Publications by authors named "Matthew T Lahti"

9 Publications

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New Model for the Assessment of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Devices in Sheep.

J Invest Surg 2020 Dec 28:1-10. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Experimental Surgical Services Laboratory, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an effective therapy in treating high-risk patients suffering from aortic stenosis. Animal models used to evaluate safety and efficacy of TAVR devices prior to clinical use lack a stenotic aortic annulus, a critical impediment to long-term TAVR device evaluation. We sought to create a reproducible model of aortic stenosis using a modified aortic annuloplasty (MAA) procedure in sheep, followed by deployment and long-term evaluation of TAVR devices using this model.

Methods: Twelve sheep underwent the MAA procedure and were recovered. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was used to monitor changes in the aortic annulus in the postoperative period. At 60 days post-MAA, Test group animals were anesthetized for TAVR insertion and Control animals underwent a necropsy. Test animals were recovered following TAVR insertion and observed for a postoperative period of 140 days.

Results: Twelve sheep survived the annuloplasty procedure and the 60-day recovery period. Gross examination of seven Control group animals revealed the implanted annuloplasty ring segments formed hard protrusions into the aortic annulus. Five sheep in the Test group underwent successful deployment of Abbott's experimental TAVR device without evidence of migration. Examination at 140 days post-TAVR insertion showed all devices tightly anchored within the modified aortic annulus.

Conclusions: The MAA procedure creates stenotic segments in the aortic annulus with adequate rigidity for anchorage and long-term evaluation of TAVR devices. This represents the first model that successfully mimics human aortic stenosis and provides a clinically relevant TAVR deployment platform for long-term evaluation in sheep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08941939.2020.1864796DOI Listing
December 2020

Porcine Model of the Arterial Switch Operation: Implications for Unique Strategies in the Management of Hypoplastic Left Ventricles.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 Mar 30;42(3):501-509. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

There are no reports on the performance of the arterial switch operation (ASO) in a normal heart with normally related great vessels. The objective of this study was to determine whether the ASO could be performed in a healthy animal model. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and coronary translocation techniques were used to perform ASO in neonatal piglets or a staged ASO with prior main pulmonary artery (PA) banding. Primary ASO was performed in four neonatal piglets. Coronary translocation was effective with angiograms confirming patency. Piglets could not be weaned from CPB due to right ventricle (RV) dysfunction. To improve RV function for the ASO, nine piglets had PA banding. All survived the procedure. Post-banding RV pressure increased from a mean of 20.3 ± 2.2 mmHg to 36.5 ± 7.3 mmHg (p = 0.007). At 58 ± 1 days post-banding, piglets underwent cardiac MRIs revealing RV hypertrophy, and RV pressure overload with mildly reduced RV function. Catheterization confirmed RV systolic pressures of 84.0 ± 6.7 mmHg with LV systolic pressure 83.3 ± 6.7 mmHg (p = 0.43). The remaining five PA banded piglets underwent ASO at 51 ± 0 days post-banding. Three of five were weaned from bypass with patent coronary arteries and adequate RV function. We were able to successfully perform an arterial switch with documented patent coronary arteries on standard anatomy great vessels in a healthy animal model. To our knowledge this is the first time this procedure has been successfully performed. The model may have implications for studying the failing systemic RV, and may support a novel approach for management of borderline, pulsatile left ventricles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-020-02507-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990748PMC
March 2021

Anisotropic Polytetrafluoroethylene Cardiovascular Conduits Spontaneously Expand in a Growing Lamb Model.

J Invest Surg 2020 Aug 14:1-7. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Experimental Surgical Services Laboratory, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Insertion of conduits from the right ventricle (RV) to the pulmonary artery (PA) is a commonly used technique for repair of congenital heart defects. The vast majority of infants and children will require reoperation and/or re-intervention to replace the conduit. Some children may require multiple reoperations, with the risk of death and morbidity increasing significantly with each subsequent operation. We evaluated the feasibility and performance of a relatively novel anisotropic conduit for cardiovascular repair in the growing lamb model.

Materials And Methods: Lambs were allocated into a control ( = 3) or test ( = 4, anisotropic) conduit group. Control conventional polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) conduits or test anisotropic expanded PTFE (ePTFE) based test conduits measuring 10-11 mm in diameter were sewn as interpositional grafts in the main pulmonary artery (MPA) and followed up to 6 months. Clinical and echocardiographic evaluations were performed monthly with hemodynamic and angiographic assessment at 3 and 6 months.

Results: Control conduits did not expand, all 3 animals developed one or more adverse events including tachypnea, ascites, inappetence, lethargy, and mortality due to severe right heart failure and significantly higher peak trans-conduit gradients (48.5 ± 5.1 p = 0.02). The test conduits spontaneously expanded up to 14.8 ± 0.8 mm in diameter, no adverse events were observed in any animals and trans-conduit gradients were significantly lower (27.0 ± 8.3, p = 0.02).

