Publications by authors named "Matthew P Josephson"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Heterogeneous histories of recombination suppression on stickleback sex chromosomes.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712.

How consistent are the evolutionary trajectories of sex chromosomes shortly after they form? Insights into the evolution of recombination, differentiation, and degeneration can be provided by comparing closely related species with homologous sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and its sister species, the Japan Sea stickleback (G. nipponicus), have been well characterized. Little is known, however, about the sex chromosomes of their congener, the blackspotted stickleback (G. wheatlandi). We used pedigrees to obtain experimentally phased whole genome sequences from blackspotted stickleback X and Y chromosomes. Using multispecies gene trees and analysis of shared duplications, we demonstrate that Chromosome 19 is the ancestral sex chromosome and that its oldest stratum evolved in the common ancestor of the genus. After the blackspotted lineage diverged, its sex chromosomes experienced independent and more extensive recombination suppression, greater X-Y differentiation, and a much higher rate of Y degeneration than the other two species. These patterns may result from a smaller effective population size in the blackspotted stickleback. A recent fusion between the ancestral blackspotted stickleback Y chromosome and Chromosome 12, which produced a neo-X and neo-Y, may have been favored by the very small size of the recombining region on the ancestral sex chromosome. We identify six strata on the ancestral and neo-sex chromosomes where recombination between the X and Y ceased at different times. These results confirm that sex chromosomes can evolve large differences within and between species over short evolutionary timescales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab179DOI Listing
June 2021

Innovative mark-recapture experiment shows patterns of selection on transcript abundance in the wild.

Mol Ecol 2021 Jun 24;30(12):2707-2709. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

A fundamental aspect of evolutionary biology is natural selection on trait variation. Classically, selection has been estimated primarily on external morphological traits such as beak size and coloration, or on easily assayable physiological traits such as heat-tolerance. As technologies and methods improved, evolutionary biologists began examining selection on molecular traits such as protein sequences and cellular processes. In a From the Cover paper in this issue of Molecular Ecology, Ahmad et al. continue this trend by estimating parasite-driven selection on the molecular trait of transcript abundance in a wild population of brown trout (Salmo trutta) by uniquely combining a mark-recapture experimental design with noninvasive RNA sampling. Using transcript abundance to estimate selection allows for many different traits (each unique gene's transcript counts) to be tested in a single experiment, providing the opportunity to examine trends in selection. Ahmad et al. find directional selection strength on transcript counts is generally low and normally distributed. Surprisingly, transcripts under nonlinear selection showed a disruptive selection bias, contradicting previous comparative studies and theoretical work. This highlights the importance of within-generation selection studies, where mechanisms may differ from longer time frames. Their paper also highlights the benefits of a cost-effective 3' RNA sequencing technique to measure gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.15946DOI Listing
June 2021

The Predicted RNA-Binding Protein ETR-1/CELF1 Acts in Muscles To Regulate Neuroblast Migration in .

G3 (Bethesda) 2020 07 7;10(7):2365-2376. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Program in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, 1200 Sunnyside Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66045

Neuroblast migration is a critical aspect of nervous system development (, neural crest migration). In an unbiased forward genetic screen, we identified a novel player in neuroblast migration, the ETR-1/CELF1 RNA binding protein. CELF1 RNA binding proteins are involved in multiple aspects of RNA processing including alternative splicing, stability, and translation. We find that a specific mutation in alternatively-spliced exon 8 results in migration defects of the AQR and PQR neurons, and not the embryonic lethality and body wall muscle defects of complete knockdown of the locus. Surprisingly, ETR-1 was required in body wall muscle cells for AQR/PQR migration (, it acts cell non-autonomously). Genetic interactions indicate that ETR-1 acts with Wnt signaling, either in the Wnt pathway or in a parallel pathway. Possibly, ETR-1 is involved in the production of a Wnt signal or a parallel signal by the body wall muscles that controls AQR and PQR neuronal migration. In humans, CELF1 is involved in a number of neuromuscular disorders. If the role of ETR-1/CELF1 is conserved, these disorders might also involve cell or neuronal migration. Finally, we describe a technique of amplicon sequencing to detect rare, cell-specific genome edits by CRISPR/Cas9 (CRISPR-seq) as an alternative to the T7E1 assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.120.401182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341121PMC
July 2020

The Caenorhabditis elegans NF2/Merlin Molecule NFM-1 Nonautonomously Regulates Neuroblast Migration and Interacts Genetically with the Guidance Cue SLT-1/Slit.

