Publications by authors named "Matthew S Hoehler"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Distributed Fiber Optic Measurements of Strain and Temperature in Long-Span Composite Floor Beams with Simple Shear Connections Subject to Compartment Fires.

Fire Saf J 2021 ;121

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, USA.

This study explores an instrumentation strategy using distributed fiber optic sensors to measure strain and temperature through the concrete volume in large-scale structures. Single-mode optical fibers were deployed in three 12.8 m long steel and concrete composite floor specimens tested under mechanical or combined mechanical and fire loading. The concrete slab in each specimen was instrumented with five strain and temperature fiber optic sensors along the centerline of the slab to determine the variation of the measurands through the depth of the concrete. Two additional fiber optic temperature sensors were arranged in a zigzag pattern at mid-depth in the concrete to map the horizontal spatial temperature distribution across each slab. Pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BOTDA) was used to determine strains and temperatures at thousands of locations at time intervals of a few minutes. Comparisons with co-located strain gauges and theoretical calculations indicate good agreement in overall spatial distribution along the length of the beam tested at ambient temperature, while the fiber optic sensors additionally capture strain fluctuations associated with local geometric variations in the specimen. Strain measurements with the distributed fiber optic sensors at elevated temperatures were unsuccessful. Comparisons with co-located thermocouples show that while the increased spatial resolution provides new insights about temperature phenomena, challenges for local temperature measurements were encountered during this first attempt at application to large-scale specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2021.103275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174575PMC
January 2021

On the Development of a Transparent Enclosure for 360° Video Cameras to Observe Severe Fires In Situ.

Fire Saf J 2020 ;113

National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, USA.

360-degree video recorded in fires provides a unique perspective that allows the viewer to change the viewing direction as regions of interest change during a fire. Use of 360-degree and traditional cameras at some locations in intense fires for extended durations has been hampered in the past by the high levels of radiant heat flux that will damage the camera's imaging sensor. This paper describes how a thin layer of moving water can be used to significantly reduce unwanted infrared radiation generated by a fire while allowing visual imaging using a simple and inexpensive enclosure. Essential details to replicate this system are provided and three illustrative example deployments are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2020.103024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727097PMC
January 2020

Lateral Resistance Reduction to Cold-Formed Steel-Framed Shear Walls under Various Fire Scenarios.

J Struct Eng (N Y N Y) 2020 ;146(5)

Director, National Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Gaithersburg, MD 20899.

This paper examines the structural response of cold-formed steel-framed building lateral force-resisting systems under combinations of simulated earthquake and fire loading. Full-scale experiments with gypsum-sheet steel composite panel sheathed walls, oriented strand board sheathed walls, and steel strap braced walls are presented. Twenty-two test specimens are subjected sequentially to combinations of cyclic shear deformation and fires of varying intensity; some approximate temperatures in standard furnace tests, and most have characteristics of actual building fires. In select tests, the walls are predamaged to simulate fire following an earthquake. The results show a progressive decrease of postfire lateral load capacity with increasing fire intensity for all walls; however, each wall type exhibits varied sensitivity to the fire intensity as well as to predamage. By understanding the response of these structural systems in real fires, designers can better plan for situations in which multiple hazards, including fire, exist.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7542675PMC
January 2020

Measuring Three-Dimensional Temperature Distributions in Steel-Concrete Composite Slabs Subjected to Fire Using Distributed Fiber Optic Sensors.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Sep 26;20(19). Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409, USA.

Detailed information about temperature distribution can be important to understand structural behavior in fire. This study develops a method to image three-dimensional temperature distributions in steel-concrete composite slabs using distributed fiber optic sensors. The feasibility of the method is explored using six 1.2 m × 0.9 m steel-concrete composite slabs instrumented with distributed sensors and thermocouples subjected to fire for over 3 h. Dense point clouds of temperature in the slabs were measured using the distributed sensors. The results show that the distributed sensors operated at material temperatures up to 960 °C with acceptable accuracy for many structural fire applications. The measured non-uniform temperature distributions indicate a spatially distributed thermal response in steel-concrete composite slabs, which can only be adequately captured using approaches that provide a high density of through-depth data points.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20195518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7582379PMC
September 2020

Application of Narrow-Spectrum Illumination and Image Processing to Measure Surface Char Formation in Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Tests.

