Publications by authors named "Matthias Bechstein"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of intravenous alteplase on sub-angiographic emboli in high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging following successful thrombectomy.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Objective: Thrombus microfragmentation causing peripheral emboli (PE) during mechanical thrombectomy (MT) may modulate treatment effects, even in cases with successful reperfusion. This study aims to investigate whether intravenous alteplase is of potential benefit in reducing PE after successful MT.

Methods: Patients from a prospective study treated at a tertiary care stroke center between 08/2017 and 12/2019 were analyzed. The main inclusion criterion was successful reperfusion after MT (defined as expanded thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (eTICI) scale ≥ 2b50) of large vessel occlusion anterior circulation stroke. All patients received a high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) follow-up 24 h after MT for PE detection. Patients were grouped as "direct MT" (no alteplase) or as MT plus additional intravenous alteplase. The number and volume of ischemic core lesions and PE were then quantified and analyzed.

Results: Fifty-six patients were prospectively enrolled. Additional intravenous alteplase was administered in 46.3% (26/56). There were no statistically significant differences of PE compared by groups of direct MT and additional intravenous alteplase administration regarding mean numbers (12.1, 95% CI 8.6-15.5 vs. 11.1, 95% CI 7.0-15.1; p = 0.701), and median volume (0.70 mL, IQR 0.21-1.55 vs. 0.39 mL, IQR 0.10-1.62; p = 0.554). In uni- and multivariable linear regression analysis, higher eTICI scores were significantly associated with reduced PE, while the administration of alteplase was neither associated with numbers nor volume of peripheral emboli. Additional alteplase did not alter reperfusion success.

Conclusions: Intravenous alteplase neither affects the number nor volume of sub-angiographic DWI-PE after successful endovascular reperfusion. In the light of currently running randomized trials, further studies are warranted to validate these findings.

Key Points: • Thrombus microfragmentation during endovascular stroke treatment may cause peripheral emboli that are only detectable on diffusion-weighted imaging and may directly compromise treatment effects. • In this prospective study, the application of intravenous alteplase did not influence the occurrence of peripheral emboli detected on high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging. • A higher degree of recanalization was associated with a reduced number and volume of peripheral emboli and better functional outcome, while contrariwise, peripheral emboli did not modify the effect of recanalization on modified Rankin Scale scores at day 90.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07980-0DOI Listing
May 2021

ASPECTS Interobserver Agreement of 100 Investigators from the TENSION Study.

Clin Neuroradiol 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Purpose: Evaluating the extent of cerebral ischemic infarction is essential for treatment decisions and assessment of possible complications in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Patients are often triaged according to image-based early signs of infarction, defined by Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). Our aim was to evaluate interrater reliability in a large group of readers.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 100 investigators who independently evaluated 20 non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) scans as part of their qualification program for the TENSION study. Test cases were chosen by four neuroradiologists who had previously scored NCCT scans with ASPECTS between 0 and 8 and high interrater agreement. Percent and interrater agreements were calculated for total ASPECTS, as well as for each ASPECTS region.

Results: Percent agreements for ASPECTS ratings was 28%, with interrater agreement of 0.13 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.09-0.16), at zero tolerance allowance and 66%, with interrater agreement of 0.32 (95% CI: 0.21-0.44), at tolerance allowance set by TENSION inclusion criteria. ASPECTS region with highest level of agreement was the insular cortex (percent agreement = 96%, interrater agreement = 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94-0.97)) and with lowest level of agreement the M3 region (percent agreement = 68%, interrater agreement = 0.39 [95% CI: 0.17-0.61]).

Conclusion: Interrater agreement reliability for total ASPECTS and study enrollment was relatively low but seems sufficient for practical application. Individual region analysis suggests that some are particularly difficult to evaluate, with varying levels of reliability. Potential impairment of the supraganglionic region must be examined carefully, particularly with respect to the decision whether or not to perform mechanical thrombectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00062-020-00988-xDOI Listing
January 2021

Relationship between the degree of recanalization and functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke is mediated by penumbra salvage volume.

