Publications by authors named "Matthew P Abdel"

280 Publications

Frailty Transitions One Year After Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Cohort Study.

J Arthroplasty 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is prevalent and offered to patients regardless of frailty status experiencing pain, disability, and functional decline. This study aims to describe changes in levels of frailty 1 year after TJA.

Methods: We identified a retrospective cohort of adult patients undergoing primary TJA between 2005 and 2016 using an institutional total joint registry. Associations between categorized frailty deficit index (FI) and change in FI were analyzed using linear regression models. Mortality, deep periprosthetic joint infection, and reoperation were analyzed using time to event methods.

Results: In total, 5341 patients (37.6% non-frail, 39.4% vulnerable, and 23.0% frail) with items necessary to determine FI at 1 year after TJA were included. Preoperatively, 29% of vulnerable patients improved to non-frail 1 year later, compared to only 11% regressing to frail. Four in 10 frail patients improved to vulnerable/non-frail. Improvements in activities of daily living (ADL) were more evident in frail and vulnerable patients, with >30% reduction in the percentage of patients expressing difficulties with walking, climbing stairs, and requiring ADL assistance 1 year after TJA. Increases in frailty 1 year after TJA were associated with significantly increased rates of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-1.82, P < .001), deep periprosthetic joint infection (HR 3.98, 95% CI 1.85-8.58, P < .001), and reoperation (HR 1.80, 95% CI 1.19-2.72, P = .005).

Conclusion: Frailty states are dynamic with patient frailty shown to be modifiable 1 year after TJA. Preoperative frailty measurement is an important step toward identifying those that may benefit most from TJA and for postoperative frailty surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.08.022DOI Listing
September 2021

Outcomes of Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty Following Septic Arthritis of the Native Knee: A Case-Control Study.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Sep;103(18):1685-1693

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Septic arthritis of the native knee often results in irreversible joint damage leading to the need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of the present study was to examine the intermediate-term risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), aseptic revision, and reoperation following primary TKA in patients with a history of septic arthritis of the native knee as compared with primary TKA performed for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Methods: We retrospectively identified 215 primary TKAs performed from 1971 to 2016 at a single institution in patients with a history of septic arthritis of the native knee. Each case was matched 1:1 based on age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and surgical year to a TKA for osteoarthritis. The mean age and BMI were 63 years and 30 kg/m2, respectively. The mean duration of follow-up was 9 years.

Results: Survivorships free of PJI at 10 years were 90% and 99% for the septic arthritis and osteoarthritis groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] = 6.1; p < 0.01). Ten-year survivorships free of any aseptic revisions were 83% and 93% (HR = 2.5; p < 0.01), and survivorships free of any reoperation were 61% and 84% (HR = 2.9; p < 0.01) for the septic arthritis and osteoarthritis groups, respectively. In addition, as time from the diagnosis of native knee septic arthritis to TKA increased, the relative risk of subsequent infection decreased. Preoperative and 2-year postoperative Knee Society scores were similar between the groups (p = 0.16 and p = 0.19, respectively).

Conclusions: There was a 6.1-fold increased risk of PJI in patients undergoing TKA with a history of native knee septic arthritis when compared with controls undergoing TKA for the treatment of osteoarthritis, with a cumulative incidence of 9% at 10 years. Subgroup analysis of the septic arthritis cohort revealed a higher risk of any infection in patients who underwent TKA within the first 5 to 7 years after the diagnosis of septic arthritis as compared with those with a greater duration. Moreover, the 10-year rates of survival free of aseptic revision, any revision, and any reoperation were significantly worse in the native knee septic arthritis cohort.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.01678DOI Listing
September 2021

Tranexamic Acid Was Not Associated with Increased Complications in High-Risk Patients with Hip Fracture Undergoing Arthroplasty.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is considered safe and efficacious for elective total joint arthroplasty. However, evidence of TXA's safety in high-risk patients with hip fracture requiring nonelective arthroplasty has been lacking. This study aimed to assess whether TXA administration to high-risk patients with a hip fracture requiring arthroplasty increased the risk of thrombotic complications or mortality.

Methods: All patients who underwent hip hemiarthroplasty (HHA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) for displaced femoral neck fractures between 2011 and 2019 at 4 sites within 1 hospital system were retrospectively identified. Patients were grouped by risk (high-risk or low-risk) and TXA treatment (with or without TXA). Propensity scores were used for risk adjustment in comparisons between surgery with and without TXA for only the high-risk group (n = 1,066) and the entire population (n = 2,166). Differences in the occurrence of postoperative mortality, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke within 90 days of hip arthroplasty were evaluated.

Results: TXA administration was not associated with an increased risk of thrombotic complications or mortality within 90 days in either high-risk or all-patient groups. Specifically, among 1,066 matched high-risk patients who did not or did receive TXA, there were no significant differences in mortality (14.82% and 10.00%; p = 0.295), deep venous thrombosis (3.56% and 3.04%; p = 0.440), pulmonary embolism (2.44% and 1.96%; p = 0.374), myocardial infarction (3.38% and 2.14%; p = 0.704), or stroke (4.32% and 5.71%; p = 0.225).