Fire Mater 2019 ;43

York University, Toronto, Canada.

The Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Test (LIFT) is used to characterize fire ignition and flame spread on solid materials. This test requires the operator to visually monitor the flame spread over a combustible material and manually record the position of the flame during an experiment. Visual inspection limits the quantity of data obtained from a test and introduces uncertainty in the measurement. In this study, we use narrow-spectrum light with a peak wavelength of 450 nm and a digital camera with frequency-matched optical filters to capture images of surface charring, which underlies the flaming combustion, in a LIFT apparatus. The imaging technique reduced unwanted energy emissions from the flame in the visible light spectrum, allowing the test operator to directly view the charring of the material; which is otherwise hidden behind the flames. We describe data processing routines to analyze the sequences of high-resolution images. The method improves temporal and spatial resolution of the surface charring compared to visual observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fam.2706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6604651PMC
January 2019

Review of Fiber Optic Sensors for Structural Fire Engineering.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409, USA.

Reliable and accurate measurements of temperature and strain in structures subjected to fire can be difficult to obtain using traditional sensing technologies based on electrical signals. Fiber optic sensors, which are based on light signals, solve many of the problems of monitoring structures in high temperature environments; however, they present their own challenges. This paper, which is intended for structural engineers new to fiber optic sensors, reviews various fiber optic sensors that have been used to make measurements in structure fires, including the sensing principles, fabrication, key characteristics, and recently-reported applications. Three categories of fiber optic sensors are reviewed: Grating-based sensors, interferometer sensors, and distributed sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6412206PMC
February 2019

Fire resistance of cold-formed steel framed shear walls under various fire scenarios.

Fire Mater 2019 ;Spec Issue

Fire Research Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg MD 20899, USA.

This paper presents results of large-scale experiments with varying levels of fire severity on lateral force-resisting systems commonly used in cold-formed steel framed buildings. Gypsum-sheet steel composite panel sheathed walls, oriented strand board sheathed walls, and steel strap-braced walls are examined. Postflashover fire conditions of two different intensities as well as 1 hour of fire exposure similar to that in a standard furnace qualification test are studied. Additionally, a full-scale furnished kitchen fire experiment is conducted for comparison. The results highlight differences in the thermal response and subsequent performance of the walls as well as differing sensitives of the walls to pre-damage, eg, that might occur during an earthquake. The results are part of a larger effort to provide fragilities for these wall systems in response to realistic fires for performance-based design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fam.2744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7067221PMC
January 2019

A novel application of silicone-based flame-retardant adhesive in plywood.

Mater Des 2018 ;189

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Wood Material Science and Utilization (Beijing Forestry University), Beijing Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Engineering (Beijing Forestry University), 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China.

A silicone-based elastomer filled with vinyl-silane treated aluminum hydroxide was used to replace conventional polyurethane-based adhesive to provide a flame-retardant adhesive for plywood. The shear strength and fire performance of such a silicone-based (SI) adhesive glued plywood (SI/plywood) were investigated and compared to those of the polyurethane-based (PU) adhesive glued plywood (PU/plywood). The shear strength of the SI/plywood [(0.92 ± 0.09) MPa] was about 63% lower than that of the PU/plywood at room temperature, but it was less sensitive to water (62% reduction for the PU/plywood and 30% reduction for the SI/plywood after hot-water immersion at 63 °C for 3 h). The fire performance of plywood was assessed by a simulated match-flame ignition test (Mydrin test), lateral ignition and flame spread test, cone calorimetry, and thermocouple measurements. With a higher burn-though resistance and thermal barrier efficiency, and lower flame spread and heat release rate, the SI/plywood exhibited a superior fire-resistance and reaction-to-fire performance and improved fire-resistance as compared to the PU/plywood. The SI adhesive generated an inorganic protective layer on the sample surface that visibly suppressed glowing and smoldering of the plywood during combustion. The SI adhesive was also combined and reinforced with cellulosic fabric (CF) or glass fabric (GF) to prepare composite plywood (SI/CF/plywood and SI/GF/plywood) with improved fire performance. The cone calorimetry and thermocouple measurements indicated that the use of CF or GF in SI/CF/plywood and SI/GF/plywood, respectively, suppressed the delamination and cracking of the composite plywood and promoted the formation of an effective thermal barrier during smoldering and flaming combustion. Particularly, the SI/GF/plywood exhibited the most effective fire barrier with no crack formation, and the lowest heat release rate among the plywood types investigated in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.08.214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459615PMC
January 2018

