had had a prior autologous transplant.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of the EBMT database (1991-2012) was performed.

Results: A total of 344 patients aged between 40 and 60 years at the time of alloHCT were identified: 169 RIC, 69 NMA, 65 MAC and 41 Auto-Allo transplants. At a median follow-up of 54 months, the probabilities of overall survival (OS) at 5 years were 39% (95% CI 31%-47%), 45% (95% CI 32%-57%), 19% (95% CI 6%-32%) and 34% (95% CI 17%-51%), respectively. Status at allogeneic HCT other than CR or PR conferred a 70% higher risk of death and a 40% higher risk of relapse. OS was markedly lower in the MAC group (P = .004). MAC alloHCT was associated with a higher risk of death than RIC alloHCT until 2002 (HR = 4.1, P < .001) but not after 2002 (HR = 1.2, P = .276).

Conclusion: From 1991 to 2002, MAC was associated with poorer OS. Between 2003 and 2012, there were no significant differences in outcomes based on these different approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13352DOI Listing
March 2020

Ibrutinib as a salvage therapy after allogeneic HCT for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 05 7;55(5):884-890. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Hematology, University Hospital Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

The purpose of our study is to provide information on safety and efficacy of ibrutinib as salvage treatment after allo-HSCT for CLL. A total of 56 patients were included, 36 (64%) males; median age at transplantation was 48 years (range: 35-64) and the median number of treatment lines prior to transplantation was 3 (1-10). The median time between allo-HSCT and Ibrutinib was 30 months (range: 1-140). Overall, 40 (71%) patients responded to Ibrutinib; 23 (41%) PR, and 17 (30%) CR. At time of ibrutinib initiation, ten patients had active chronic GVHD that resolved under Ibrutinib, whilst a single patient developed limited de novo chronic GVHD on Ibrutinib. Fourteen patients discontinued ibrutinib, four because of toxicity and ten because of disease progression. Overall, 14 patients progressed (median PFS = 24 months) among them 10 died. Two-year OS and PFS probabilities were 72% (95% CI: 52-84) and 50% (95% CI: 32-66), respectively. Patients with late relapse after allo-HSCT (≥24 months) had a better PFS after ibrutinib. Our study shows that ibrutinib can be safely administered for CLL relapse after allo-HSCT, with comparable efficacy to non-transplanted patients with high-risk disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0742-7DOI Listing
May 2020

Role of Age and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index in Myelodysplastic Patients Undergoing an Allotransplant: A Retrospective Study from the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 03 21;26(3):451-457. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Hopital St. Louis, Paris, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only potentially curative option for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) but is severely limited by nonrelapse mortality (NRM), especially in this mostly older population. Comorbidity assessment is crucial to predict NRM and often assessed with the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI). Moreover, the impact of age on NRM still remains a matter of debate. In recent years, the age at which transplants are made has been progressively increasing, and patients with comorbidities have become more common. Extricating the respective roles of age and comorbidities in toxic mortality is all the more important. This study by the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry included 1245 adult patients who underwent a first allogeneic stem cell transplantation for MDSs between 2003 and 2014. Overall, 4-year NRM and overall survival were 32% and 47%, respectively. When considered as continuous predictors, HCT-CI score and age were associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for NRM. In multivariate analysis, age band (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.25; P= .016), HCT-CI ≥3 (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.73; P = .022), and Karnofsky Performance Status ≤80 (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.52 to 2.73; P< .0001) were significantly predictive of a worse NRM. In our large cohort, both comorbidities, evaluated by the original HCT-CI score, and chronological age significantly affected NRM. Thus, age should be part of the transplant decision-making process and should be integrated in future scoring systems predicting outcomes of HSCT in MDSs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.10.015DOI Listing
March 2020

Treosulfan or busulfan plus fludarabine as conditioning treatment before allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation for older patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MC-FludT.14/L): a randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Jan 9;7(1):e28-e39. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Department of Haematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; Faculty of Medicine, University of Rzeszow, Rzeszow, Poland.