Conclusions: Anisotropic ePTFE conduits can be safely implanted in growing lambs with stable hemodynamics. This spontaneously expanding anisotropic conduit may represent a novel approach to congenital heart repairs that would avoid the need for reoperation or multiple operations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08941939.2020.1805056DOI Listing
August 2020

Feasibility Study of Catheter-Based Interventions for Anisotropic Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene Cardiovascular Conduits in a Growing Lamb Model.

J Invest Surg 2020 Jul 20:1-7. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Experimental Surgical Services Laboratory, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Cardiovascular repair in children often requires implant of conduits which do not have growth potential and will require reoperation. In the current study we sought to determine the feasibility of catheter-based interventions of anisotropic conduits inserted as interposition grafts in the main pulmonary artery (MPA) of growing lambs.

Methods: Lambs underwent interpositional implant of either an anisotropic expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) (Test) conduit or conventional PTFE (Control) conduit. In the postoperative period, lambs were anesthetized and underwent catheter-based interventions consisting of hemodynamic and angiographic data collection, balloon dilation and/or stenting of the conduit at 3, 6 or 9 month postoperative time point.

Results: At 3 months, control lambs showed significant increases in right ventricular pressures and trans-conduit gradients in comparison to test lambs. Test conduit diameters were significantly larger compared to controls due to spontaneous radial expansion of the anisotropic conduit. Balloon dilation of test conduits at 3 and 6 months showed a reduction in RV pressure and statistically significant improvement in the RV outflow tract gradient as well as significant increase in graft diameter, compared to both control and pre-dilation conditions. Furthermore, the test conduit diameter increased significantly compared to the pre-balloon and control conditions at each time point. Necropsy of test conduits showed no evidence of tears, perforations, or clot and smooth interiors with well-healed anastomoses.

Conclusions: Anisotropic conduits implanted as interposition grafts in the MPA show spontaneous expansion, and can safely and effectively undergo catheter-based interventions, with significant increases in graft diameter occurring after balloon dilation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08941939.2020.1795324DOI Listing
July 2020

The Hancock® Valved Conduit for Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Reconstruction in Sheep for Assessing New Devices.

J Heart Valve Dis 2017 07;26(4):472-480

Division of Experimental Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Electronic correspondence:

Background And Aim Of The Study: Xenograft conduits have been used successfully to repair congenital heart defects, but are prone to failure over time. Hence, in order to improve patient outcomes, better xenografts are being developed. When evaluating a conduit's performance and safety it must first be compared against a clinically available control in a large animal model. The study aim was to evaluate a clinically available xenograft conduit used in right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction in a sheep model.

Methods: RVOT reconstruction was performed in 13 adult and juvenile sheep, using the Medtronic Hancock® Bioprosthetic Valved Conduit (Hancock conduit). The method had previously been used on patients, and a newly modified variant termed 'RVOT Extraction' was employed to facilitate the surgical procedure. Animals were monitored over predetermined terms of 70 to 140 days. Serial transthoracic echocardiography, intracardiac pressure measurements and angiography were performed. On study completion the animals were euthanized and necropsies performed.

Results: Two animals died prior to their designated study term due to severe valvular stenosis and distal conduit narrowing, respectively. Thus, 11 animals survived the study term, with few or no complications. Generally, maximal and mean transvalvular pressure gradients across the implanted conduits were increased throughout the postoperative course. Among 11 full-term animals, seven conduits were patent with mild or no pseudointimal proliferation and with flexible leaflets maintaining the hemodynamic integrity of the valve.

Conclusions: RVOT reconstruction using the Hancock conduit was shown to be successful in sheep, with durable and efficient performances. With its extensive clinical use in patients, and ability for long-term use in sheep (as described in the present study) it can be concluded that the Hancock conduit is an excellent control device for the evaluation of new xenografts in future preclinical studies.
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July 2017

Blood outgrowth endothelial cells alter remodeling of completely biological engineered grafts implanted into the sheep femoral artery.

J Cardiovasc Transl Res 2014 Mar 16;7(2):242-9. Epub 2014 Jan 16.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 7-114 NHH, 312 Church St SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

Hemocompatibility of tissue-engineered vascular grafts remains a major hurdle to clinical utility for small-diameter grafts. Here we assessed the feasibility of using autologous blood outgrowth endothelial cells to create an endothelium via lumenal seeding on completely biological, decellularized engineered allografts prior to implantation in the sheep femoral artery. The 4-mm-diameter, 2- to 3-cm-long grafts were fabricated from fibrin gel remodeled into an aligned tissue tube in vitro by ovine dermal fibroblasts prior to decellularization. Decellularized grafts pre-seeded with blood outgrowth endothelial cells (n = 3) retained unprecedented (>95 %) monolayer coverage 1 h post-implantation and had greater endothelial coverage, smaller wall thickness, and more basement membrane after 9-week implantation, including a final week without anti-coagulation therapy, compared with contralateral non-seeded controls. These results support the use of autologous blood outgrowth endothelial cells as a viable source of endothelial cells for creating an endothelium with biological function on decellularized engineered allografts made from fibroblast-remodeled fibrin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12265-013-9539-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4213739PMC
March 2014

Dabigatran versus warfarin after mechanical mitral valve replacement in the swine model.

