Publications by authors named "Maureen Gaine"

2 Publications

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Chronic intermittent intravenous immunoglobulin in heart transplant recipients with elevated donor-specific antibody levels.

Clin Transplant 2021 Oct 27:e14524. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Donor-specific antibodies (DSA) are associated with antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and poor patient survival. In heart transplant, the efficacy of intermittent intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in reducing de novo DSA levels and treating AMR has not been characterized. We retrospectively studied a cohort of 19 patients receiving intermittent IVIg for elevated DSA and examined changes in DSA levels and graft function. Intermittent IVIg infusions were generally safe and well tolerated. Overall, 23 of 62 total DSA (37%) were undetectable after treatment, 21 DSA (34%) had MFI decrease by more than 25%, and 18 (29%) had MFI decrease by less than 25% or increase. The average change in MFI was -51% ± 71% (P < .001). Despite reductions in DSA, among the six patients (32%) with biopsy-confirmed AMR, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decreased in five (83%) and cardiac index (CI) decreased in three (50%). Conversely, LVEF increased in 91% and CI increased in 70% of biopsy-negative patients. All six AMR patients were readmitted during treatment, four for confirmed or suspected rejection. IVIg infusions may stabilize the allograft in patients with elevated DSA and negative biopsies, but once AMR has developed does not appear to improve allograft function despite decreasing DSA levels.
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October 2021

Gut microbial diversity, inflammation, and oxidative stress are associated with tacrolimus dosing requirements early after heart transplantation.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(5):e0233646. Epub 2020 May 29.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America.

Introduction: Effective tacrolimus (TAC) dosing is hampered by complex pharmacokinetics and significant patient variability. The gut microbiome, a key mediator of endotoxemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in advanced heart failure (HF) patients, is a possible contributor to interindividual variations in drug efficacy. The effect of alterations in the gut microbiome on TAC dosing requirements after heart transplant (HT) has not been explored.

Methods: We enrolled 24 patients (mean age = 55.8 ±2.3 years) within 3 months post-HT. Biomarkers of endotoxemia ((lipopolysaccharide (LPS)), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) and oxidative stress (8,12-iso-Isoprostane F-2alpha-VI) were measured in 16 blood samples. 22 stool samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. TAC dose and serum trough level were measured at the time of stool and blood collection. TAC doses were reported in mg/kg/day and as level-to-dose (L/D) ratio, and categorized as ≤ vs. > median.

Results: The median TAC dose was 0.1 mg/kg/day and L/D ratio was 100.01. Above the median daily weight-based TAC dose was associated with higher gut microbial alpha diversity (p = 0.03); similarly, TNF-α and 8,12-iso-Isoprostane F-2alpha-VI levels were lower and LPS levels were higher in the above median TAC group, although these findings were only marginally statistically significant and dependent on BMI adjustment. We observed n = 37 taxa to be significantly enriched among patients with > median TAC dose (all FDR<0.05), several of which are potential short-chain fatty acid producers with anti-inflammatory properties, including taxa from the family Subdoligranulum.

Conclusions: Our pilot study observed gut microbial alpha diversity to be increased while inflammation and oxidative stress were reduced among patients requiring higher TAC doses early after HT.
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August 2020