Temperature Measurement and Damage Detection in Concrete Beams Exposed to Fire Using PPP-BOTDA Based Fiber Optic Sensors.

Smart Mater Struct 2017 Oct 18;26(10). Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 1401 N. Pine Street, Rolla, MO 65409.

In this study, distributed fiber optic sensors based on pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BODTA) are characterized and deployed to measure spatially-distributed temperatures in reinforced concrete specimens exposed to fire. Four beams were tested to failure in a natural gas fueled compartment fire, each instrumented with one fused silica, single-mode optical fiber as a distributed sensor and four thermocouples. Prior to concrete cracking, the distributed temperature was validated at locations of the thermocouples by a relative difference of less than 9 %. The cracks in concrete can be identified as sharp peaks in the temperature distribution since the cracks are locally filled with hot air. Concrete cracking did not affect the sensitivity of the distributed sensor but concrete spalling broke the optical fiber loop required for PPP-BOTDA measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-665X/aa89a9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5721354PMC
October 2017

Development and validation of European guidelines for seismic qualification of post-installed anchors.

Eng Struct 2017 Oct 10;148:497-508. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, USA (formerly Hilti Corporation).

This paper presents the technical background for the seismic qualification procedures for post-installed anchors in the European Technical Approval Guideline (ETAG 001) seismic annex issued in 2013. We discuss requirements for a comprehensive guideline and reference supporting documentation. Numerical studies to generate new simulated seismic protocols for anchors are summarized with focus on their application to Europe. To reduce the time and cost of anchor product qualification testing while fulfilling the requirement of European building codes to assess two performance categories, we combine the results of our numerical studies to generate novel testing protocols that allow for the assessment of anchor behavior at multiple levels in a unified protocol. Validation tests demonstrate that the unified protocol results in anchor performance comparable with that achieved in multiple, single-performance-level tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2017.06.048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5714297PMC
October 2017

Behavior of Steel-Sheathed Shear Walls Subjected to Seismic and Fire Loads.

Fire Saf J 2017 Jul 6;91:524-531. Epub 2017 Apr 6.

Department of Fire Protection Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 50 Prescott Street, Worcester, MA 01605 USA.

A series of tests was conducted on six 2.7 m × 3.7 m shear wall specimens consisting of cold-formed steel framing sheathed on one side with sheet steel adhered to gypsum board and on the opposite side with plain gypsum board. The specimens were subjected to various sequences of simulated seismic shear deformation and fire exposure to study the influence of multi-hazard interactions on the lateral load resistance of the walls. The test program was designed to complement a parallel effort at the University of California, San Diego to investigate a six-story building subjected to earthquakes and fires. The test results reported here indicate that the fire exposure caused a shift in the failure mode of the walls from local buckling of the sheet steel in cases without fire exposure, to global buckling of the sheet steel with an accompanying 35 % reduction in lateral load capacity after the wall had been exposed to fire. This behavior appears to be predictable, which is encouraging from the standpoint of residual lateral load capacity under these severe multi-hazard actions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2017.03.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5615409PMC
July 2017

Shake Table Testing of an Elevator System in a Full-Scale Five-Story Building.

Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 2017 Mar 17;46(3):391-407. Epub 2016 Aug 17.

Schindler Elevator Corporation, Randolph, NJ 07869.