Conclusions: In our review of 1,066 propensity-matched high-risk patients undergoing hip arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures, we found that TXA administration (compared with no TXA administration) was not associated with an increased risk of mortality, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, or stroke.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.21.00172DOI Listing
August 2021

Primary and Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension: High Perioperative Mortality and Complications.

J Arthroplasty 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Although perioperative medical management during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has improved, there is limited literature characterizing outcomes of patients with pulmonary hypertension (HTN). This study examined mortality, medical complications, implant survivorship, and clinical outcomes in this medically complex cohort.

Methods: We identified 887 patients with pulmonary HTN who underwent 881 primary TKAs and 228 revision TKAs from 2000 to 2016 at a tertiary care center. Patients were followed up at regular intervals until death, revision surgery, or last clinical follow-up. Perioperative medical complications were individually reviewed. The risk of death was examined by calculating standardized mortality ratios and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Cumulative incidence analysis was used for reporting mortality, revision, and reoperation with death as a competing risk.

Results: The 90-day mortality was 0.7% and 4.8% for primary and revision TKAs, respectively. The risk of death was 2-fold higher compared to primary (hazard ratio 2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.12-3.05) and revision (hazard ratio 2.16, 95% CI 1.78-2.62) TKA patients without pulmonary HTN. Rate of medical complications within 90 days from surgery was 6.5% and 14% in primary and revision TKAs. The 10-year cumulative incidence of any revision was 5% and 16% in primaries and revisions, respectively.

Conclusion: Patients with pulmonary HTN undergoing primary and revision TKAs had excess risk of death and experience a high rate of medical complications within 90 days of surgery. Counseling of risks, medical optimization, and referral to tertiary centers should be considered.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.07.005DOI Listing
July 2021

Activity of Rifampin, Rifabutin, and Rifapentine against Enterococci and Streptococci from Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Sep 14;9(1):e0007121. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

After staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci are the most frequent causes of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). MICs and minimum biofilm bactericidal concentrations of rifampin, rifabutin, and rifapentine were determined for 67 enterococcal and 59 streptococcal PJI isolates. Eighty-eight isolates had rifampin MICs of ≤1 μg/ml, among which rifabutin and rifapentine MICs were ≤ 8 and ≤4 μg/ml, respectively. There was low rifamycin antibiofilm activity except for a subset of Streptococcus mitis group isolates. Rifampin is an antibiotic with antistaphylococcal biofilm activity used in the management of staphylococcal periprosthetic joint infection with irrigation and debridement with component retention; some patients are unable to receive rifampin due to drug interactions or intolerance. We recently showed rifabutin and rifapentine to have activity against planktonic and biofilm states of rifampin-susceptible periprosthetic joint infection-associated staphylococci. After staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci combined are the most common causes of periprosthetic joint infection. Here, we investigated the antibiofilm activity of rifampin, rifabutin, and rifapentine against 126 Streptococcus and periprosthetic joint infection isolates. In contrast to our prior findings with staphylococcal biofilms, there was low antibiofilm activity of rifampin, rifabutin, and rifapentine against PJI-associated streptococci and enterococci, apart from some Streptococcus mitis group isolates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/Spectrum.00071-21DOI Listing
September 2021

Distal femoral replacement versus ORIF for severely comminuted distal femur fractures.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street S.W, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Introduction: Distal femoral replacement (DFR) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) are surgical options for comminuted distal femur fractures. Comparative outcomes of these techniques are limited. The aims of this study were to compare implant survivorship, perioperative factors, and clinical outcomes of DFR vs. ORIF for comminuted distal femur fractures.

Methods: Ten patients treated with rotating hinge DFRs for AO/OTA 33-C fractures from 2005 to 2015 were identified and matched 1:2 based on age and sex to 20 ORIF patients. Patients treated with DFR and ORIF had similar ages (80 vs. 76 years, p = 0.2) and follow-up (20 vs. 27 months, p = 1.0), respectively. Implant survivorship, length of stay (LOS), anesthetic time, estimated blood loss (EBL), ambulatory status, knee range of motion (ROM), and Knee Society scores (KSS) were assessed at final follow-up.

Results: Survivorship free from any revision at 2 years was 90% and 65% for the DFR and ORIF groups, respectively (p = 0.59). Survivorship free from any reoperation at 2 years was 90% for the DFR group and 50% for the ORIF group (p = 0.16). Three ORIF patients (15%) went on to nonunion and two went on to delayed union. Mean EBL and LOS were significantly higher for the DFR group: 592 mL vs. 364 mL, and 13 vs. 6.5 days, respectively. Knee ROM (p = 0.71) and KSSs (p = 0.36) were similar between groups.