Background: Further improvement of preparative regimens before allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an unmet medical need for the growing number of older or comorbid patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of conditioning with treosulfan plus fludarabine compared with reduced-intensity busulfan plus fludarabine in this population.

Methods: We did an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial in 31 transplantation centres in France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Poland. Eligible patients were 18-70 years, had acute myeloid leukaemia in first or consecutive complete haematological remission (blast counts <5% in bone marrow) or myelodysplastic syndrome (blast counts <20% in bone marrow), Karnofsky index of 60% or higher, and were indicated for allogeneic HSCT but considered at an increased risk for standard myeloablative preparative regimens based on age (≥50 years), an HSCT-specific comorbidity index of more than 2, or both. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either intravenous 10 g/m treosulfan daily applied as a 2-h infusion for 3 days (days -4 to -2) or 0·8 mg/kg busulfan applied as a 2-h infusion at 6-h intervals on days -4 and -3. Both groups received 30 mg/m intravenous fludarabine daily for 5 days (days -6 to -2). The primary outcome was event-free survival 2 years after HSCT. The non-inferiority margin was a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·3. Efficacy was assessed in all patients who received treatment and completed transplantation, and safety in all patients who received treatment. The study is registered with EudraCT (2008-002356-18) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00822393).

Findings: Between June 13, 2013, and May 3, 2016, 476 patients were enrolled (240 in the busulfan group received treatment and transplantation, and in the treosulfan group 221 received treatment and 220 transplanation). At the second preplanned interim analysis (Nov 9, 2016), the primary endpoint was met and trial was stopped. Here we present the final confirmatory analysis (data cutoff May 31, 2017). Median follow-up was 15·4 months (IQR 8·8-23·6) for patients treated with treosulfan and 17·4 months (6·3-23·4) for those treated with busulfan. 2-year event-free survival was 64·0% (95% CI 56·0-70·9) in the treosulfan group and 50·4% (42·8-57·5) in the busulfan group (HR 0·65 [95% CI 0·47-0·90]; p<0·0001 for non-inferiority, p=0·0051 for superiority). The most frequently reported grade 3 or higher adverse events were abnormal blood chemistry results (33 [15%] of 221 patients in the treosulfan group vs 35 [15%] of 240 patients in the busulfan group) and gastrointestinal disorders (24 [11%] patients vs 39 [16%] patients). Serious adverse events were reported for 18 (8%) patients in the treosulfan group and 17 (7%) patients in the busulfan group. Causes of deaths were generally transplantation-related.

Interpretation: Treosulfan was non-inferior to busulfan when used in combination with fludarabine as a conditioning regimen for allogeneic HSCT for older or comorbid patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. The improved outcomes in patients treated with the treosulfan-fludarabine regimen suggest its potential to become a standard preparative regimen in this population.

Funding: medac GmbH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30157-7DOI Listing
January 2020

Reduced intensity conditioning regimens including alkylating chemotherapy do not alter survival outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia compared to low-intensity non-myeloablative conditioning.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2019 Nov 29;145(11):2823-2834. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Medical Department I, University Hospital Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.

Purpose: The optimal dose intensity for conditioning prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is unknown.

Methods: We retrospectively compared outcomes of patients who received a first alloHCST after non-myeloablative (NMA) and reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). Data of 432 patients with a median age of 55 years were included, of which 86 patients underwent NMA and 346 RIC.

Results: The median follow-up after alloHSCT was 4.3 years. Compared to the RIC group, more NMA patients had purine-analog-sensitive disease, were in complete remission and received matched related donor transplantation. After RIC, the probabilities for 5-year OS, EFS, CIR, and NRM were 46%, 38%, 28%, and 35% and after NMA the respective probabilities were 52%, 43%, 25%, and 32%. In multivariate analysis, remission status prior to conditioning but not RIC versus NMA conditioning had a significant impact on CIR, EFS, and OS.

