Publications by authors named "Matthias W Beckmann"

628 Publications

Mendelian randomisation study of smoking exposure in relation to breast cancer risk.

Br J Cancer 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Despite a modest association between tobacco smoking and breast cancer risk reported by recent epidemiological studies, it is still equivocal whether smoking is causally related to breast cancer risk.

Methods: We applied Mendelian randomisation (MR) to evaluate a potential causal effect of cigarette smoking on breast cancer risk. Both individual-level data as well as summary statistics for 164 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported in genome-wide association studies of lifetime smoking index (LSI) or cigarette per day (CPD) were used to obtain MR effect estimates. Data from 108,420 invasive breast cancer cases and 87,681 controls were used for the LSI analysis and for the CPD analysis conducted among ever-smokers from 26,147 cancer cases and 26,072 controls. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy.

Results: Genetically predicted LSI was associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.18 per SD, 95% CI: 1.07-1.30, P = 0.11 × 10), but there was no evidence of association for genetically predicted CPD (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.78-1.19, P = 0.85). The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results and showed no strong evidence of pleiotropic effect.

Conclusion: Our MR study provides supportive evidence for a potential causal association with breast cancer risk for lifetime smoking exposure but not cigarettes per day among smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01432-8DOI Listing
August 2021

Prognostic effect of low-level HER2 expression in patients with clinically negative HER2 status.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jul 23;155:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Marienhospital Bottrop, Bottrop, Germany.

Purpose: Assessment of HER2 overexpression using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or in situ hybridisation (ISH) for the detection of HER2 amplifications is standard to identify patients for established HER2-directed treatments. Patients with lower HER2 expression levels have recently also become candidates for novel therapies targeting HER2. This study aimed to assess tumour and patient characteristics and prognosis in patients with advanced breast cancer (aBC), relative to low HER2 expression levels.

Methods: PRAEGNANT is a prospective aBC registry (NCT02338167), focusing on molecular biomarkers. Patients in all therapy lines receiving any kind of treatment are eligible. This analysis includes patients with conventionally HER2-negative aBC. Clinical outcome was compared in the groups with no (IHC score 0) or with low HER2 expression (IHC 1+, or IHC 2+/ISH negative).

Results: Low HER2 expression levels in triple-negative aBC patients did not influence progression-free survival. Overall survival appeared poorer in patients with IHC 2+ compared with patients with no HER2 expression in the unadjusted analysis (hazard ratio 2.24, 95% confidence interval 0.1.12-4.47). However, this effect was not maintained in the adjusted analysis. In HER2-negative, hormone receptor-positive patients, low HER2 expression appeared to have no effect on prognosis, neither progression-free survival nor overall survival.

Conclusions: We could not demonstrate that HER2 expression at a low level and assessed in clinical routine can differentiate patients into prognostic groups. However, the prevalence of patients with a low expression makes this population interesting for clinical trials with potentially active treatments using HER2 as a target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.06.033DOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluation of Integrated HPV DNA as Individualized Biomarkers for the Detection of Recurrent CIN2/3 during Post-Treatment Surveillance.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 1;13(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Technische Universität Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

Purpose: Post-treatment follow-up in women with cervical pre-cancers (CIN3) is mandatory due to relapse in up to 10% of patients. Standard follow-up based on hrHPV-DNA/cytology co-testing has high sensitivity but limited specificity. The aim of our prospective, multicenter, observational study was to test the hypothesis that an individualized viral-cellular-junction test (vcj-PCR) combined with cytology has a lower false positive rate for the prediction of recurrence compared to standard co-testing.

Methods: Pre-surgical cervical swabs served for the identification of HPV16/18 DNA integration sites by next-generation-sequencing (NGS). Samples taken at 6, 12 and 24 months post-surgery were evaluated by cytology, hrHPV-DNA and the patients' individual HPV-integration sites (vcj-PCR on the basis of NGS).

Results: Integration sites were detected in 48 of 445 patients (10.8%), 39 of them had valid follow-up data. The false positive rate was 18.2% (95% CI 8.6-34.4%) for standard hrHPV/cytology at six months compared to 12.1% (95% CI 4.8-27.3%) for vcj-PCR/cytology, respectively (McNemar = 0.50). Six patients developed recurrences (1 CIN2, 5 CIN3) during follow-up. Standard co-testing detected all, whereas vcj-PCR/cytology detected only five patients with recurrences. Data of 269 patients without evidence of HPV16/18 integration were subject to post-hoc analyses. Standard co-testing revealed a false positive rate of 15.7% (95% CI 11.7-20.7%) and predicted ten of fourteen recurrences at six months.

Conclusions: Although highly specific on its own vcj-PCR could not detect all recurrent CIN2/3. Possible reasons for this unexpected result may be multifocal lesions, intratumoral heterogeneity with respect to HPV integration and/or incident CIN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13133309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269020PMC
July 2021

The use of PAMG-1 testing in patients with preterm labor, intact membranes and a short sonographic cervix reduces the rate of unnecessary antenatal glucocorticoid administration.

J Perinat Med 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Erlangen University Hospital, Erlangen, Germany.

Objectives: To assess the frequency of antenatal corticosteroid (ACS) administration in cases with shortened cervical length by addition of placental alpha-microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1) testing to sonographic examination.