Conclusions: Comminuted distal femur fractures treated with DFR trended toward lower revision and reoperation rates, with similar functional outcomes when compared to ORIF. We noted a trend toward increased EBL and LOS in the DFR group.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-021-03061-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Outcomes of operatively treated interprosthetic femoral fractures.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jul;103-B(7 Supple B):122-128

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Aims: The prevalence of ipsilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is rising in concert with life expectancy, putting more patients at risk for interprosthetic femur fractures (IPFFs). Our study aimed to assess treatment methodologies, implant survivorship, and IPFF clinical outcomes.

Methods: A total of 76 patients treated for an IPFF from February 1985 to April 2018 were reviewed. Prior to fracture, at the hip/knee sites respectively, 46 femora had primary/primary, 21 had revision/primary, three had primary/revision, and six had revision/revision components. Mean age and BMI were 74 years (33 to 99) and 30 kg/m (21 to 46), respectively. Mean follow-up after fracture treatment was seven years (2 to 24).

Results: Overall, 59 fractures were classified as Vancouver C (Unified Classification System (UCS) D), 17 were Vancouver B (UCS B). In total, 57 patients (75%) were treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF); three developed nonunion, three developed periprosthetic joint infection, and two developed aseptic loosening. In all, 18 patients (24%) underwent revision arthroplasty including 13 revision THAs, four distal femoral arthroplasties (DFAs), and one revision TKA: of these, one patient developed aseptic loosening and two developed nonunion. Survivorship free from any reoperation was 82% (95% confidence interval (CI) 66.9% to 90.6%) and 77% (95% CI 49.4% to 90.7%) in the ORIF and revision groups at two years, respectively. ORIF patients who went on to union tended to have stemmed knee components and greater mean interprosthetic distance (IPD = 189 mm (SD 73.6) vs 163 mm (SD 36.7); p = 0.546) than nonunited fractures. Patients who went on to nonunion in the revision arthroplasty group had higher medullary diameter: cortical width ratio (2.5 (SD 1.7) vs 1.3 (SD 0.3); p = 0.008) and lower IPD (36 mm (SD 30.6) vs 214 mm (SD 32.1); p < 0.001). At latest follow-up, 95% of patients (n = 72) were ambulatory.

Conclusion: Interprosthetic femur fractures are technically and biologically challenging cases. Individualized approaches to internal fixation versus revision arthroplasty led to an 81% (95% CI 68.3% to 88.6%) survivorship free from reoperation at two years with 95% of patients ambulatory. Continued improvements in management are warranted. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(7 Supple B):122-128.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B7.BJJ-2020-2275.R1DOI Listing
July 2021

Microbiology of hip and knee periprosthetic joint infections: a database study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Knowledge of the microbiological aetiology of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is essential to its management. Contemporary literature from the United States on this topic is lacking. This study aimed to identify the most common microorganisms associated with types of arthroplasty, the timing of infection, and clues to polymicrobial infection.

Methods: We performed an analytical cross-sectional study of patients 18 years of age or older with hip or knee PJI diagnosed at our institution between 2010 and 2019. PJI was defined using the criteria adapted from those of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society. Cases included PJI associated with primary or revision arthroplasty and arthroplasty performed at our institution or elsewhere.

Results: A total of 2067 episodes of PJI in 1651 patients were included. Monomicrobial infections represented 70% of episodes (n = 1448), with 25% being polymicrobial (n = 508) and the rest (5%, n = 111) culture-negative. The most common group causing PJI was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (other than S. ludgunensis) (37%, n = 761). The distribution of most common organisms was similar regardless of arthroplasty type. The S. aureus complex, Gram-negative bacteria, and anaerobic bacteria (other than Cutibacterium species) were more likely to be isolated than other organisms in the first year following index arthroplasty (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.4-2.2; OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.1-2.0; and OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.0-2.2, respectively). The proportion of culture-negative PJIs was higher in primary than revision arthroplasty (6.5% versus 3%, p 0.0005). The presence of a sinus tract increased the probability of the isolation of more than one microorganism by almost three-fold (OR 2.6, 95%CI 2.0-3.3).

Conclusions: Joint age, presence of a sinus tract, and revision arthroplasties influenced PJI microbiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2021.06.006DOI Listing
June 2021

Outcomes of Vancouver C Periprosthetic Femur Fractures.

J Arthroplasty 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Periprosthetic femur fractures (PFFs) that occur distal to a total hip arthroplasty, Vancouver C fractures, are challenging to treat. We aimed to report patient mortality, reoperations, and complications following Vancouver C PFFs in a contemporary cohort all treated with a laterally based locking plate.

Methods: We retrospectively identified 42 consecutive Vancouver C PFFs between 2004 and 2018. There was a high prevalence of comorbidities, including 9 patients with neurologic conditions, 9 with a history of cancer, 8 diabetics, and 8 using chronic anticoagulation. Mean time from total hip arthroplasty to PFF was 6 years (range 1 month to 25 years). All fractures were treated with a laterally based locking plate. Fixation bypassed the femoral component in 98% of cases and extended as proximal as the lesser trochanter in 18%. Kaplan-Meier survival was used for patient mortality, and a competing risk model was used to analyze survivorship free of reoperation and nonunion. Mean follow-up was 2 years.