J Neurol 2021 Jan 24. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The presence of metabolically viable brain tissue that may be salvageable with rapid cerebral blood flow restoration is the fundament rationale for reperfusion therapy in patients with large vessel occlusion stroke. The effect of endovascular treatment (EVT) on functional outcome largely depends on the degree of recanalization. However, the relationship of recanalization degree and penumbra salvage has not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that penumbra salvage volume mediates the effect of thrombectomy on functional outcome.

Methods: 99 acute anterior circulation stroke patients who received multimodal CT and underwent thrombectomy with resulting partial to complete reperfusion (modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction scale (mTICI) ≥ 2a) were retrospectively analyzed. Penumbra volume was quantified on CT perfusion and penumbra salvage volume (PSV) was calculated as difference of penumbra and net infarct growth from admission to follow-up imaging.

Results: In patients with complete reperfusion (mTICI ≥ 2c), the median PSV was significantly higher than the median PSV in patients with partial or incomplete (mTICI 2a-2b) reperfusion (median 224 mL, IQR: 168-303 versus 158 mL, IQR: 129-225; p < 0.01). A higher degree of recanalization was associated with increased PSV (+ 63 mL per grade, 95% CI: 17-110; p < 0.01). Higher PSV was also associated with improved functional outcome (OR/mRS shift: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85-0.95, p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: PSV may be an important mediator between functional outcome and recanalization degree in EVT patients and could serve as a more accurate instrument to compare treatment effects than infarct volumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10410-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Silent Brain Infarction After Endovascular Arch Procedures: Preliminary Results from the STEP Registry.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021 02 22;61(2):239-245. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Aortic Centre, Hôpital Marie Lannelongue, Groupe Hospitalier Paris Saint Joseph, Université Paris Saclay, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Objective: Few data exist concerning the rate of silent cerebral ischaemic events following endovascular treatment of the aortic arch. The objective of this work was to quantify these lesions using the STEP registry (NCT04489277).

Methods: This multicentre retrospective cohort study included consecutive patients treated with an aortic endoprosthesis deployed in Ishimaru zone 0-3 and brain diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) within seven days following the procedure. DW-MRI was performed to identify the location and number of new silent brain infarctions (SBI). All endografts were carbon dioxide flushed prior to implantation.

Results: The study population included 91 patients (mean age, 69 years; men, 64%) from two academic centres treated between September 2018 and January 2020. The procedure was elective in 71 patients (78%). The treatment was performed for a dissection, degenerative aneurysm, or other aortic disease in 44 (49%), 34 (37%), and 13 (14%) patients, respectively. Endografts were deployed in zone 0, 1, 2 or 3 in 23 (25%), 10 (11%), 47 (52%), and 11 (12%) patients, respectively. Endografts were branched (25%), fenestrated (17%), or tubular (58%). At 30 days, there were no deaths or clinical strokes. On cerebral DW-MRI, a total of 245 SBI were identified in 45 patients (50%). Lesions were in the left hemisphere in 63% of the patients (153/245), predominantly in the middle territory (94/245). Deployment in zone 0-1 (p = .026), placement of a branched or fenestrated endograft (p = .038), a proximal endoprosthesis diameter ≥ 40 mm (p = .038), and an urgent procedure (p = .005) were significantly associated with the presence of SBI on univariable analysis, while urgent procedure was found to be an independent predictor on multivariable analysis (binary logistic regression) (p = .002).

Conclusion: SBI following endovascular repair of the aortic arch is frequent, although there were no clinical strokes. Innovative strategies to reduce the risk of embolisation need to be developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.11.021DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of thrombectomy on oedema progression and clinical outcome in patients with a poor collateral profile.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2020 Nov 18. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background And Purpose: The impact of the cerebral collateral circulation on lesion progression and clinical outcome in ischaemic stroke is well established. Moreover, collateral status modifies the effect of endovascular treatment and was therefore used to select patients for therapy in prior trials. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of vessel recanalisation on lesion pathophysiology and clinical outcome in patients with a poor collateral profile.

Materials And Methods: 129 patients who had an ischaemic stroke with large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation and a collateral score (CS) of 0-2 were included. Collateral profile was defined using an established 5-point scoring system in CT angiography. Lesion progression was determined using quantitative lesion water uptake measurements on admission and follow-up CT (FCT), and clinical outcome was assessed using modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores after 90 days.