Methods: Single centre retrospective cohort study. Rate of ACS administration was compared between cases with cervical length between 15 and 25 mm and cases with positive PAMG-1 testing and cervical length between 15 and 25 mm. We evaluated the following outcome parameters: Rate of ACS administration, gestational age at delivery, time to delivery, delivery within seven days, delivery <34 and <37 weeks' gestation, rate of admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Results: In total, 130 cases were included. "PAMG-1 group" consisted of 68 women, 62 cases built the "historical control group". ACS administration was performed less frequently in the "PAMG-1 cohort" (18 (26%) vs. 46 (74%); p<0.001). The rate of delivery within seven days did not differ (2 (3%) vs. 4 (6.5%); p=0.4239). The rates of delivery <34 weeks' gestation (7 (10%) vs. 9 (15%); p=0.4643) and <37 weeks' gestation (19 (28%) vs. 26 (42%); p=0.0939) did not differ. Time to delivery interval was longer in the PAMG-1 group (61.5 vs. 43 days, p=0.0117). NICU admission occurred more often in the "historical control group" (22 (38%) vs. 28 (60%); p=0.0272).

Conclusions: Addition of biomarker testing can help to avoid unnecessary ACS administrations in women with shortened cervical length.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2021-0048DOI Listing
July 2021

Disseminated tumour cells from the bone marrow of early breast cancer patients: Results from an international pooled analysis.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jul 12;154:128-137. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Women's Health, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

Purpose: Presence of disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow (BM) has been described as a surrogate of residual disease in patients with early breast cancer (EBC). PADDY (Pooled Analysis of DTC Detection in Early Breast Cancer) is a large international analysis of pooled data that aimed to assess the prognostic impact of DTCs in patients with EBC.

Experimental Design: Individual patient data were collected from 11 centres. Patients with EBC and available follow-up data in whom BM sampling was performed at the time of primary diagnosis before receiving any anticancer treatment were eligible. DTCs were identified by antibody staining against epithelial cytokeratins. Multivariate Cox regression was used to compare the survival of DTC-positive versus DTC-negative patients.

Results: In total, 10,307 patients were included. Of these, 2814 (27.3%) were DTC-positive. DTC detection was associated with higher tumour grade, larger tumour size, nodal positivity, oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor negativity, and HER2 positivity (all p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that DTC detection was an independent prognostic marker for overall survival, disease-free survival and distant disease-free survival with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.06-1.43, p = 0.006), 1.30 (95% CI: 1.12-1.52, p < 0.001) and 1.30 (95% CI: 1.08-1.56, p = 0.006), respectively. There was no association between locoregional relapse-free survival and DTC detection (HR 1.21; 95% CI 0.68-2.16; p = 0.512).

Conclusions: DTCs in the BM represent an independent prognostic marker in patients with EBC. The heterogeneous metastasis-initiating potential of DTCs is consistent with the concept of cancer dormancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.06.028DOI Listing
July 2021

Analysis of Oncological Second Opinions in a Certified University Breast and Gynecological Cancer Center Regarding Consensus between the First and Second Opinion and Conformity with the Guidelines.

Breast Care (Basel) 2021 Jun 5;16(3):291-298. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Gynecology, Erlangen University Hospital, University Breast Center and University Gynecological Cancer Center for Franconia, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Introduction: Oncological second opinions are becoming increasingly important in the era of complex treatments and established certified cancer centers. Oncological guidelines with the highest levels of evidence are available, but these can only be effective to the extent that they are implemented. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of second opinions with regard to their agreement with first opinions and conformity with guidelines.

Methods: In 164 patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer or gynecological malignancy who requested a second opinion, the first and second opinions, established at the interdisciplinary tumor conference, and conformity with the guidelines were evaluated.

Results: The first opinion was not in agreement with the guidelines in 34.8% (15.2% diagnosis, 12.8% surgical therapy, 13.4% systemic therapy, and 5.5% radiotherapy), and the recommendations were optimized in the second opinion in 56.7% (28.7% diagnosis, 15.9% surgical therapy, 30.5% systemic therapy, and 8.5% radiotherapy).

Conclusions: Oncological second opinions showed significant effects and one-third of first opinions were not in conformity with the guidelines. In a significant proportion of cases, the existing treatment plan was changed or supplemented to allow modern and individualized treatment approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248777PMC
June 2021

Influence of Family History of Breast or Ovarian Cancer on Pathological Complete Response and Long-Term Prognosis in Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

Breast Care (Basel) 2021 Jun 1;16(3):254-262. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Erlangen University Hospital, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-EMN, Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Purpose: In breast cancer, a pathological complete response (pCR) has been described as generally resulting in a favorable prognosis. However, there are subgroups, such as patients with a mutation in or , in which the effect of pCR on the prognosis is suspected to be weaker. Patients with a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer may therefore react differently in relation to pCR and prognosis, and this is investigated in this study.

Patients And Methods: Breast cancer patients were identified from a clinical breast cancer registry. The study subjects had been treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy from 2001 to 2018 and their pathological and clinical information as well as medical family history were available. They were considered to have a positive family history if they had at least 1 first-degree relative with breast and/or ovarian cancer. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association between family history, pCR (ypT0; ypN0), and disease-free survival (DFS).

Results: Of 1,480 patients, 228 (15.4%) had a positive family history. The pCR rates were 24.9% in all patients, and 24.4% and 27.6% in those without/with a family history, respectively. Family history was not associated with a higher pCR rate (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-1.76; = 0.27) or a different disease-free survival (DFS; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.15; 95% CI 0.88-1.52; = 0.30). pCR did not affect the prognosis differently in relation to family history.

Conclusions: In this retrospective analysis, family history was not associated with pCR and DFS. pCR improved survival, independently of family history.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248781PMC
June 2021

Identification and validation of expressed HLA-binding breast cancer neoepitopes for potential use in individualized cancer therapy.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jun;9(6)

Department of Internal Medicine 5, Hematology/Oncology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Therapeutic regimens designed to augment the immunological response of a patient with breast cancer (BC) to tumor tissue are critically informed by tumor mutational burden and the antigenicity of expressed neoepitopes. Herein we describe a neoepitope and cognate neoepitope-reactive T-cell identification and validation program that supports the development of next-generation immunotherapies.