Results: Patient mortality was 5% at 90 days and 31% at 2 years. Cumulative incidence of reoperation was 13% at 2 years. There were 5 reoperations including revision osteosynthesis for nonunion and/or hardware failure (2), debridement and hardware removal for infection (2), and removal of hardware and total knee arthroplasty for post-traumatic arthritis (1). Cumulative incidence of nonunion was 10% at 2 years.

Conclusion: Patients who sustained a Vancouver C PFFs had a high mortality rate (31%) at 2 years. Moreover, 13% of patients required a reoperation within 2 years, most commonly for infection or nonunion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.05.033DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Periprosthetic Joint Infection under in Vivo and in Vitro Conditions.

J Mol Diagn 2021 08 5;23(8):986-999. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address:

Transcriptomic analysis can provide insight as to how Staphylococcus aureus adapts to the environmental niche of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), a challenging clinical infection. Here, in vivo RNA expression of eight S. aureus PJIs was compared with expression of the corresponding isolates in planktonic culture using a total RNA-sequencing approach. Expression varied among isolates, with a common trend showing increased expression of several ica-independent biofilm formation genes, including sdr, fnb, ebpS, and aaa; genes encoding enzymes and toxins, including coa, nuc, hlb, and hlgA/B/C; and genes facilitating acquisition of iron via the iron-binding molecule siderophore B (snb) and heme consumption protein (isd) pathways in PJI. Several antimicrobial resistance determinants were detected; although their presence correlated with phenotypic susceptibility of the associated isolates, no difference in expression between in vivo and in vitro conditions was identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2021.05.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351120PMC
August 2021

Contemporary Mortality Rate and Outcomes in Nonagenarians After Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Nonagenarians (90-99 years) have experienced the fastest percent growth in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) utilization recently. However, there are limited data on the results of the procedure in this population. The goals of this study are to determine the mortality rate, implant survivorship, clinical outcomes, and complications of primary TKAs in nonagenarians.

Methods: Our institutional total joint registry was used to identify 105 nonagenarians who underwent 119 primary cemented TKAs for osteoarthritis between 1997 and 2017. Mean age was 92 years, with 58% being female. Mortality, revision, and reoperation were assessed using cumulative incidence with death as a competing risk and Cox regression methods. Clinical outcomes were assessed using Knee Society Scores. A posterior-stabilized design was used in 88%. Mean follow-up was 4 years.

Results: The mortality rates were 0%, 2%, 9%, and 47% at 90 days, 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years, respectively. The 5-year cumulative incidences of any revision and reoperation were 0% and 3%, respectively. The reoperations included 2 internal fixations for periprosthetic fracture and 1 hardware removal. The mean Knee Society Score improved significantly from 34 preoperatively to 80 at 5 years (P < .001). The 5-year cumulative incidence of any nonmortality complication was 66%. The most common complications were urinary tract infections and retention (8%) in the early postoperative period, and acquired idiopathic stiffness (10%) later.

Conclusion: Nonagenarians undergoing primary TKA had low mortality rates at 90 days (0%) and 1 year (2%) with substantial functional improvements. The cumulative incidences of revision and reoperation were low at 5 years.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.05.015DOI Listing
May 2021

Synchronous Periprosthetic Joint Infections: High Mortality, Reinfection, and Reoperation.

J Arthroplasty 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Synchronous periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are a catastrophic complication with potentially high mortality. We aimed to report mortality, risk of reinfection, revision, reoperation, and implant survivorship after synchronous PJIs.

Methods: We identified 34 patients treated for PJI in more than one joint within a single 90-day period from 1990 to 2018. PJIs involved bilateral knee arthroplasty (27), bilateral hip arthroplasty (4), 1 knee arthroplasty and 1 elbow arthroplasty (1), 1 knee arthroplasty and 1 shoulder arthroplasty (1), and bilateral hip and knee arthroplasty (1). Irrigation and debridement with component retention was performed in 23 patients, implant resection in 10 patients, and a combination of irrigation and debridement with component retention and implant resection in 1 patient. A competing risk model was used to analyze implant survivorship, and Kaplan-Meier survival was used for patient mortality. Mean follow-up was 6 years.

Results: Mortality was high at 18% at 30 days and 27% at 1 year. The 1-year cumulative incidence of any reinfection was 13% and 27% at 5 years. The 1-year cumulative incidence of any revision or implant removal was 6% and 20% at 5 years. The 1-year cumulative incidence of unplanned reoperation was 25% and 35% at 5 years. Rheumatoid arthritis was associated with increased risk of mortality (HR 7, P < .01), as was liver disease (HR 4, P = .02).