Genetics 2017 02 2;205(2):737-748. Epub 2016 Dec 2.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, Program in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66046

During nervous system development, neurons and their progenitors migrate to their final destinations. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the bilateral Q neuroblasts and their descendants migrate long distances in opposite directions, despite being born in the same posterior region. QR on the right migrates anteriorly and generates the AQR neuron positioned near the head, and QL on the left migrates posteriorly, giving rise to the PQR neuron positioned near the tail. In a screen for genes required for AQR and PQR migration, we identified an allele of nfm-1, which encodes a molecule similar to vertebrate NF2/Merlin, an important tumor suppressor in humans. Mutations in NF2 lead to neurofibromatosis type II, characterized by benign tumors of glial tissues. Here we demonstrate that in C. elegans, nfm-1 is required for the ability of Q cells and their descendants to extend protrusions and to migrate, but is not required for direction of migration. Using a combination of mosaic analysis and cell-specific expression, we show that NFM-1 is required nonautonomously, possibly in muscles, to promote Q lineage migrations. We also show a genetic interaction between nfm-1 and the C. elegans Slit homolog slt-1, which encodes a conserved secreted guidance cue. Our results suggest that NFM-1 might be involved in the generation of an extracellular cue that promotes Q neuroblast protrusion and migration that acts with or in parallel to SLT-1 In vertebrates, NF2 and Slit2 interact in axon pathfinding, suggesting a conserved interaction of NF2 and Slit2 in regulating migratory events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.116.191957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5289848PMC
February 2017

Nonautonomous Roles of MAB-5/Hox and the Secreted Basement Membrane Molecule SPON-1/F-Spondin in Caenorhabditis elegans Neuronal Migration.

Genetics 2016 08 25;203(4):1747-62. Epub 2016 May 25.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, Programs in Genetics and Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045

Nervous system development and circuit formation requires neurons to migrate from their birthplaces to specific destinations.Migrating neurons detect extracellular cues that provide guidance information. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Q right (QR) and Q left (QL) neuroblast descendants migrate long distances in opposite directions. The Hox gene lin-39 cell autonomously promotes anterior QR descendant migration, and mab-5/Hox cell autonomously promotes posterior QL descendant migration. Here we describe a nonautonomous role of mab-5 in regulating both QR and QL descendant migrations, a role masked by redundancy with lin-39 A third Hox gene, egl-5/Abdominal-B, also likely nonautonomously regulates Q descendant migrations. In the lin-39 mab-5 egl-5 triple mutant, little if any QR and QL descendant migration occurs. In addition to well-described roles of lin-39 and mab-5 in the Q descendants, our results suggest that lin-39, mab-5, and egl-5 might also pattern the posterior region of the animal for Q descendant migration. Previous studies showed that the spon-1 gene might be a target of MAB-5 in Q descendant migration. spon-1 encodes a secreted basement membrane molecule similar to vertebrate F-spondin. Here we show that spon-1 acts nonautonomously to control Q descendant migration, and might function as a permissive rather than instructive signal for cell migration. We find that increased levels of MAB-5 in body wall muscle (BWM) can drive the spon-1 promoter adjacent to the Q cells, and loss of spon-1 suppresses mab-5 gain of function. Thus, MAB-5 might nonautonomously control Q descendant migrations by patterning the posterior region of the animal to which Q cells respond. spon-1 expression from BWMs might be part of the posterior patterning necessary for directed Q descendant migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.116.188367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4981275PMC
August 2016

EGL-20/Wnt and MAB-5/Hox Act Sequentially to Inhibit Anterior Migration of Neuroblasts in C. elegans.

PLoS One 2016 10;11(2):e0148658. Epub 2016 Feb 10.

Programs in Genetics and Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 66045, United States of America.