Methods: Using GPS Cancer, NantOmics research, and The Cancer Genome Atlas databases, we developed a novel bioinformatic-based approach which assesses mutational load, neoepitope expression, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-binding prediction, and in vitro confirmation of T-cell recognition to preferentially identify targetable neoepitopes. This program was validated by application to a BC cell line and confirmed using tumor biopsies from two patients with BC enrolled in the Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes and Genomics (TILGen) study.

Results: The antigenicity and HLA-A2 restriction of the BC cell line predicted neoepitopes were determined by reactivity of T cells from HLA-A2-expressing healthy donors. For the TILGen subjects, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) recognized the predicted neoepitopes both as peptides and on retroviral expression in HLA-matched Epstein-Barr virus-lymphoblastoid cell line and BC cell line MCF-7 cells; PCR clonotyping revealed the presence of T cells in the periphery with T-cell receptors for the predicted neoepitopes. These high-avidity immune responses were polyclonal, mutation-specific and restricted to either HLA class I or II. Interestingly, we observed the persistence and expansion of polyclonal T-cell responses following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Conclusions: We demonstrate our neoepitope prediction program allows for the successful identification of neoepitopes targeted by TILs in patients with BC, providing a means to identify tumor-specific immunogenic targets for individualized treatment, including vaccines or adoptively transferred cellular therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2021-002605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237736PMC
June 2021

Patterns and Trends of Herbal Medicine Use among Patients with Gynecologic Cancer.

Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2021 Jun 21;81(6):699-707. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Alb Fils Kliniken, Klinik am Eichert, Göppingen, Germany.

More and more information about complementary and integrative medicine is becoming available, especially among cancer patients. However, little is known about the use of herbal medicine by patients with gynecologic cancers. This study aimed to assess the use of herbal products by gynecologic cancer patients compared with healthy controls. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department for Gynecology and Obstetrics of Erlangen University Hospital and included 201 patients with gynecologic cancer and 212 healthy controls. Use of herbal medicines was evaluated using a standardized questionnaire. Medical information on cancer patients was collected from hospital records. Group comparisons were done using a logistic regression model. Risk ratios were assessed using a Poisson regression model. Gynecologic cancer patients used herbal medicine significantly less often than healthy persons. 69% of gynecologic cancer patients and 81% of healthy participants reported using herbal products. 40% of cancer patients and 56% of healthy persons reported using plants for medicinal purposes. Motives of cancer patients for using herbal medicine included treatment of cancer-related symptoms. The major source of information for both groups was family and friends. Although herbal medicine was used less by patients with gynecologic cancer, herbal products were used by both cancer patients and healthy individuals. To provide cancer patients with optimal therapy, oncologists should be informed about the herbal products used by their patients as this will allow them to take their patients' self-medication with herbal medicine into account. Counseling by oncologists on the use of herbal medicine should be encouraged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1487-6284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216777PMC
June 2021

Prognosis of Patients With Early Breast Cancer Receiving 5 Years vs 2 Years of Adjuvant Bisphosphonate Treatment: A Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Importance: Bisphosphonate treatment in patients with early breast cancer has become part of care, but the optimal treatment duration is still unclear.

Objective: To compare 2 vs 5 years of zoledronate treatment following adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early breast cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The SUCCESS A phase 3 multicenter randomized open-label clinical trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design enrolled 3754 patients from September 21, 2005, to March 12, 2007 (last patient out, May 7, 2014). Final data analysis was conducted from September 2019 to October 2020. In 250 German study centers, patients were eligible for participation in the SUCCESS A trial if they had either node-positive or high-risk node-negative (defined as at least 1 of the following: tumor size ≥ pT2, histologic grade 3, negative hormone receptor status, or age ≤35 years) primary invasive breast cancer.

Interventions: Patients were first randomized to adjuvant chemotherapy with 3 cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide followed by 3 cycles of docetaxel with or without gemcitabine (not presented in this report). After chemotherapy, patients underwent a second randomization of 5 years of zoledronate treatment (4 mg intravenously every 3 months for 2 years, followed by 4 mg intravenously every 6 months for 3 years) vs 2 years of zoledronate treatment (4 mg intravenously every 3 months for 2 years).

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point of the study was disease-free survival; secondary end points were overall survival, distant disease-free survival, and the incidence of skeletal-related adverse events. Survival times were measured from 2 years after the start of zoledronate treatment (landmark analysis).

Results: Overall, data on 2987 patients were available for analysis; median age was 53 (range, 21-86) years. Disease-free survival, overall survival, and distant disease-free survival did not differ significantly between the 2 treatment arms (5 vs 2 years) as shown by adjusted multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models (disease-free survival: hazard ratio [HR], 0.97; 95% CI, 0.75-1.25; P = .81; overall survival: HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.67-1.42; P = .90; distant disease-free survival: HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.65-1.18; P = .38). Adverse events were observed more often in the 5-year (46.2%) vs 2-year (27.2%) zoledronate treatment arm, which was particularly true for the skeletal-related events bone pain (5 years, 8.3% vs 2 years, 3.7%) and arthralgia (5 years, 5.1% vs 2 years, 3.1%).

Conclusions And Relevance: The results of this phase 3 randomized clinical trial indicate that extending the zoledronate treatment beyond 2 years does not improve the prognosis of high-risk patients with early breast cancer receiving chemotherapy, suggesting that the currently recommended bisphosphonate treatment duration of 3 to 5 years could be reduced.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02181101.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.1854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227465PMC
June 2021

Identification of a Locus Near Associated With Progression-Free Survival in Ovarian Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Gynecologic Oncology Center, Kiel, Germany.

Background: Many loci have been found to be associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, although there is considerable variation in progression-free survival (PFS), no loci have been found to be associated with outcome at genome-wide levels of significance.

Methods: We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PFS in 2,352 women with EOC who had undergone cytoreductive surgery and standard carboplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy.