Conclusion: Presumed higher anti-leukemic activity of RIC versus NMA conditioning did not translate into better outcomes after alloHSCT, but better remission status prior to conditioning did. Effective pathway inhibitor-based salvage therapies combined with NMA conditioning might thus represent the most attractive contemporary approach for alloHSCT for patients with CLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-019-03014-xDOI Listing
November 2019

Myeloablative Unrelated Cord Blood Transplantation in Adolescents and Young Adults with Acute Leukemia.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 12 5;25(12):2438-2446. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Eurocord, Hôpital Saint Louis, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université de Paris, Paris, France; Monacord, Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Principauté de Monaco, Monaco. Electronic address:

Outcomes for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with leukemia differ from other age groups and are still under-represented in clinical research. The aim of this study was to analyze outcomes of umbilical cord blood transplant (UCBT) in AYAs with acute leukemia reported to Eurocord/European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Patients (N = 504) had acute lymphoblastic (59%) or myeloid leukemia (41%), were aged 15 to 25 years, and received UCBT after myeloablative conditioning regimens between 2004 and 2016. The primary endpoint was 3-year overall survival (OS). Median follow-up was 3.9 years. Transplant was single in 58% and double UCBT in 42%. Three-year OS was 45% and leukemia free survival (LFS) was 41%. Cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and relapse were 31% and 28%, respectively. CIF of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades II to IV at day 100 was 28%. Three-year CIF of chronic GVHD was 25%. In adjusted analysis, better disease status at UCBT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.74; P < .001) and more recent UCBT (HR, 1.43; P = .01) were associated with increased OS, and a similar effect of these factors was observed on LFS. Contrastingly, the use of antithymocyte globulin had a negative effect in LFS. The risk of acute GVHD grades II to IV increased with the use of double UCBT (HR, 1.65; P  = .02) and decreased with more recent transplant period (HR, .65; P = .02) and antithymocyte globulin use (HR, .55; P  = .01). Outcomes of AYA UCBT improved in more recent years, becoming comparable with pediatric results. Demonstrating the feasibility of UCBT in AYAs facilitates stem cell source selection and provides the basis for future prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.07.031DOI Listing
December 2019

Prognostic impact of EBV serostatus in patients with lymphomas or chronic malignancies undergoing allogeneic HCT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 12 30;54(12):2060-2071. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Ospedale Donna Bambino, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata, Verona, Italy.

The influence of the donor (D) and recipient (R) pre-transplant Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) serostatus on transplant outcomes (overall survival, relapse-free survival, relapse incidence, non-relapse mortality, acute and chronic GVHD) in 12,931 patients with lymphomas or chronic malignancies undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) between 1997-2016 was analyzed. In multivariate analysis, the risk of development of chronic GVHD was increased for EBV R+/D+ (HR = 1.26; p = 0.003), R+/D- (HR = 1.21; p = 0.044), and R-/D + (HR = 1.21; p = 0.048) in comparison to R-/D- transplants. No significance was shown for other transplant outcomes; however, in univariate analysis, EBV-seropositive patients receiving grafts from EBV-seropositive donors (EBV R+/D+transplants) had inferior transplant outcomes in comparison to EBV-seronegative recipients of grafts from EBV-seronegative donors (EBV R-/D-): inferior overall survival (59.6% vs 65.9%), inferior relapse-free survival (51.1% vs 57.5%), increased incidence of chronic GVHD (49.5% vs 41.8%), and increased incidence of de novo chronic GVHD (30.5% vs 24.0%). In conclusion, an EBV-negative recipient with lymphoma or chronic malignancy can benefit from selection of an EBV-negative donor in context of chronic GVHD, while there are no preferences in donor EBV serostatus for EBV-seropositive recipient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0627-9DOI Listing
December 2019

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation using HLA-matched donors for acute myeloid leukemia with deletion 5q or monosomy 5: a study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT.

Haematologica 2020 31;105(2):414-423. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT.