J Invest Surg 2012 Jun;25(3):150-5

Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

Background: Mechanical heart valve replacement is an absolute indication for anticoagulation. We report our experience comparing dabigatran to warfarin as thromboembolic prophylaxis after mechanical mitral valve replacement in the swine model.

Methods: Nineteen swine underwent mitral valve replacement with a regulatory approved, 27 mm mechanical valve. Two control groups consisted of three animals receiving no anticoagulation and five animals receiving warfarin (5 mg once a day [QD], adjusted to maintain international normalized ratio [INR] from 2.0 to 2.5). The experimental group consisted of 11 animals receiving dabigatran (20 mg/kg twice a day [BID]). The study period was 90 days. The primary outcome was animal mortality; secondary outcomes included presence of thrombus and bleeding complications.

Results: The experimental group had four full-term survivors (40.0%); there were no full-term survivors in either control group. The average length of survival was 50.3 days in the experimental group compared with 18.7 and 15.6 days for the no anticoagulation and warfarin groups, respectively (p = .017). Valve thrombus was observed in all study groups. Hemorrhagic complications were present in 40% of the warfarin group and 27% of the dabigatran group.

Conclusions: There was a significant mortality benefit to the use of dabigatran as thromboembolic prophylaxis when compared with warfarin in the setting of mechanical heart valve replacement in the swine model. There was also a decreased incidence of bleeding complications in the dabigatran group compared with the warfarin group. Valve thrombus was observed in all study groups. Any conclusions regarding the rate of thrombus formation are outside the scope of this study and merit further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08941939.2011.616256DOI Listing
June 2012

Internal aortic annuloplasty: a novel technique.

J Invest Surg 2011 ;24(5):222-6

Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.

Background: The purpose of this study was to define an experimental model and a reproducible surgical technique for the preclinical assessment of safety and biocompatibility of a novel intra-annular internal aortic annulus repair device.

Methods: Adult sheep were implanted with HAART Inc's 19 mm aortic annulus repair device via a transverse aortotomy using standard anesthetic, surgical, and cardiopulmonary bypass techniques. Animals were closely monitored throughout the study period until the time of elective sacrifice at 30 or 60 days.

Results: Six adult sheep, mean age 63.2 weeks, mean weight 68.8 kg, underwent aortic annuloplasty with a 19 mm annuloplasty frame. Five of the sheep remained stable until scheduled sacrifice. The primary outcome of this study was animal mortality. Early mortality was seen in only one animal (16.7%), due to a surgical complication. Mild-to-moderate aortic insufficiency was observed in all animals upon echocardiographic examination at the time of elective sacrifice.

Conclusions: Of the six animals that underwent aortic annuloplasty, there was one early death due to surgical complication. The remaining five subjects were clinically stable at the time of elective sacrifice. Any conclusions regarding the cause of the observed aortic insufficiency are beyond the scope of this feasibility study but would need to be fully evaluated in the preclinical assessment of any internal aortic annuloplasty device. We have shown that we have developed a reproducible surgical technique in a physiologically appropriate model for the preclinical assessment of internal aortic annulus repair devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08941939.2011.575916DOI Listing
December 2011

Transmural atrial fibrosis after epicardial and endocardial argon-powered CryoMaze ablation.

J Card Surg 2011 Mar;26(2):240-3

Experimental Surgical Services, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Background: The CryoMaze procedure is usually limited to endocardial ablation under cardio-pulmonary bypass. Epicardial ablation is considered inferior as endocardial islets of atrial tissue could theoretically remain viable, protected from cryoinjury by epicardial fat and endocardial circulating warm blood. Novel argon-powered cryoprobes with lower ablation temperatures have recently become available. It is unclear if these instruments can reliably induce transmural atrial fibrosis by epicardial cryoablation on the beating heart.

Methods: Ten sheep were divided into two equal groups. CryoMaze ablations were applied using an argon-powered cryoprobe with an ablation temperature of -185°C. In the control group, standardized ablations (n = 50) were applied endocardially under cardiopulmonary bypass. In the experimental group, corresponding ablations (n = 50) were applied epicardially on the beating heart. Postoperatively the animals were monitored for 30 days. At necropsy, the lesions were explanted and analyzed histologically for evidence of transmural fibrosis.

Results: Two animals in the control group and one animal in the experimental group died prematurely. Autopsy of the remaining animals showed that all lesions (n = 70) had retained their structural integrity. In the control group, histology demonstrated transmural fibrosis in 94% (28/30) of the endocardially applied lesions. In the experimental group, histology demonstrated transmural fibrosis in 95% (38/40) of the epicardially applied lesions. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.96).

Conclusion: Argon-powered epicardial cryoablation on the beating heart is as efficient in inducing transmural fibrosis as the traditional technique of endocardial ablation under cardio-pulmonary bypass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-8191.2011.01214.xDOI Listing
March 2011