Conclusion: In the largest series to date, patients with synchronous PJIs had a high 30-day mortality rate of 18%, and one-fourth underwent unplanned reoperation within the first year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.05.010DOI Listing
May 2021

Safety and tolerability of liquid amikacin in antibiotic-loaded bone cement - a case series.

J Bone Jt Infect 2021 26;6(5):147-150. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Pharmacy, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

High-dose liquid antibiotics are uncommon in bone cement. We present a case series of patients in which up to 16 mL of liquid amikacin (250 mg mL ) was successfully incorporated into bone cement to treat periprosthetic joint infections. We did not observe adverse drug reactions definitively attributed to its use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/jbji-6-147-2021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131961PMC
April 2021

Isolated tibial insert exchange in revision total knee arthroplasty : reliable and durable for wear; less so for instability, insert fracture/dissociation, or stiffness.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jun;103-B(6):1103-1110

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Aims: This study aimed to determine outcomes of isolated tibial insert exchange (ITIE) during revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods: From 1985 to 2016, 270 ITIEs were performed at one institution for instability (55%, n = 148), polyethylene wear (39%, n = 105), insert fracture/dissociation (5%, n = 14), or stiffness (1%, n = 3). Patients with component loosening, implant malposition, infection, and extensor mechanism problems were excluded.

Results: Survivorship free of any re-revision was 68% at ten years. For the indication of insert wear, survivorship free of any re-revision at ten years was 74%. Re-revisions were more frequent for index diagnoses other than wear (hazard ratio (HR) 1.9; p = 0.013), with ten-year survivorships of 69% for instability and 37% for insert fracture/dissociation. Following ITIE for wear, the most common reason for re-revision was aseptic loosening (33%, n = 7). For other indications, the most common reason for re-revision was recurrence of the original diagnosis. Mean Knee Society Scores improved from 54 (0 to 94) preoperatively to 77 (38 to 94) at ten years.

Conclusion: After ITIE, the risk and reasons for re-revision correlated with preoperative indications. The best results were for polyethylene wear. For other diagnoses, the re-revision rate was higher and the failure mode was most commonly recurrence of the original indication for the revision TKA. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(6):1103-1110.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B6.BJJ-2020-1954.R2DOI Listing
June 2021

Synovial fluid α defensin has comparable accuracy to synovial fluid white blood cell count and polymorphonuclear percentage for periprosthetic joint infection diagnosis.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jun;103-B(6):1119-1126

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of α defensin (AD) lateral flow assay (LFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in comparison to conventional synovial white blood cell (WBC) count and polymorphonuclear neutrophil percentage (PMN%) analysis.

Methods: Patients undergoing joint aspiration for evaluation of pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) were considered for inclusion. Synovial fluids from 99 patients (25 THA and 74 TKA) were analyzed by WBC count and PMN% analysis, AD LFA, and AD ELISA. WBC and PMN% cutoffs of ≥ 1,700 cells/mm and ≥ 65% for TKA and ≥ 3,000 cells/mm and ≥ 80% for THA were used, respectively. A panel of three physicians, all with expertise in orthopaedic infections and who were blinded to the results of AD tests, independently reviewed patient data to diagnose subjects as with or without PJI. Consensus PJI classification was used as the reference standard to evaluate test performances. Results were compared using McNemar's test and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis.

Results: Expert consensus classified 18 arthroplasies as having failed due to PJI and 81 due to aseptic failure. Using these classifications, the calculated sensitivity and specificity of AD LFA was 83.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 58.6 to 96.4) and 93.8% (95% CI 86.2 to 98.0), respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of AD ELISA was 83.3% (95% CI 58.6 to 96.4) and 96.3% (95% CI 89.6 to 99.2), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between sensitivity (p = 1.000) or specificity (p = 0.157) of the two AD assays. AUC for AD LFA was 0.891. In comparison, AUC for synovial WBC count, PMN%, and the combination of the two values was 0.821 (sensitivity p = 1.000, specificity p < 0.001), 0.886 (sensitivity p = 0.317, specificity p = 0.011), and 0.926 (sensitivity p = 0.317, specificity p = 0.317), respectively.

Conclusion: The diagnostic accuracy of synovial AD for PJI diagnosis is comparable and not statistically superior to that of synovial WBC count plus PMN% combined. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(6):1119-1126.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B6.BJJ-2020-1741.R1DOI Listing
June 2021

Patellar Bone-Grafting for Severe Patellar Bone Loss During Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty.

JBJS Essent Surg Tech 2020 Jul-Sep;10(3). Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Treatment of severe patellar bone loss during revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is difficult. Patellar bone-grafting is a simple procedure that can improve patient outcomes following revision TKA.