Results: We found seven SNPs at 12q24.33 associated with PFS ( < 5 × 10), the top SNP being rs10794418 (HR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.15-1.34; = 1.47 × 10). High expression of a nearby gene, , is associated with shorter PFS in EOC, and with poor prognosis in other cancers. SNP rs10794418 is also associated with expression of in ovarian tumors, with the allele associated with shorter PFS being associated with higher expression, and chromatin interactions were detected between the promoter and associated SNPs in serous and endometrioid EOC cell lines. ULK1 knockout ovarian cancer cell lines showed significantly increased sensitivity to carboplatin .

Conclusions: The locus at 12q24.33 represents one of the first genome-wide significant loci for survival for any cancer. is a plausible candidate for the target of this association.

Impact: This finding provides insight into genetic markers associated with EOC outcome and potential treatment options..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1817DOI Listing
June 2021

Mammographic density and prognosis in primary breast cancer patients.

Breast 2021 Jun 17;59:51-57. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Erlangen University Hospital, Comprehensive Cancer Center, European Metropolitan Area Erlangen-Nuremberg (CCC ER-EMN), Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Purpose: Mammographic density (MD) is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer (BC). However, the influence of MD on the BC prognosis is unclear. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate whether percentage MD (PMD) is associated with a difference in disease-free or overall survival in primary BC patients.

Methods: A total of 2525 patients with primary, metastasis-free BC were followed up retrospectively for this analysis. For all patients, PMD was evaluated by two readers using a semi-automated method. The association between PMD and prognosis was evaluated using Cox regression models with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) as the outcome, and the following adjustments: age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, body mass index, tumor stage, grading, lymph node status, hormone receptor and HER2 status.

Results: After median observation periods of 9.5 and 10.0 years, no influence of PMD on DFS (p = 0.46, likelihood ratio test (LRT)) or OS (p = 0.22, LRT), respectively, was found. In the initial unadjusted analysis higher PMD was associated with longer DFS and OS. The effect of PMD on DFS and OS disappeared after adjustment for age and was caused by the underlying age effect.

Conclusions: Although MD is one of the strongest independent risk factors for BC, in our collective PMD is not associated with disease-free and overall survival in patients with BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2021.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237359PMC
June 2021

Correction to: Introducing multiple-choice questions to promote learning for medical students: effect on exam performance in obstetrics and gynecology.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Erlangen University Hospital, Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Universitätsstrasse 21-23, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-021-06112-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Functional annotation of the 2q35 breast cancer risk locus implicates a structural variant in influencing activity of a long-range enhancer element.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 Jul 18;108(7):1190-1203. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Genomic Epidemiology Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany.

A combination of genetic and functional approaches has identified three independent breast cancer risk loci at 2q35. A recent fine-scale mapping analysis to refine these associations resulted in 1 (signal 1), 5 (signal 2), and 42 (signal 3) credible causal variants at these loci. We used publicly available in silico DNase I and ChIP-seq data with in vitro reporter gene and CRISPR assays to annotate signals 2 and 3. We identified putative regulatory elements that enhanced cell-type-specific transcription from the IGFBP5 promoter at both signals (30- to 40-fold increased expression by the putative regulatory element at signal 2, 2- to 3-fold by the putative regulatory element at signal 3). We further identified one of the five credible causal variants at signal 2, a 1.4 kb deletion (esv3594306), as the likely causal variant; the deletion allele of this variant was associated with an average additional increase in IGFBP5 expression of 1.3-fold (MCF-7) and 2.2-fold (T-47D). We propose a model in which the deletion allele of esv3594306 juxtaposes two transcription factor binding regions (annotated by estrogen receptor alpha ChIP-seq peaks) to generate a single extended regulatory element. This regulatory element increases cell-type-specific expression of the tumor suppressor gene IGFBP5 and, thereby, reduces risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% CI 0.74-0.81, p = 3.1 × 10).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.05.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322933PMC
July 2021

Detection of Microcalcifications in Spiral Breast Computed Tomography with Photon-Counting Detector Is Feasible: A Specimen Study.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 May 9;11(5). Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Radiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Maximiliansplatz 3, 91054 Erlangen, Germany.

The primary objective of the study was to compare a spiral breast computed tomography system (SBCT) to digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) for the detection of microcalcifications (MCs) in breast specimens. The secondary objective was to compare various reconstruction modes in SBCT. In total, 54 breast biopsy specimens were examined with mammography as a standard reference, with DBT, and with a dedicated SBCT containing a photon-counting detector. Three different reconstruction modes were applied for SBCT datasets (Recon1 = voxel size (0.15 mm), smooth kernel; Recon2 = voxel size (0.05 mm), smooth kernel; Recon3 = voxel size (0.05 mm), sharp kernel). Sensitivity and specificity of DBT and SBCT for the detection of suspicious MCs were analyzed, and the McNemar test was used for comparisons. Diagnostic confidence of the two readers (Likert Scale 1 = not confident; 5 = completely confident) was analyzed with ANOVA. Regarding detection of MCs, reader 1 had a higher sensitivity for DBT (94.3%) and Recon2 (94.9%) compared to Recon1 (88.5%; < 0.05), while sensitivity for Recon3 was 92.4%. Respectively, reader 2 had a higher sensitivity for DBT (93.0%), Recon2 (92.4%), and Recon3 (93.0%) compared to Recon1 (86.0%; < 0.05). Specificities ranged from 84.7-94.9% for both readers ( > 0.05). The diagnostic confidence of reader 1 was better with SBCT than with DBT (DBT 4.48 ± 0.88, Recon1 4.77 ± 0.66, Recon2 4.89 ± 0.44, and Recon3 4.75 ± 0.72; DBT vs. Recon1/2/3: < 0.05), while reader 2 found no differences. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of MCs in breast specimens is equal for DBT and SBCT when a small voxel size of (0.05 mm) is used with an equal or better diagnostic confidence for SBCT compared to DBT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11050848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151348PMC
May 2021

Villoglandular adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 Aug 25;304(2):317-327. Epub 2021 May 25.