Results: Oedema formation in FCT was significantly lower in patients with vessel recanalisation compared with patients with persistent vessel occlusion (mean 19.5%, 95% CI: 17% to 22% vs mean 27%, 95% CI: 25% to 29%; p<0.0001). In a multivariable linear regression analysis, vessel recanalisation was significantly associated with oedema formation in FCT (ß=-7.31, SD=0.015, p<0.0001), adjusted for CS, age and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). Functional outcome was significantly better in patients following successful recanalisation (mRS at day 90: 4.5, IQR: 2-6 vs 5, IQR: 5-6, p<0.001).

Conclusion: Although poor collaterals are known to be associated with poor outcome, endovascular recanalisation was still associated with significant oedema reduction and comparably better outcome in this patient group. Patients with poor collaterals should not generally be excluded from thrombectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2020-000570DOI Listing
November 2020

Computed tomography-based triage of extensive baseline infarction: ASPECTS and collaterals versus perfusion imaging for outcome prediction.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Nov 9. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Patients presenting with large baseline infarctions are often excluded from mechanical thrombectomy (MT) due to uncertainty surrounding its effect on outcome. We hypothesized that computed tomography perfusion (CTP)-based selection may be predictive of functional outcome in low Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) patients.

Methods: This was a double-center, retrospective analysis of patients presenting with ASPECTS≤5 who received multimodal admission CT imaging between May 2015 and June 2020. The predicted ischemic core (pCore) was defined as a reduction in cerebral blood flow (rCBF), while mismatch volume was defined using time to maximum (Tmax). The pCore perfusion mismatch ratio (CPMR) was also calculated. These parameters (pCore, mismatch volume, and CPMR), as well as a combined radiological score consisting of ASPECTS and collateral status (ASCO score), were tested in logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. The primary outcome was favorable modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge (≤3).

Results: A total of 113 patients met the inclusion criteria. The median ischemic core volume was 74.1 mL (IQR 43.8-121.8). The ASCO score was associated with favorable outcome at discharge (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 10.7, P=0.002), while no association was observed for the CTP parameters. A model including the ASCO score also had significantly higher area under the curve (AUC) values compared with the CTP-based model (0.88 vs 0.64, P=0.018).

Conclusions: The ASCO score was superior to the CTP-based model for the prediction of good functional outcome and could represent a quick, practical, and easily implemented method for the selection of low ASPECTS patients most likely benefit from MT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016848DOI Listing
November 2020

Republished: Interhospital teleproctoring of endovascular intracranial aneurysm treatment using a dedicated live-streaming technology: first experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Feb 20;13(2):e1. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

This is a report of the first three cases of endovascular aneurysm treatment that were proctored by a remote interventionalist using a novel high-resolution low-latency streaming technology. The proctor was located in a neurovascular centre and supported the treating interventional teams in two distant cities (up to 800 km/500 miles apart). All aneurysms were treated using the Woven EndoBridge (WEB) embolisation system, either electively or following subarachnoid haemorrhage. On-site proctoring was not possible due to travel restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic. WEB placement was feasible in all cases. Good rapport between proctors and treating physicians was reported, enabled by the high-resolution image transmission and uninterrupted feedback/discussion via audiostream. No clinical complications were encountered. Short-term follow-up revealed adequate occlusion of all treated aneurysms. The employed streaming technology provided effective remote proctoring during complex aneurysm cases, including the management of technical complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016722.repDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7848056PMC
February 2021

Early Prediction of Malignant Cerebellar Edema in Posterior Circulation Stroke Using Quantitative Lesion Water Uptake.

Neurosurgery 2021 02;88(3):531-537

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Malignant cerebellar edema (MCE) is a life-threatening complication of ischemic posterior circulation stroke that requires timely diagnosis and management. Yet, there is no established imaging biomarker that may serve as predictor of MCE. Early edematous water uptake can be determined using quantitative lesion water uptake, but this biomarker has only been applied in anterior circulation strokes.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that lesion water uptake in early posterior circulation stroke predicts MCE.