Description: The patient is prepared and draped in the usual sterile fashion. The previous longitudinal knee incision is utilized for exposure. Scar tissue is excised from the medial gutter. However, tissue in the lateral gutter is largely maintained. An assessment of the surrounding quadriceps and patellar scar tissue ensues. This tissue can be utilized to create an envelope for holding the bone graft in place. If insufficient tissue is present, fascia from the iliotibial band or vastus medialis, allograft fascia, or synthetics can be used.A careful assessment of component fixation and rotation is critical to the success of patellar bone-grafting. Component revision for aseptic loosening or malrotation should be performed in the usual fashion. During component revision, it is recommended to preserve any additional bone as autograft for the patellar bone-grafting procedure. Common sites of autograft harvest include the femoral box cut and proximal tibial resection.The patella is then addressed by carefully removing the previous implant to avoid additional bone loss. This step is performed with a combination of an oscillating saw, osteotomes, and high-speed burr. The retropatellar bone is then prepared by debriding excess soft tissue, cysts, or cement. A high-speed burr is then utilized to produce a punctate bleeding surface for bone-graft incorporation.The harvested tissue is closed around the perimeter of the patella with use of interrupted nonabsorbable sutures, leaving a window to pack in the bone graft. The bone graft (allograft and autograft) is morselized and place through the window.The optimal patellar thickness is variable. After packing the bone graft through the soft-tissue window, the thickness is measured with a caliper. It is recommended to acquire a thickness of >20 mm because bone-graft resorption and remodeling occur with knee range of motion. The remaining soft-tissue window is closed with use of nonabsorbable sutures. The knee is cycled through a range of motion to ensure optimal patellofemoral tracking. If necessary, a lateral release or medial soft-tissue advancement can be performed to ensure patellofemoral tracking is adequate. Finally, the wound is irrigated and closed in layers.

Alternatives: Nonsurgical:Patellar knee braceHinged knee braceSurgical:Gull-wing osteotomyPatellar resurfacing with biconvex patellaBulk allograft reconstructionPartial or complete patellectomyPatelloplastyInterpositional arthroplastyTantalum metal-backed reconstruction.

Rationale: There is a myriad of surgical options for severe patellar bone loss following TKA. Patellar bone-grafting is simple, reproducible, and relatively cost-effective, and avoids the need for the amount of bone for reconstruction that may be required for metal-backed or biconvex patellar implants. The procedure allows for the restoration of the quadriceps lever arm, which may not be restored with other techniques, such as gull-wing osteotomy or patellectomy. Patellar bone-grafting avoids the cost and risks of disease transmission associated with allograft reconstruction. Finally, the procedure provides excellent long-term survivorship and patient-reported outcomes.

Expected Outcomes: Following this procedure, patients should experience a reduction in knee pain and improved patient-reported outcomes, with a prior study showing that the percentage of patients reporting anterior knee pain decreased from 51% to 27% following patellar bone-grafting. Patients also demonstrated an improvement in knee range of motion, with a mean increase in knee flexion of 7 and knee extension of 2. Complications related to this procedure are minimal. Bone stock restoration can be utilized for patellar resurfacing in the future. Radiographically, patellar bone resorption, loss of patellar height, and patellar remodeling do occur; however, despite these radiographic changes, Knee Society scores increased from 50 to 85 at the time of the latest follow-up.

Important Tips: Careful preoperative physical examination should document range of motion, areas of pain, and patellofemoral tracking and/or instabilityBe prepared to revise the femoral and/or tibial components if malrotated in order to optimize patellofemoral trackingRetain any autogenous bone harvested during component revision to use as patellar bone graftEnsure that allograft bone is available to ensure sufficient restoration of patellar thicknessConsider having allograft tissue available in the event that scar tissue in situ is not adequate to create an envelope for packing the bone graftA bleeding retropatellar surface prepared with a high-speed burr will increase the chance of bone incorporationA watertight closure of the soft-tissue envelope is critical to avoid loss of bone graft during knee range of motion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.ST.19.00065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154392PMC
September 2020

The effectiveness of laboratory tests to predict early postoperative periprosthetic infection after total knee arthroplasty.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jun;103-B(6 Supple A):177-184

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Aims: It remains difficult to diagnose early postoperative periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We aimed to validate the optimal cutoff values of ESR, CRP, and synovial fluid analysis for detecting early postoperative PJI in a large series of primary TKAs.

Methods: We retrospectively identified 27,066 primary TKAs performed between 2000 and 2019. Within 12 weeks, 169 patients (170 TKAs) had an aspiration. The patients were divided into two groups: those evaluated ≤ six weeks, or between six and 12 weeks postoperatively. The 2011 Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria for PJI diagnosis in 22 TKAs. The mean follow-up was five years (two months to 17 years). The results were compared using medians and Mann-Whitney U tests and thresholds were analyzed using receiver operator characteristic curves.