Center for Pathology Allgaeu, Klinikverbund Allgaeu, Kempten, Germany.

Purpose: Villoglandular adenocarcinoma (VGA) of the uterine cervix has been classified as a rare subtype of cervical adenocarcinoma with good prognosis. A conservative surgical approach is considered feasible. The main risk factor is the presence of other histologic types of cancer. In this largest systematic review to date, we assess oncological outcomes associated with conservative therapy compared to those associated with invasive management in the treatment of stage Ia and Ib VGA.

Methods: Case series and case reports identified by searching the PubMed database were eligible for inclusion in this review (stage Ia-Ib).

Results: A total of 271 patients were included in our literature review. 54 (20%) patients were treated by "conservative management" (conization, simple hysterectomy, and trachelectomy) and 217 (80%) by "invasive management" (radical hysterectomy ± radiation, hysterectomy, and radiation). Recurrences of disease (RODs) were found in the conservative group in two (4%) cases and in the invasive group in nine (4%) cases. There was no significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS) according to conservative or invasive treatment (p = 0.75). The histology of VGA may be complex with underlying usual adenocarcinoma (UAC) combined with VGA.

Conclusion: The excellent prognosis of pure VGA and the young age of the patients may justify the management of this tumor using a less radical procedure. The histological diagnosis of VGA is a challenge, and pretreatment should not be based solely on a simple punch biopsy but rather a conization with wide tumor-free margins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-021-06077-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277655PMC
August 2021

Endometrial delay is found to be part of a normal individual dynamic transformation process.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Erlangen University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Purpose: Limited information is clinically available concerning endometrial receptivity; assessing endometrial transformation status is therefore an urgent topic in assisted reproductive technology. This study aimed to investigate individual endometrial transformation rates during the secretory phase in subfertile patients using personal endometrial transformation analysis.

Methods: Monitoring was carried out during the secretory phase to obtain endometrial receptivity profiles. For the investigation, two endometrial biopsies were taken within one menstrual cycle. The extended endometrial dating was based on the Noyes criteria, combined with immunohistochemical analyses of hormone receptors and proliferation marker Ki-67. Biopsies were taken mainly at days ovulation (OV, n = 76)/hormone replacement therapy (HRT, n = 58) + 5 and + 10.

Results: The results of the two biopsies were correlated with the clinically expected day of the cycle and showed temporal delays or hypercompensations, diverging from the expected cycle days by 0.5-5 days. In comparison with the first biopsies, the transformation rate in the second biopsies showed compensation, augmented delay, or constant transformation in 48.69, 22.37, and 28.94% of cases for ovulation in natural cycles and 56.89, 25.85, and 17.26% for HRT cycles, respectively.

Conclusion: The study revealed an individually dynamic transformation process of the endometrium, with the ability to compensate or enlarge an initial "delay", which is now identified as a normal individual transformation process during the secretory phase. This information is of great importance for the scientific investigation of dynamic changes in endometrial tissue, as well as for the timing of embryo transfers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-021-06086-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Challenges and Opportunities for Real-World Evidence in Metastatic Luminal Breast Cancer.

Breast Care (Basel) 2021 Apr 16;16(2):108-114. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Erlangen University Hospital, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-EMN, Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: The therapeutic armamentarium for patients with metastatic breast cancer is becoming more and more specific. Recommendations from clinical trials are not available for all treatment situations and patient subgroups, and it is therefore important to collect real-world data.

Summary: To develop recommendations for up-to-date treatments and participation in clinical trials for patients with metastatic breast cancer, the Prospective Academic Translational Research PRAEGNANT Network was established to optimize the quality of oncological care in the advanced therapeutic setting. The main aim of PRAEGNANT is to systematically record medical care for patients with metastatic breast cancer in the real-life setting, including the outcome and side effects of different treatment strategies, to monitor quality-of-life changes during therapy, to identify patients eligible for participation in clinical studies, and to allow targeted therapies based on the molecular structures of breast carcinomas.

Key Messages: This article describes the PRAEGNANT network and sheds light on the question of whether the various end points from clinical trials can be transferred to the real-world treatment situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114055PMC
April 2021

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in women with endometriosis.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Jul 4;262:7-12. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erlangen University Hospital, Erlangen, Germany; Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Objective: This study aimed to provide an overview of the extent to which women with endometriosis are informed about, interested in, and make use of CAM, and to evaluate which of the methods are most often applied.

Study Design: A retrospective, two-center cohort study was conducted using a validated questionnaire among women with laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis at two urban teaching hospitals, certified as endometriosis centres.

Results: A total of 592 patients were included in the study and received the questionnaire; 114 (19.3 %) were included in the data analysis. Most of the women were not receiving hormone therapy at the time of the study (n = 60, 52.6 %). Most (n = 75, 65.8 %) were interested in CAM, but only a minority (n = 12, 10.5 %) had detailed knowledge about it. A total of 81 patients (71.1 %) had used at least one CAM method for disease management; the five most frequently used CAM methods were exercise (n = 55, 48.2 %), vitamins (n = 40, 35.1 %), yoga (n = 38, 33.3 %), homeopathy (n = 32, 28.1 %), and trace elements (n = 27, 23.7 %).