Deletion 5q or monosomy 5 (-5/5q-) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a common high-risk feature that is referred to allogeneic stem cell transplantation. However, -5/5q- is frequently associated with other high-risk cytogenetic aberrations such as complex karyotype, monosomal karyotype, monosomy 7 (-7), or 17p abnormalities (abn (17p)), the significance of which is unknown. In order to address this question, we studied adult patients with AML harboring -5/5q- having their first allogeneic transplantation between 2000 and 2015. Five hundred and one patients with -5/5q- have been analyzed. Three hundred and thirty-eight patients (67%) were in first remission and 142 (28%) had an active disease at time of allogeneic transplantation. The 2-year probabilities of overall survival and leukemia-free survival were 27% and 20%, respectively. The 2-year probability of treatment-related mortality was 20%. We identified four different cytogenetic groups according to additional abnormalities with prognostic impact: -5/5q- without complex karyotype, monosomal karyotype or abn(17p), -5/5q- within a complex karyotype, -5/5q- within a monosomal karyotype and the combination of -5/5q- with abn(17p). In multivariate analysis, factors associated with worse overall survival and leukemia-free survival across the four groups were active disease, age, monosomal karyotype, and abn(17p). The presence of -5/5q- without monosomal karyotype or abn(17p) was associated with a significantly better survival rate while -5/5q- in conjunction with monosomal karyotype or abn(17p) translated into a worse outcome. The patients harboring the combination of -5/5q- with abn(17p) showed very limited benefit from allogeneic transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.216168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7012466PMC
January 2020

Prognostic Value of Genetic Alterations in Elderly Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Single Institution Experience.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 22;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Hematology, Lyon-Sud Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69495 Pierre Bénite, France.

Although the outcome in younger adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has improved, the benefit associated with standard intensive chemotherapy in older patients remains debatable. In this study, we investigated the incidence and the prognostic significance of genetic characteristics according to treatment intensity in patients aged 60 years or older. On the 495 patients of our cohort, (25.2%), (23.7%) and (16.8%) were the most frequent molecular mutations found at diagnosis. In this elderly population, intensive chemotherapy seemed to be a suitable option in terms of early death and survival, except for normal karyotype (NK) patients and those aged over 70 within the adverse cytogenetic/molecular risk group. The mutation was systematically associated with an unfavorable outcome, independently of the ratio. NK genotype tends to confer a good prognosis in patients treated intensively. Regarding minimal residual disease prognostic value, overall survival was significantly better for patients achieving a 4 log reduction (median OS: 24.4 vs. 12.8 months, = 0.013) but did not reach statistical significance for progression free survival. This retrospective study highlights that intensive chemotherapy may not be the most appropriate option for each elderly patient and that molecular markers may help treatment intensity decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520979PMC
April 2019

The prognostic impact of the cytomegalovirus serostatus in patients with chronic hematological malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a report from the Infectious Diseases Working Party of EBMT.

Ann Hematol 2019 Jul 16;98(7):1755-1763. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Collegium Medicum UMK, University Hospital, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

It has been shown recently that donor and/or recipient cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity is associated with a significant overall survival (OS) decline in acute leukemia patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We now analyzed the prognostic impact of the donor/recipient CMV serostatus in 6968 patients with chronic hematological malignancies who underwent allo-HSCT. Donor and/or recipient CMV seropositivity was associated with a significantly reduced 2-year progression-free survival (PFS, 50% vs. 52%, p = 0.03) and OS (62% vs. 65%, p = 0.01). Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed an independent negative prognostic impact of donor and/or recipient CMV seropositivity on PFS (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2; p = 0.03), OS (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2; p = 0.003), and non-relapse mortality (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.3; p = 0.02). OS decline was strongest for CMV-seropositive recipients with a CMV-seronegative donor (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3), followed by CMV-seropositive patients with a CMV-seropositive donor (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2). Conversely, OS did not differ significantly between CMV-seronegative recipients allografted from a CMV-seropositive donor (HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.9-1.2) and patients with donor/recipient CMV seronegativity (p = 0.001 for the four groups together). Non-relapse mortality was also significantly (p = 0.01) higher for CMV-seropositive patients with a CMV-seronegative graft (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4) than for CMV-seropositive patients with a CMV-seropositive graft (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9-1.2) or CMV-seronegative recipients with a CMV-seropositive graft (HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.2). Donor and/or recipient CMV seropositivity still results in an OS decline in patients with chronic hematological malignancies who have undergone allo-HSCT. However, this OS decline seems to be lower than that described for acute leukemia patients previously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-019-03669-zDOI Listing
July 2019

