Publications by authors named "Matthias Grabenhorst"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Two sources of uncertainty independently modulate temporal expectancy.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Department of Neuroscience, Max-Planck-Institute for Empirical Aesthetics, Frankfurt 60322, Germany.

The environment is shaped by two sources of temporal uncertainty: the discrete probability of whether an event will occur and-if it does-the continuous probability of when it will happen. These two types of uncertainty are fundamental to every form of anticipatory behavior including learning, decision-making, and motor planning. It remains unknown how the brain models the two uncertainty parameters and how they interact in anticipation. It is commonly assumed that the discrete probability of whether an event will occur has a fixed effect on event expectancy over time. In contrast, we first demonstrate that this pattern is highly dynamic and monotonically increases across time. Intriguingly, this behavior is independent of the continuous probability of when an event will occur. The effect of this continuous probability on anticipation is commonly proposed to be driven by the hazard rate (HR) of events. We next show that the HR fails to account for behavior and propose a model of event expectancy based on the probability density function of events. Our results hold for both vision and audition, suggesting independence of the representation of the two uncertainties from sensory input modality. These findings enrich the understanding of fundamental anticipatory processes and have provocative implications for many aspects of behavior and its neural underpinnings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2019342118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072397PMC
April 2021

The anticipation of events in time.

Nat Commun 2019 12 20;10(1):5802. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Neuroscience Department, Max-Planck-Institute for Empirical Aesthetics, Grüneburgweg 14, 60322, Frankfurt, Germany.

Humans anticipate events signaled by sensory cues. It is commonly assumed that two uncertainty parameters modulate the brain's capacity to predict: the hazard rate (HR) of event probability and the uncertainty in time estimation which increases with elapsed time. We investigate both assumptions by presenting event probability density functions (PDFs) in each of three sensory modalities. We show that perceptual systems use the reciprocal PDF and not the HR to model event probability density. We also demonstrate that temporal uncertainty does not necessarily grow with elapsed time but can also diminish, depending on the event PDF. Previous research identified neuronal activity related to event probability in multiple levels of the cortical hierarchy (sensory (V4), association (LIP), motor and other areas) proposing the HR as an elementary neuronal computation. Our results-consistent across vision, audition, and somatosensation-suggest that the neurobiological implementation of event anticipation is based on a different, simpler and more stable computation than HR: the reciprocal PDF of events in time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13849-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925136PMC
December 2019

Layman versus Professional Musician: Who Makes the Better Judge?

PLoS One 2015 26;10(8):e0135394. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Psychology Department, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

The increasing number of casting shows and talent contests in the media over the past years suggests a public interest in rating the quality of vocal performances. In many of these formats, laymen alongside music experts act as judges. Whereas experts' judgments are considered objective and reliable when it comes to evaluating singing voice, little is known about laymen's ability to evaluate peers. On the one hand, layman listeners-who by definition did not have any formal training or regular musical practice-are known to have internalized the musical rules on which singing accuracy is based. On the other hand, layman listeners' judgment of their own vocal skills is highly inaccurate. Also, when compared with that of music experts, their level of competence in pitch perception has proven limited. The present study investigates laypersons' ability to objectively evaluate melodies performed by untrained singers. For this purpose, laymen listeners were asked to judge sung melodies. The results were compared with those of music experts who had performed the same task in a previous study. Interestingly, the findings show a high objectivity and reliability in layman listeners. Whereas both the laymen's and experts' definition of pitch accuracy overlap, differences regarding the musical criteria employed in the rating task were evident. The findings suggest that the effect of expertise is circumscribed and limited and supports the view that laypersons make trustworthy judges when evaluating the pitch accuracy of untrained singers.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0135394PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4550346PMC
May 2016

Radiologic manifestations of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2015 Mar;204(3):475-86

1 Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany.

OBJECTIVE. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction promises to become an effective treatment option in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Several techniques are currently being investigated, including implantation of devices into the lung and instillation of hot water vapor or polymer. This article reviews the spectrum of radiologic manifestations on chest radiography and CT that occur after the intervention. CONCLUSION. Familiarity with the intended effects and adverse events will aid the radiologist in supporting bronchoscopic lung volume reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.14.13185DOI Listing
March 2015
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