Conclusions: In our study population, women with endometriosis are strongly interested in using CAM, but have only limited information about it. Nevertheless, a majority of the patients had used at least one CAM method to relieve symptoms associated with the disease and the most often used was exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2021.05.002DOI Listing
July 2021

Endogenous Retroviral-K Envelope Is a Novel Tumor Antigen and Prognostic Indicator of Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:657187. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Erlangen, Comprehensive Cancer Center, European Metropolitan Area Erlangen-Nuremberg (CCC ER-EMN), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the ten most common cancers for men and women with an approximate 75% overall 5-year survival. Sixteen histological tumor subtypes exist and the most common are papillary, chromophobe and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) representing 85% of all RCC. Although epigenetically silenced, endogenous retroviral (ERV) genes become activated in tumors and function to ignite immune responses. Research has intensified to understand ERV protein function and their role as tumor antigens and targets for cancer (immune) therapy. ERV-K env is overexpressed and implicated as a therapeutic target for breast cancer, however studies in RCC are limited. In this investigation a human RCC tissue microarray (TMA) (n=374) predominantly consisting of the most common histological tumor subtypes was hybridized with an ERV-K env antibody and correlated with patient clinical data. TMA results showed the highest amount of ERV-K env protein expression and the strongest significant membrane expression in ccRCC versus other RCC subtypes. High ERV-K env total protein expression of all tumor subtypes significantly correlated with low tumor grading and a longer disease specific survival using multivariable analyses. Cell proliferation and invasion were assayed using the kidney cell lines HEK293 with wild-type p53 and a ccRCC cell line MZ1257RC mutated for p53. Transfecting these cell lines with a codon optimized overexpressing CMV vector was performed with or without 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza) treatment to sustain promoter de-methylation. MZ1257RC showed induction of expression and significantly increased both proliferation and invasion in the presence or absence of Aza. HEK293 cells demonstrated a restriction of expression and invasion with no changes in proliferation in the absence of Aza. However, in the presence of Aza despite increased expression, an inhibition of HEK293 proliferation and a further restriction of invasion was found. This study supports ERV-K env as a single prognostic indicator for better survival of RCC, which we propose represents a new tumor antigen. In addition, ERV-K env significantly regulates proliferation and invasion depending on p53 status and Aza treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.657187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100683PMC
April 2021

Association of genomic variants at PAX8 and PBX2 with cervical cancer risk.

Int J Cancer 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Gynaecology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Cervical malignancy is triggered by human papillomavirus infection but the risk for cervical cancer has a hereditary component. From a recent Genome Wide Association Study meta-analysis, 2q14.1 (PAX8) and 6p21.32 (PBX2) have been proposed as novel cervical cancer susceptibility loci. We investigated the two main signals at these loci in an independent case-control series of 2578 cases with cervical dysplasia or carcinoma and 1483 healthy females. We find significant associations for both variants, rs10175462 at PAX8 and rs2856437 at PBX2, with overall cervical disease (rs10175462: odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-0.91, P = 2.4 × 10 ; rs2856437: OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.14-2.02, P = .004). Both variants showed evidence of association with invasive squamous cervical cancer (rs10175462: OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68-0.94, P = .006; rs2856437: OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.03-2.36, P = .036) and with high-grade dysplasia (rs10175462: OR 0.79, 95%CI 0.70-0.90, P = 1.9 × 10 ; rs2856437: OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.15-2.17, P = .005). A combined analysis of high-grade dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer also showed significant associations for both variants (rs10175462: OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.91, P = 2.4 × 10 ; rs2856437: OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.18-2.10, P = .002). No association was detected for rs2856437 with low-grade dysplasia, while rs10175462 showed weak evidence of association (P = .05). RNA analyses in cervical samples revealed that PAX8 transcripts were upregulated in HPV-positive lesions (P = .008) but this was not observed in the presence of the protective minor allele of rs10175462. The rs10175462 genotype also correlated with reduced levels of the lncRNA PAX8-AS1 (P < .001). Taken together, our results extend the evidence for a link between genomic risk variants at the HLA region (PBX2) with cervical disease and support PAX8 as the first consistent non-HLA cervical cancer susceptibility locus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33614DOI Listing
April 2021

Diagnosis and Treatment of Endometriosis. Guideline of the DGGG, SGGG and OEGGG (S2k Level, AWMF Registry Number 015/045, August 2020).

Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2021 Apr 14;81(4):422-446. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Klinik für Frauenheilkunde, Klinikum St. Marien Amberg, Amberg, Germany.

The aim of this official guideline published and coordinated by the German Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (DGGG) in cooperation with the Austrian Society for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (OEGGG) and the Swiss Society for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (SGGG) was to provide consensus-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis based on an evaluation of the relevant literature. This S2k guideline represents the structured consensus of a representative panel of experts with different professional backgrounds commissioned by the Guideline Committee of the DGGG, OEGGG and SGGG. Recommendations on the epidemiology, aetiology, classification, symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis are given and special situations are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1380-3693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046516PMC
April 2021

[Early and Late Toxicities and Socio-Medical Relevant Disorders after Oncological Treatment for Breast Cancer-Implications and Assessment of Rehabilitation Requirement].

Rehabilitation (Stuttg) 2021 Apr 15;60(2):77-85. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Frauenklinik, Universitätsklinikum, Würzburg.

Introduction: Reasonable to the improved prognosis of breast cancer (BC) long-term toxicities and side effects of oncological therapy gain more importance for work ability and social life of BC patients. Aim of this study was the analysis of occurence and differences of treatment-related side effects in relation to type of rehabilitation (so-called AHB vs. later rehabilitation) after therapy for BC.

Methods: Clinical and patient related data as early and late toxicities after oncological treatment of 8.000 patients with BC (55.7±10.4y) were analyzed and compared with current literature.