This paper investigates the seismic performance of a functional traction elevator as part of a full-scale five-story building shake table test program. The test building was subjected to a suite of earthquake input motions of increasing intensity, first while the building was isolated at its base, and subsequently while it was fixed to the shake table platen. In addition, low-amplitude white noise base excitation tests were conducted while the elevator system was placed in three different configurations, namely, by varying the vertical location of its cabin and counterweight, to study the acceleration amplifications of the elevator components due to dynamic excitations. During the earthquake tests, detailed observation of the physical damage and operability of the elevator as well as its measured response are reported. Although the cabin and counterweight sustained large accelerations due to impact during these tests, the use of well-restrained guide shoes demonstrated its effectiveness in preventing the cabin and counterweight from derailment during high-intensity earthquake shaking. However, differential displacements induced by the building imposed undesirable distortion of the elevator components and their surrounding support structure, which caused damage and inoperability of the elevator doors. It is recommended that these aspects be explicitly considered in elevator seismic design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5324058PMC
March 2017

Experimental Analysis of Steel Beams Subjected to Fire Enhanced by Brillouin Scattering-Based Fiber Optic Sensor Data.

J Struct Eng (N Y N Y) 2017 Jan 25;143(1). Epub 2016 Jul 25.

Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409.

This paper presents high temperature measurements using a Brillouin scattering-based fiber optic sensor and the application of the measured temperatures and building code recommended material parameters into enhanced thermomechanical analysis of simply supported steel beams subjected to combined thermal and mechanical loading. The distributed temperature sensor captures detailed, nonuniform temperature distributions that are compared locally with thermocouple measurements with less than 4.7% average difference at 95% confidence level. The simulated strains and deflections are validated using measurements from a second distributed fiber optic (strain) sensor and two linear potentiometers, respectively. The results demonstrate that the temperature-dependent material properties specified in the four investigated building codes lead to strain predictions with less than 13% average error at 95% confidence level and that the Europe building code provided the best predictions. However, the implicit consideration of creep in Europe is insufficient when the beam temperature exceeds 800°C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5324059PMC
January 2017

Application of Blue Laser Triangulation Sensors for Displacement Measurement Through Fire.

Meas Sci Technol 2016 Nov 23;27(11). Epub 2016 Sep 23.

Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 USA.

This paper explores the use of blue laser triangulation sensors to measure displacement of a target located behind or in the close proximity of natural gas diffusion flames. This measurement is critical for providing high-quality data in structural fire tests. The position of the laser relative to the flame envelope can significantly affect the measurement scatter, but has little influence on the mean values. We observe that the measurement scatter is normally distributed and increases linearly with the distance of the target from the flame along the beam path. Based on these observations, we demonstrate how time-averaging can be used to achieve a standard uncertainty associated with the displacement error of less than 0.1 mm, which is typically sufficient for structural fire testing applications. Measurements with the investigated blue laser sensors were not impeded by the thermal radiation emitted from the flame or the soot generated from the relatively clean-burning natural gas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/27/11/115201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5207048PMC
November 2016

BEHAVIOR OF POST-INSTALLED ANCHORS TESTED BY STEPWISE INCREASING CYCLIC LOAD PROTOCOLS.

ACI Struct J 2016 Sep;113(5):997-1008

Cyclic loads are a characteristic feature of actions acting on structures and anchorages during earthquakes. For this reason, seismic qualification of post-installed concrete anchors according to the internationally recognized American Concrete Institute (ACI) standard ACI 355 is based on cyclic load tests. The protocols for these tests, however, have limited scientific basis. Therefore, in the present paper newly-developed test protocols with stepwise-increasing load amplitudes are utilized to more realistically evaluate anchor seismic performance. The study focuses on the load-displacement behavior of common anchor types installed in cracked concrete and subjected to both cyclic tension and cyclic shear actions. The results confirmed robust behavior for anchors loaded in cyclic tension even in the presence of crack widths in the anchorage material larger than currently required by ACI 355. In addition, the critical influence of low cycle fatigue on the performance of anchors loaded in cyclic shear is demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14359/51689023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5120405PMC
September 2016
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