Results: Within six weeks, the median CRP (101 mg/l vs 35 mg/l; p = 0.011), synovial WBCs (58,295 cells/μl vs 2,121 cells/μl; p ≤ 0.001), percentage of synovial neutrophils (91% vs 71% (p < 0.001), and absolute synovial neutrophil count (ANC) (50,748 cells/μl vs 1,386 cells/μl (p < 0.001) were significantly higher in infected TKAs. Between six and 12 weeks, the median CRP (85 mg/l vs 5 mg/l (p < 0.001)), ESR (33 mm/hr vs 14 mm/hr (p = 0.015)), synovial WBCs (62,247 cells/μl vs 620 cells/μl (p < 0.001)), percentage of synovial neutrophils (93% vs 54% (p < 0.001)), and ANC (55,911 cells/μl vs 326 cells/μl (p < 0.001)) were also significantly higher in infected TKAs. Optimal thresholds at ≤ six weeks were: CRP ≥ 82 mg/l (sensitivity 70%, specificity 77%), synovial WBCs ≥ 8,676 cells/μl (83%, 90%), percentage of synovial neutrophils ≥ 88% (67%, 78%), and ANC ≥ 8,346 cells/μl (83%, 91%). Between six and 12 weeks, thresholds were: CRP ≥ 34 mg/l (90%, 93%), synovial WBCs ≥ 1,983 cells/μl (80%, 85%), percentage of synovial neutrophils ≥ 76% (80%, 81%), and ANC ≥ 1,684 cells/μl (80%, 87%).

Conclusion: Early PJI after TKA should be suspected within six weeks if the CRP is ≥ 82 mg/l, synovial WBCs are ≥ 8,676 cells/μl, the percentage of synovial neutrophils is ≥ 88%, and/or the ANC is ≥ 8,346 cells/μl. Between six and 12 weeks, thresholds include a CRP of ≥ 34 mg/l, synovial WBC of ≥ 1,983 cells/μl, a percentage of synovial neutrophils of ≥ 76%, and/or an ANC of ≥ 1,684 cells/μl. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(6 Supple A):177-184.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B6.BJJ-2020-2397.R1DOI Listing
June 2021

Increased risk of periprosthetic joint infection after acute, traumatic wound dehiscence following primary total knee arthroplasty.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jun;103-B(6 Supple A):191-195

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Aims: To describe the risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and reoperation in patients who have an acute, traumatic wound dehiscence following total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods: From January 2002 to December 2018, 16,134 primary TKAs were performed at a single institution. A total of 26 patients (0.1%) had a traumatic wound dehiscence within the first 30 days. Mean age was 68 years (44 to 87), 38% (n = 10) were female, and mean BMI was 34 kg/m (23 to 48). Median time to dehiscence was 13 days (interquartile range (IQR) 4 to 15). The dehiscence resulted from a fall in 22 patients and sudden flexion after staple removal in four. The arthrotomy was also disrupted in 58% (n = 15), including a complete extensor mechanism disruption in four knees. An irrigation and debridement with component retention (IDCR) was performed within 48 hours in 19 of 26 knees and two-thirds were discharged on antibiotic therapy. The mean follow-up was six years (2 to 15). The association of wound dehiscence and the risk of developing a PJI was analyzed.

Results: Patients who sustained a traumatic wound dehiscence had a 6.5-fold increase in the risk of PJI (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 26.2; p = 0.008). With the small number of PJIs, no variables were found to be significant risk factors. However, there were no PJIs in any of the patients who were treated with IDCR and a course of antibiotics. Three knees required reoperation including one two-stage exchange for PJI, one repeat IDCR for PJI, and one revision for aseptic loosening of the tibial component.

Conclusion: Despite having a traumatic wound dehiscence, the risk of PJI was low, but much higher than experienced in all other TKAs during the same period. We recommend urgent IDCR and a course of postoperative antibiotics to decrease the risk of PJI. A traumatic wound dehiscence increases risk of PJI by 6.5-fold. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(6 Supple A):191-195.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B6.BJJ-2020-2425.R1DOI Listing
June 2021

Surface Roughness of Titanium Orthopedic Implants Alters the Biological Phenotype of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

Tissue Eng Part A 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Metal orthopedic implants are largely biocompatible and generally achieve long-term structural fixation. However, some orthopedic implants may loosen over time even in the absence of infection. fixation failure is multifactorial, but the fundamental biological defect is cellular dysfunction at the host-implant interface. Strategies to reduce the risk of short- and long-term loosening include surface modifications, implant metal alloy type, and adjuvant substances such as polymethylmethacrylate cement. Surface modifications (e.g., increased surface rugosity) can increase osseointegration and biological ingrowth of orthopedic implants. However, the localized responses of cells to implant surface modifications need to be better characterized. As an model for investigating cellular responses to metallic orthopedic implants, we cultured mesenchymal stromal/stem cells on clinical-grade titanium disks (Ti6Al4V) that differed in surface roughness as high (porous structured), medium (grit blasted), and low (bead blasted). Topological characterization of clinically relevant titanium (Ti) materials combined with differential mRNA expression analyses (RNA-seq and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction) revealed alterations to the biological phenotype of cells cultured on titanium structures that favor early extracellular matrix production and observable responses to oxidative stress and heavy metal stress. These results provide a descriptive model for the interpretation of cellular responses at the interface between native host tissues and three-dimensionally printed modular orthopedic implants, and will guide future studies aimed at increasing the long-term retention of such materials after total joint arthroplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEA.2020.0369DOI Listing
August 2021