Results: In 23.9% a mastectomy was performed, in 87.3% radiotherapy. In most cases an additional systemic treatment (57,6% CTX, 15,1% anti-Her2, 71% antihormonal treatment) was carried out. In 8.1% women suffered from recurrent or metastatic BC. As most common side effects of multimodal treatment weakness/fatigue (73,6%), insomnia (51,9%), CIPN (33%), lymph edema (13,9%) and drug-induced arthralgia (24,8%) were detected. In addition, 60.4% of women reported high levels of psychological distress. Shortly after therapy typical side effects were drug-induced toxicities (Leucopenia, p<0.0001; anemia, p<0.001; weakness/fatigue p<0.001; CIPN, p<0.0001), whereas in a later course chronic lymphedema (p<0.0001), chronic or recurrent disease (p<0.0001), status after mastectomy (p<0.0001) and psychological distress (p<0.0001) were significantly more often seen. Moreover, in this collective patients were significantly younger (53,7±9,8 vs. 56,3±10,7y).

Conclusions: In BC patients, significantly different impairments and toxicities were documented between patients with early rehabilitation and patients with later onset of rehabilitation. These data may help to establish more individual and focused rehabilitation concepts in specialized centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1361-3666DOI Listing
April 2021

The Randomized AMBORA Trial: Impact of Pharmacological/Pharmaceutical Care on Medication Safety and Patient-Reported Outcomes During Treatment With New Oral Anticancer Agents.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 6;39(18):1983-1994. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-EMN, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

Purpose: Oral anticancer drugs (eg, kinase inhibitors) play an important role in cancer therapy. However, considerable challenges regarding medication safety of oral anticancer drugs have been reported. Randomized, controlled, multicenter studies on the impact of intensified clinical pharmacological/pharmaceutical care on patient safety and patient treatment perception are lacking.

Methods: Patients were eligible for the randomized, multicenter AMBORA study, if they were newly started on any of the oral anticancer drugs approved in 2001 or later without restriction to certain tumor entities. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either standard of care (control group) or an additional, intensified clinical pharmacological/pharmaceutical care, which included medication management and structured patient counseling, over a period of 12 weeks (intervention group). Primary end points were the number of antitumor drug-related problems (ie, side effects and unresolved medication errors) and patient treatment satisfaction with the oral anticancer therapy after 12 weeks measured with the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication, category convenience.

Results: Two hundred two patients were included. Antitumor drug-related problems were significantly lower in the intervention compared with the control group (3.85 5.81 [mean], < .001). Patient treatment satisfaction was higher in the intervention group (Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication, convenience; 91.6 74.4 [mean], < .001). The hazard ratio for the combined end point of severe side effects (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events ≥ 3), treatment discontinuation, unscheduled hospital admission, and death was 0.48 (95% CI, 0.32 to 0.71, < .001) in favor of the intervention group.

Conclusion: Treatment with oral anticancer drugs is associated with a broad range of medication errors and side effects. An intensified clinical pharmacological/pharmaceutical care has considerable, positive effects on the number of medication errors, patient treatment perception, and severe side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03088DOI Listing
June 2021

Mutations in and Other Panel Genes in Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer -Association With Patient and Disease Characteristics and Effect on Prognosis.

J Clin Oncol 2021 May 29;39(15):1619-1630. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Purpose: Among patients with metastatic breast cancer (mBC), the frequency of germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes and the clinical relevance of these mutations are unclear. In this study, a prospective cohort of patients with mBC was used to determine mutation rates for breast cancer (BC) predisposition genes, to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with mutations, and to assess the influence of mutations on patient outcome.

Patients And Methods: Germline DNA from 2,595 patients with mBC enrolled in the prospective PRAEGNANT registry was evaluated for mutations in cancer predisposition genes. The frequencies of mutations in known BC predisposition genes were compared with results from a prospective registry of patients with nonmetastatic BC sequenced using the same QIAseq method and with public reference controls. Associations between mutation status and tumor characteristics, progression-free survival, and overall survival were assessed.

Results: Germline mutations in 12 established BC predisposition genes (including and ) were detected in 271 (10.4%) patients. A mutation in or was seen in 129 patients (5.0%). mutation carriers had a higher proportion of brain metastasis (27.1%) compared with nonmutation carriers (12.8%). Mutations were significantly enriched in PRAEGNANT patients with mBC compared with patients with nonmetastatic BC (10.4% 6.6%, < .01). Mutations did not significantly modify progression-free survival or overall survival for patients with mBC.

Conclusion: Multigene panel testing may be considered in all patients with mBC because of the high frequency of germline mutations in and other BC predisposition genes. Although the prognosis of mutation carriers and nonmutation carriers with mBC was similar, differences observed in tumor characteristics have implications for treatment and for future studies of targeted therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274805PMC
May 2021

[Endometriosis: gynecological diagnosis and treatment : What should pain management specialists know?]

Schmerz 2021 Jun 17;35(3):172-178. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Frauenklinik, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Universitäts-Endometriosezentrum Franken (UEF), Universitätsstr. 21-23, 91054, Erlangen, Deutschland.

Background: Endometriosis is one of the most common diseases in women of reproductive age. Despite characteristic symptoms such as dysmenorrhea, chronic abdominal pain, dysuria, dyschezia and dyspareunia, the average latency until diagnosis is around 10 years. In addition to the individual limitations, the disease also has economic and health policy relevance. The complaints are followed by reductions in working hours, cyclically recurring short-term sick leave or presenteeism with reduced performance.

Objective: An overview of the main recommendations of the S2k guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis.

Material And Methods: For the S2k guideline "Diagnostics and therapy of endometriosis", a systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and Cochrane according to a defined algorithm and over a period of more than 5 years, from 01.01.2014 to 31.12.2018. For the evaluation, 322 publications, including systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials were considered and these were assessed by 41 mandate holders and representatives from 25 Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) and non-AWMF professional societies, organizations, associations and working groups of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG), as well as two patient target groups.

Results: In a structured consensus process, 48 recommendations and 27 statements were formulated, which are presented in extracts in this paper.