Methods: A total 179 patients with posterior circulation stroke and multimodal admission CT were included. A total of 35 (19.5%) patients developed MCE defined by using an established 10-point scale in follow-up CT, of which ≥4 points are considered malignant. Posterior circulation net water uptake (pcNWU) was quantified in admission CT based on CT densitometry and compared with posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score (pc-ASPECTS) as predictor of MCE using receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis and logistic regression analysis.

Results: Acute pcNWU within the early ischemic lesion was 24.6% (±8.4) for malignant and 7.2% (±7.4) for nonmalignant infarctions, respectively (P < .0001). Based on ROC analysis, pcNWU above 14.9% identified MCE with high discriminative power (area under the curve: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.89-0.97). Early pcNWU (odds ratio [OR]: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.15-1.42, P < .0001) and pc-ASPECTS (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.95, P = .02) were associated with MCE, adjusted for age and recanalization status.

Conclusion: Quantitative pcNWU in early posterior circulation stroke is an important marker for MCE. Besides pc-ASPECTS, lesion water uptake measurements may further support identifying patients at risk for MCE at an early stage indicating stricter monitoring and consideration for further therapeutic measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa438DOI Listing
February 2021

Interhospital teleproctoring of endovascular intracranial aneurysm treatment using a dedicated live-streaming technology: first experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Oct 4;13(10). Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

This is a report of the first three cases of endovascular aneurysm treatment that were proctored by a remote interventionalist using a novel high-resolution low-latency streaming technology. The proctor was located in a neurovascular centre and supported the treating interventional teams in two distant cities (up to 800 km/500 miles apart). All aneurysms were treated using the Woven EndoBridge (WEB) embolisation system, either electively or following subarachnoid haemorrhage. On-site proctoring was not possible due to travel restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic. WEB placement was feasible in all cases. Good rapport between proctors and treating physicians was reported, enabled by the high-resolution image transmission and uninterrupted feedback/discussion via audiostream. No clinical complications were encountered. Short-term follow-up revealed adequate occlusion of all treated aneurysms. The employed streaming technology provided effective remote proctoring during complex aneurysm cases, including the management of technical complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-016722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536784PMC
October 2020

Early clinical surrogates for outcome prediction after stroke thrombectomy in daily clinical practice.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2020 10;91(10):1055-1059

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background And Purpose: To investigate early clinical surrogates for long-term independency of patients treated with thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion stroke in daily clinical routine.

Methods: All patients with anterior circulation stroke enrolled in the German Stroke Registry-Endovascular Treatment from 07/2015 to 04/2018 were analysed. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission, NIHSS percentage change, NIHSS delta and NIHSS at 24 hours as well as existing binary definitions of early neurological improvement (ENI; improvement of 8 (major ENI)/10 (dramatic ENI) NIHSS points or reaching 0/1 were compared for predicting functional outcome at 90 days using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Excellent and favourable outcome were defined as 0-1 and 0-2, respectively.

Results: Among 2262 endovasculary treated patients with acute ischaemic anterior circulation stroke, NIHSS at 24 hours had the highest discriminative ability to predict excellent (receiver operator characteristics (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) 0.86 (0.84-0.88)) and favourable long-term functional outcome (ROC AUC 0.86 (0.85-0.88)) in comparison to NIHSS percentage change (ROC AUC mRS ≤1: 0.81 (0.78-0.83) mRS ≤2: 0.81 (0.79-0.83)), NIHSS delta change (ROC AUC mRS ≤1: 0.74 (0.72-0.77), mRS ≤2: 0.77 (0.74-0.79)) and NIHSS admission (ROC AUC mRS ≤1: 0.70 (0.68-0.73), mRS ≤2: 0.67 (0.68-0.71)). Advanced age was the only independent predictor (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.07, p<0.001) for turning the outcome prognosis from favourable (mRS ≤2) to poor (mRS ≥4) at 90 days.