Current clinical practice and challenges in the management of secondary immunodeficiency in hematological malignancies.

Eur J Haematol 2019 Jun 24;102(6):447-456. Epub 2019 Mar 24.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Objective: Despite long-standing safe and effective use of immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT) in primary immunodeficiency, clinical data on IgRT in patients with secondary immunodeficiency (SID) due to B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases are limited. Here, we examine the correlation between approved IgRT indications, treatment recommendations, and clinical practice in SID.

Methods: An international online survey of 230 physicians responsible for the diagnosis of SID and the prescription of IgRT in patients with hematological malignancies was conducted.

Results: Serum immunoglobulin was measured in 83% of patients with multiple myeloma, 76% with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and 69% with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Most physicians (85%) prescribed IgRT after ≥2 severe infections. In Italy, Germany, Spain, and the United States, immunoglobulin use was above average in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia, while in the UK considerably fewer patients received IgRT. The use of subcutaneous immunoglobulin was highest in France (34%) and lowest in Spain (19%). Immunologists measured specific antibody responses, performed test immunization, implemented IgRT, and used subcutaneous immunoglobulin more frequently than physicians overall.

Conclusions: The management of SID in hematological malignancies varied regionally. Clinical practice did not reflect treatment guidelines, highlighting the need for robust clinical studies on IgRT in this population and harmonization between countries and disciplines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849602PMC
June 2019

[Prophylaxis of infections post-allogeneic transplantation: Guidelines from the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC)].

Bull Cancer 2019 Jan 4;106(1S):S23-S34. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Institut d'hématologie de Basse-Normandie, centre hospitalier universitaire, avenue de la Côte-de-Nacre, 14000 Caen, France. Electronic address:

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative treatment for many hematological diseases. However, this procedure causes the patient to be susceptible to infection. Prophylactic treatments are administered in clinical practice even thought the level of evidence of their effectiveness is not always high. In addition, changes in the transplantation procedures - use of reduced intensity conditioning, development of alternative graft sources - must lead to a rethinking of attitudes towards prophylaxis. Our working group based its recommendations on a review of referential articles and publications on the subject found in the literature. These recommendations concern the prophylaxis of infections caused by HSV1, HSV2, varicella zoster, and hepatitis B, as well as anti-bacterial and digestive decontamination prophylaxis, prevention of pneumocystis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, as well as prophylaxis of fungal infections. Other infectious agents usually involved in infections post-allotransplant have been the subject of another set of recommendations from the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2018.08.017DOI Listing
January 2019

[Second allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant: Guidelines from the francophone Society of bone marrow transplantation and cellular therapy (SFGM-TC)].

Bull Cancer 2019 Jan 6;106(1S):S40-S51. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc, service d'hématologie, 10, avenue Hippocrate, 1200 Bruxelles, Belgique.