Discussion: Interdisciplinary cooperation is essential in the treatment of patients with (suspected) endometriosis. This team should include all necessary disciplines in a cross-sectoral network. This is most likely to be achieved in a certified structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00482-021-00541-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Active Participation, Mind-Body Stabilization, and Coping Strategies with Integrative Medicine in Breast Cancer Patients.

Integr Cancer Ther 2021 Jan-Dec;20:1534735421990108

Erlangen University Hospital, Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Purpose: Increasing numbers of breast cancer survivors have led to a growing demand for integrative medicine. When patients have completed treatments associated with severe side effects, attention turns to reducing psychological symptoms, coping behavior, and self-care. The aim of this study was to assess patient-reported benefits in relation to active participation, mind-body stabilization, and coping strategies in breast cancer patients receiving integrative medicine.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, health counseling and treatment provided by a standardized integrative medicine consultancy service at the University Breast Center of Franconia were evaluated in 75 breast cancer patients over a 15-month period. At the baseline, the patients answered a questionnaire on their medical history, symptoms, and the treatment goals they were hoping to achieve with integrative medicine. Patient-reported outcomes relative to active participation, mind-body stabilization, and coping strategies were analyzed.

Results: A large majority of the patients had previous experience with integrative medicine (91%). Most reported that they achieved their treatment goals with integrative medicine. Ninety-one percent achieved active participation in cancer treatment, 90% mind-body stabilization, and 79% improvement in coping strategies. Besides active participation, which was greatest in patients with stable disease, the success of integrative therapy was independent of age, concomitant diseases, previous integrative medicine experience, treatment state, and systemic cancer therapy.

Conclusion: Breast cancer patients benefit from the counseling and treatment provided with integrative medicine in mind-body stabilization and coping with cancer. Active participation in cancer treatment is important for the patients. Integrative treatment services should form part of routine patient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534735421990108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924003PMC
March 2021

Human papilloma virus genotype distribution in women with premalignant or malignant lesions of the uterine cervix.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 Sep 4;304(3):751-758. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-European Metropolitan Area of Nuremberg (CCC ER-EMN), Erlangen University Hospital, Universitätsstrasse 21-23, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.

Objective: Cervical cancer is caused by persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV). Cytology-based national screening programs have reduced the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. Different hrHPV subtypes have different carcinogenic potentials. This study evaluated the distribution of different types of hrHPV relative to age in cervical cancer and its precursor lesions.

Methods: HPV testing was performed between November 2018 and February 2020 using the Abbott RealTime high-risk HPV assay on an Abbott m2000sp instrument. This assay separately detects HPV-16, HPV-18, and a pool of 12 additional hrHPV types (HPV-31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, and -68).

Results: The study included 652 women with HPV samples and biopsies of the cervix or histology samples obtained during surgery. In all, 30.8% (95% CI, 27.3-34.6%) were HPV-negative. Among HPV-positive women, HPV-16, HPV-18, and "HPV other" types were found in 33.5, 4.4, and 49.4%, respectively. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3/high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) in women ≤ 34 years were positive for HPV-16 in 54.5% of cases and in those ≥ 35 years in 45.4% of cases. Among women with cervical cancer, 75.8% were infected with HPV-16 or had coinfection with HPV-16 and "HPV other".

Conclusions: HPV-16 is the most common type of hrHPV in HSIL + lesions. It is more common in women diagnosed with CIN 3/HSIL who are aged ≤ 35 and is decreasing with age. Therefore, women age ≥ 35 with persistent infection with this type of hrHPV need careful surveillance, as they are at high risk of progression to cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-021-05986-zDOI Listing
September 2021

Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Facial Phenotype in Adolescents: A Study Based on Meconium Ethyl Glucuronide.

Brain Sci 2021 Jan 25;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany.

Here, we explore the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in adolescence. We investigated associations between meconium ethyl glucoronide (EtG) and facial malformation. For 129 children (66/63 male/female; M = 13.3, SD = 0.32, 12-14 years), PAE was implemented by newborn meconium EtG and maternal self-reports during the third trimester. Cognitive development was operationalized by standardized scores (WISC V). The EtG cut-off values were set at ≥10 ng/g ( = 32, 24.8% EtG10+) and ≥112 ng/g ( = 20, 15.5% EtG112+). The craniofacial shape was measured using FAS Facial Photographic Analysis Software. EtG10+- and EtG112+-affected children exhibited a shorter palpebral fissure length ( 0.031/ = 0.055). Lip circularity was smaller in EtG112+-affected children ( = 0.026). Maternal self-reports were not associated ( > 0.164). Lip circularity correlated with fluid reasoning (EtG10+ 0.031; EtG112+ = 0.298) and working memory (EtG10+ = 0.084; EtG112+ = 0.144). The present study demonstrates visible effects of the facial phenotype in exposed adolescents. Facial malformation was associated with a child's cognitive performance in the alcohol-exposed group. The EtG biomarker was a better predictor than maternal self-reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11020154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911744PMC
January 2021

Breast Cancer Risk Factors and Survival by Tumor Subtype: Pooled Analyses from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Apr 26;30(4):623-642. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Gynaecology Research Unit, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: It is not known whether modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype.

Methods: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype.

Results: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype ( > 0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI ≥30 versus 18.5-25 kg/m [HR (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19 (1.06-1.34)]; current versus never smoking [1.37 (1.27-1.47)], high versus low physical activity [0.43 (0.21-0.86)], age ≥30 years versus <20 years at first pregnancy [0.79 (0.72-0.86)]; >0-<5 years versus ≥10 years since last full-term birth [1.31 (1.11-1.55)]; ever versus never use of oral contraceptives [0.91 (0.87-0.96)]; ever versus never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy [0.61 (0.54-0.69)]. Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; for example, 1.11 (1.02-1.21) for current versus never smoking.

Conclusions: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype.

Impact: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026532PMC
April 2021
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