Conclusion: The NIHSS at 24 hours postintervention with a threshold of ≤8 points serves best as a surrogate for long-term functional outcome after thrombectomy for anterior circulation stroke in daily clinical practice. Only advanced age significantly decreases its predictive value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2020-323742DOI Listing
October 2020

Ischemic lesion water homeostasis after thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion stroke within the anterior circulation: The impact of age.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Jan 4;41(1):45-52. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

The effect of age on lesion pathophysiology in the context of thrombectomy has been poorly investigated. We aimed to investigate the impact of age on ischemic lesion water homeostasis measured with net water uptake (NWU) within a multicenter cohort of patients receiving thrombectomy for anterior circulation large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke. Lesion-NWU was quantified in multimodal CT on admission and 24 h for calculating Δ-NWU as their difference. The impact of age and procedural parameters on Δ-NWU was analyzed. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify significant predictors for Δ-NWU. Two hundred and four patients with anterior circulation stroke were included in the retrospective analysis. Comparison of younger and elderly patients showed no significant differences in NWU on admission but significantly higher Δ-NWU ( = 0.005) on follow-up CT in younger patients. In multivariable regression analysis, higher age was independently associated with lowered Δ-NWU (95% confidence interval: -0.59 to -0.16,  < 0.001). Although successful recanalization (TICI ≥ 2b) significantly reduced Δ-NWU progression by 6.4% ( < 0.001), younger age was still independently associated with higher Δ-NWU ( < 0.001). Younger age is significantly associated with increased brain edema formation after thrombectomy for LVO stroke. Younger patients might be particularly receptive targets for future adjuvant neuroprotective drugs that influence ischemic edema formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X20915792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747157PMC
January 2021

Training and Supervision of Thrombectomy by Remote Live Streaming Support (RESS) : Randomized Comparison Using Simulated Stroke Interventions.

Clin Neuroradiol 2021 Mar 20;31(1):181-187. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Purpose: Stroke patients are excluded from expeditious thrombectomy in regions lacking neurointerventional specialists. An audiovisual online streaming system was tested, allowing a neurointerventional specialist located at a neurovascular center to supervise and instruct a thrombectomy performed at a distant hospital without being physically present (remote streaming support [RESS]).

Methods: In total, 36 thrombectomy procedures were performed on a Mentice endovascular simulator by six radiologists not specialized in neurointerventions. Each radiologist was challenged with six different endovascular simulation scenarios under alternating conventional local support (specialist inside the room [LOS]) and RESS, which was performed using an advanced live streaming platform.

Results: Both support modes led to a median of 2 attempts (interquartile range [IQR] 2.0-2.0 each) until successful recanalization. There was no statistically significant difference in time from first catheter insertion to recanalization between LOS (median 24.9 min, IQR 21.0-31.5 min) and RESS (23.9 min, IQR 21.7-28.7 min, p = 0.89). The percentage of thrombi covered by the stent-retriever and average speed when retrieving the stent-retriever (3.7 mm/s, IQR 3.25-5.35 mm/s vs. 3.6 mm/sec, IQR 2.5-4.7) were similar in both groups. Fluoroscopy time did not differ (19.0 min, IQR 16.9-23.5 min vs. 19.9 min, IQR 15.9-23.5 min) with a trend towards increased median amounts of contrast medium used under RESS (62.9 ml vs. 43.1 ml; p = 0.055).

Conclusion: This study confirmed the feasibility of RESS for thrombectomy procedures in a simulated environment. This serves as basis for future studies planned to analyze the effectiveness of RESS in a real-world environment and to test if it improves the learning curve of interventionalists with limited thrombectomy experience in remote areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00062-019-00870-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Elevated blood glucose is associated with aggravated brain edema in acute stroke.

J Neurol 2020 Feb 30;267(2):440-448. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Clinical outcome after endovascular thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke still varies significantly. Higher blood glucose levels (BGL) have been associated with worse clinical outcome, but the pathophysiological causes are not yet understood. We hypothesized that higher levels of BGL are associated with more pronounced ischemic brain edema and worse clinical outcome mediated by cerebral collateral circulation.

Methods: 178 acute ischemic stroke patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy were included. Early ischemic brain edema was determined using quantitative lesion water uptake on initial computed tomography (CT) and collateral status was assessed with an established 5-point scoring system in CT-angiography. Good clinical outcome was defined as functional independence (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 0-2). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to predict functional independence and linear regression analyses to investigate the impact of BGL and collateral status on water uptake.