Disease recurrence and graft dysfunction after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) currently remain among the major causes of treatment failure in malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases. A second allo-HSCT is a valuable therapeutic option to salvage those situations. During the 8th annual harmonization workshops of the french Society of bone marrow transplantation and cellular therapy (SFGM-TC), a designated working group reviewed the literature in order to elaborate unified guidelines on feasibility, indications, donor choice and conditioning in the case of a second allo-HSCT. In case of relapse, a second allo-HSCT with reduced intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning is a reasonable option, particularly in patients with a good performance status (Karnofsky/Lansky>80%), low co-morbidity score (EBMT score≤3), a longer remission duration after the first allo-HSCT (>6 months), and who present low disease burden at the time of second allo-HSCT. Matched related donors tend to be associated with better outcomes. In the presence of graft dysfunction (primary and secondary graft rejection), an immunoablative conditioning regimen is recommended. A donor change remains a valid option, especially in the absence of graft-versus-host disease after the first allo-HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2018.05.018DOI Listing
January 2019

Ferritin heavy/light chain (FTH1/FTL) expression, serum ferritin levels, and their functional as well as prognostic roles in acute myeloid leukemia.

Eur J Haematol 2019 Feb 28;102(2):131-142. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Service d'Hématologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse Oncopole, Toulouse, France.

Objectives: We previously reported the prognostic value of serum ferritin in younger patients with intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The aims of this study were to confirm this finding in a larger cohort regardless of age and prognostic subgroups, to explore the expression and functional role of ferritin in AML cells as well as the regulation of serum ferritin levels in AML patients.

Patients/materials/methods: Serum ferritin levels at diagnosis were collected in a cohort of 525 patients treated by intensive chemotherapy. In silico, in vitro, and in vivo analyses were conducted to assess the pattern of expression and functional role of FTH1 and FTL in AML.

Results: We confirmed the independent prognostic value of serum ferritin. In transcriptomic databases, FTH1 and FTL were overexpressed in AML and leukemic stem cells compared to normal hematopoietic stem cells. The gene signature designed from AML patients overexpressing FTH1 revealed a significant enrichment in genes of the immune and inflammatory response including Nf-KB pathway, oxidative stress, or iron pathways. This gene signature was enriched in cytarabine-resistant AML cells in a patient-derived xenograft model. FTH1 protein was also overexpressed in patient's samples and correlated with the in vitro cytotoxic activity of cytarabine. Lastly, we demonstrated that chemotherapy induced an inflammatory response including a significant increase in serum ferritin levels between day 1 and 8 of induction chemotherapy that was blocked by dexamethasone.

Conclusion: Ferritin is deregulated in most AML patients likely through inflammation, associated with chemoresistance, and could represent a new therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13183DOI Listing
February 2019

Tyrosine kinase inhibitor interruptions, discontinuations and switching in patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia in routine clinical practice: SIMPLICITY.

Am J Hematol 2019 01 31;94(1):46-54. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

UCLA Medical Centre, Los Angeles, California.

SIMPLICITY (NCT01244750) is an observational study exploring tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) use and management patterns in patients with chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia in the US and Europe in routine clinical practice. Herein we describe interruptions, discontinuations and switching of TKI therapy during the initial 2 years of treatment among 1121 patients prospectively enrolled between October 1, 2010 and March 7, 2017. Patient characteristics were broadly similar between the imatinib (n = 370), dasatinib (n = 376), and nilotinib (n = 375) cohorts. Treatment interruptions occurred in 16.4% (year 1) and 4.0% (year 2) of patients, mainly attributed to hematologic intolerances. Treatment discontinuations occurred in 21.8% (year 1) and 10.2% (year 2) of patients, with the highest rate within the first 3 months for intolerance. Switching of TKI was seen in 17.8% (year 1) and 9.5% (year 2) of patients. Significant associations were found between TKI switching and female gender (year 1), age ≥65 years at diagnosis (year 2) and treatment with imatinib (year 2). Intolerance was the most common reason given for patients discontinuing and for switching TKI therapy; however resistance was also cited. Lack of response monitoring in routine clinical practice may have resulted in lower identification of resistance in this dataset. Data from SIMPLICITY suggest that, in routine clinical practice, intolerance and resistance to TKIs influence decisions to change treatment. Changes in TKI therapy are frequent, with nearly a third of patients discontinuing their first-line TKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587733PMC
January 2019