Directed neuroblast and neuronal migration is important in the proper development of nervous systems. In C. elegans the bilateral Q neuroblasts QR (on the right) and QL (on the left) undergo an identical pattern of cell division and differentiation but migrate in opposite directions (QR and descendants anteriorly and QL and descendants posteriorly). EGL-20/Wnt, via canonical Wnt signaling, drives the expression of MAB-5/Hox in QL but not QR. MAB-5 acts as a determinant of posterior migration, and mab-5 and egl-20 mutants display anterior QL descendant migrations. Here we analyze the behaviors of QR and QL descendants as they begin their anterior and posterior migrations, and the effects of EGL-20 and MAB-5 on these behaviors. The anterior and posterior daughters of QR (QR.a/p) after the first division immediately polarize and begin anterior migration, whereas QL.a/p remain rounded and non-migratory. After ~1 hour, QL.a migrates posteriorly over QL.p. We find that in egl-20/Wnt, bar-1/β-catenin, and mab-5/Hox mutants, QL.a/p polarize and migrate anteriorly, indicating that these molecules normally inhibit anterior migration of QL.a/p. In egl-20/Wnt mutants, QL.a/p immediately polarize and begin migration, whereas in bar-1/β-catenin and mab-5/Hox, the cells transiently retain a rounded, non-migratory morphology before anterior migration. Thus, EGL-20/Wnt mediates an acute inhibition of anterior migration independently of BAR-1/β-catenin and MAB-5/Hox, and a later, possible transcriptional response mediated by BAR-1/β-catenin and MAB-5/Hox. In addition to inhibiting anterior migration, MAB-5/Hox also cell-autonomously promotes posterior migration of QL.a (and QR.a in a mab-5 gain-of-function).
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0148658PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4749177PMC
July 2016

Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase efficiently phosphorylates serine 15 of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2011 Dec 19;416(3-4):367-71. Epub 2011 Nov 19.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Specific phosphorylation of the human ventricular cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) modifies the protein at S15. This modification affects MYL2 secondary structure and modulates the Ca(2+) sensitivity of contraction in cardiac tissue. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase prevalent in uterus and present in other contracting tissues including cardiac muscle. The recombinant 130 kDa (short) smMLCK phosphorylated S15 in MYL2 in vitro. Specific modification of S15 was verified using the direct detection of the phospho group on S15 with mass spectrometry. SmMLCK also specifically phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain S15 in porcine ventricular myosin and chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (S20 in smooth muscle) but failed to phosphorylate the myosin regulatory light chain in rabbit skeletal myosin. Phosphorylation kinetics, measured using a novel fluorescence method eliminating the use of radioactive isotopes, indicates similar Michaelis-Menten V(max) and K(M) for regulatory light chain S15 phosphorylation rates in MYL2, porcine ventricular myosin, and chicken gizzard myosin. These data demonstrate that smMLCK is a specific and efficient kinase for the in vitro phosphorylation of MYL2, cardiac, and smooth muscle myosin. Whether smMLCK plays a role in cardiac muscle regulation or response to a disease causing stimulus is unclear but it should be considered a potentially significant kinase in cardiac tissue on the basis of its specificity, kinetics, and tissue expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.11.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3242870PMC
December 2011

Single myosin cross-bridge orientation in cardiac papillary muscle detects lever-arm shear strain in transduction.

Biochemistry 2011 Sep 18;50(36):7809-21. Epub 2011 Aug 18.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, United States.

Myosin motors transduce ATP free energy into mechanical work. Transduction models allocate specific functions to motor structural domains beginning with ATP hydrolysis in the active site and ending in a lever-arm rotating power-stroke. Myosin light chains, regulatory (RLC) and essential (ELC), bind IQ-domains on the lever-arm and track its movement. Strong evidence exists that light chains stabilize the lever-arm and that light chain mutation undermines stability. Human ventricular RLC tagged with photoactivatable GFP (HCRLC-PAGFP) replaces native RLC in porcine papillary muscle fibers, restores native contractility, and situates PAGFP for single molecule orientation tracking within the crowded fiber lattice. The spatial emission pattern from single photoactivated PAGFP tagged myosins was observed in z-stacks fitted simultaneously to maximize accuracy in estimated dipole orientation. Emitter dipole polar and azimuthal angle pair scatter plots identified an area where steric and molecular crowding constraints depopulated orientations unfavorable for actin interaction. Transitions between pre- and post-power-stroke states represent the lever-arm trajectory sampled by the data and quantify lever-arm shear strain in transduction at three tension levels. These data identify forces acting on myosin in the in situ fiber system due to crowding, steric hindrance, and actomyosin interaction. They induce lever-arm shear strain observed with single molecule orientation detection. A single myosin work histogram reveals discretized power-stroke substates reminiscent of the Huxley-Simmons model for myosin based contraction [Huxley and Simmons ( 1971 ) Nature 233 , 533]. RLC or ELC mutation, should it impact lever-arm shear strain, will be detected as changes in single myosin shear strain or power-stroke substate distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi2008992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3177300PMC
September 2011