Results: The mean BGL at admission was significantly lower in patients with good outcome at 90 days (116.5 versus 138.5 mg/dl; p < 0.001) and early water uptake was lower (6.3% versus 9.6%; p < 0.001). The likelihood for good outcome declined with increasing BGL (odds ratio [OR] per 100 mg/dl BGL increase: 0.15; 95% CI 0.02-0.86; p = 0.039). Worse collaterals (1% water uptake per point, 95% CI 0.4-1.7%) and higher BGL (0.6% per 10 mg/dl BGL, 95% CI 0.3-0.8%) were significantly associated with increased water uptake.

Conclusion: Elevated admission BGL were associated with increased early brain edema and poor clinical outcome mediated by collateral status. Patients with higher BGL might be targeted by adjuvant anti-edematous treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09601-9DOI Listing
February 2020

Futile Recanalization With Poor Clinical Outcome Is Associated With Increased Edema Volume After Ischemic Stroke.

Invest Radiol 2019 05;54(5):282-287

From the Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, and.

Purpose: Futile recanalization with poor clinical outcome after endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke is poorly understood. Recently, vessel recanalization has been associated with reduced ischemic brain edema in patients with good clinical outcome. As edema volume (EV) may be quantified in computed tomography (CT), we hypothesized that higher EV after revascularization predicts futile recanalization with poor outcome.

Methods: In this observational study, 67 ischemic stroke patients with M1 middle cerebral artery occlusion fulfilled all inclusion criteria and were analyzed. All patients received successful endovascular recanalization (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction scale 2b/3) and subsequent follow-up CT 24 hours later. Edema volume within the infarct lesion was calculated in follow-up CT applying lesion water uptake quantification and was used to predict clinical outcome (Modified Rankin Scale [mRS] after 90 days) compared with infarct volume.

Results: The median EV after thrombectomy was 1.6 mL (interquartile range, 0.2-4.2 mL) in patients with mRS 0 to 4 and 8.6 mL (interquartile range, 2.0-49.8 mL) in patients with mRS 5 to 6 (P = 0.0008). In regression analysis, an EV increase of 1 mL was associated with an 8.0% increased likelihood of poor outcome (95% confidence interval, 2.8%-15.4%; P = 0.008). Based on univariate receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, absolute EV over 4.2 mL predicted poor outcome (mRS 5-6) with good discriminative power (area under curve, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.84; specificity, 77%; sensitivity, 68%). In comparison, the area under curve for infarct volume was 0.68.

Conclusions: Elevated EV after endovascular thrombectomy was associated with poor clinical outcome and may indicate futile recanalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000539DOI Listing
May 2019

CNTF-mediated preactivation of astrocytes attenuates neuronal damage and epileptiform activity in experimental epilepsy.

Exp Neurol 2012 Jul 19;236(1):141-50. Epub 2012 Apr 19.

Experimental Epilepsy Research, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Activated astrocytes display a broad spectrum of properties, ranging from neuroprotection to active contribution to demise of neural tissue. To investigate if activation of astrocytes by a single, defined stimulus enhances neuroprotective properties, we tested whether injection of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) can ameliorate epilepsy-related brain damage. Intrahippocampal CNTF injection in mice induced a rapid (within 2 days) and persistent (3 weeks) activation of astrocytes reflected by strong upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mRNA synthesis and GFAP immunoreactivity. Moreover, CNTF signaling via phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) was specifically activated in GFAP-positive astrocytes. CNTF-mediated activation of astrocytes 2 days prior to an epileptogenic intrahippocampal injection of kainate (KA) resulted in strongly reduced cell death in the hilus and CA3 region of the hippocampus, revealed by Fluoro-Jade B staining. Granule cell dispersion, the pathological widening of the granule cell layer, was also significantly reduced 16 days after KA injection. Importantly, intrahippocampal in vivo recordings 3 weeks after KA injection showed that the occurrence of high frequency oscillations (fast ripples, FR), a surrogate marker for epileptic activity, was significantly reduced in CNTF+KA-injected mice as compared to KA-injected animals. However, when CNTF was applied in the chronic epileptic phase at 3 weeks after KA injection, no reduction of FR activity was observed. In summary, our results indicate that the activation of astrocytes prior to an excitotoxic injury effectively reduces neuronal damage and the severity of epileptiform activity, whereas activation in the chronic phase is no longer protective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2012.04.009DOI Listing
July 2012