Midterm Results of Primary Exeter Cemented Stem in a Select Patient Population.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Most North American surgeons predominantly use uncemented stems in primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) and reserve cemented stems for selected older patients and those with poor bone quality. However, data on this "selective use" strategy for cemented stems in the population at risk for periprosthetic fracture and implant loosening are limited. The purpose of this study was to describe implant survivorship, complications, and radiographic results of a specific collarless, polished, tapered cemented stem (Exeter; Stryker) used selectively in a predominantly elderly population undergoing primary THA.

Methods: We identified 386 patients who underwent a total of 423 primary THAs with selectively utilized Exeter stems for the treatment of osteoarthritis between 2006 and 2017. In the same time period, 11,010 primary THAs were performed with uncemented stems and 961 with non-Exeter cemented stems. The mean patient age was 77 years, 71% were female, and the mean body mass index was 29 kg/m2. Competing risk analysis accounting for death was utilized to determine cumulative incidences of revision and reoperation. The mean follow-up was 5 years (range, 2 to 12 years).

Results: The 10-year cumulative incidence of any femoral component revision in this patient cohort was 4%, with 10 stems revised at the time of the latest follow-up. There were no intraoperative femoral fractures. The indications for revision were postoperative periprosthetic femoral fracture (n = 6), dislocation (n = 3), and infection (n = 1). There were no revisions for femoral loosening. The 10-year cumulative incidence of reoperation was 10%. The 10-year cumulative incidence of Vancouver B periprosthetic femoral fracture was 2%. Radiographically, there were no cases of aseptic loosening or osteolysis. There was a significant improvement in median Harris hip score, from 53 preoperatively to 92 at a mean follow-up of 5 years (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The strategy of selectively utilizing a collarless, polished, tapered cemented stem produced a low (4%) cumulative incidence of stem revision at 10 years postoperatively and resulted in no cases of aseptic loosening. The use of the Exeter stem did not eliminate postoperative femoral fractures in this predominantly elderly, female patient population.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.01829DOI Listing
May 2021

Renal Toxicity Associated With Resection and Spacer Insertion for Chronic Hip PJI.

J Arthroplasty 2021 Sep 21;36(9):3289-3293. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Two-stage exchange arthroplasty with high-dose antibiotic-loaded bone cement spacer and intravenous (IV) antibiotics is the most common method of managing infected total hip arthroplasties. However, the contemporary incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of acute kidney injuries (AKIs) in this cohort are unknown.

Methods: We identified 227 patients treated with 256 antibiotic-loaded bone cement spacers after resection of an infected primary total hip arthroplasty between 2000 and 2017. Mean age was 65 years, mean body mass index was 30 mg/kg, 55% were men, and 16% had pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Spacers were in situ for a mean of 15 weeks, concomitantly associated with IV or oral antibiotics for a mean of 6 weeks. AKI was defined as a creatinine ≥1.5X baseline or ≥0.3 mg/dL. Mean follow-up was 8 years.

Results: AKI occurred in 13 patients without pre-existing CKD (7%) vs 10 patients with CKD (28%; OR 5; P = .0001). None required acute dialysis. Postoperative fluid depletion (β = 0.31; P = .0001), ICU requirement (β = 0.40; P = .0001), and acute atrial fibrillation (β = 0.43; P = .0001) were independent predictors for AKI in patients without pre-existing CKD. Duration of in situ spacer, mean antibiotic dose in cement, use of amphotericin B, and type of IV antibiotics were not significant risk factors. At last follow-up, 8 AKIs progressed to CKD, with one receiving dialysis 7 years later.

Conclusion: AKIs occurred in 7% of patients with normal renal function, with 5-fold greater risk in those with CKD, and 4% did develop CKD. Importantly, causes of acute renal blood flow impairment were independent predictors for AKI.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.04.012DOI Listing
September 2021

Independent Risk Factors for Transfusion in Contemporary Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2021 08 20;36(8):2921-2926. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL.

Background: The incidence of transfusion in contemporary revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains high despite recent advances in blood management, including the use of tranexamic acid. The purpose of this prospective investigation was to determine independent risk factors for transfusion in revision THA.

Methods: Six centers prospectively collected data on 175 revision THAs. A multivariable logistic analysis was performed to determine independent risk factors for transfusion. Revisions were categorized into subgroups for analysis, including femur-only, acetabulum-only, both-component, explantation with spacer, and second-stage reimplantation. Patients undergoing an isolated modular exchange were excluded.

Results: Twenty-nine patients required at least one unit of blood (16.6%). In the logistic model, significant risk factors for transfusion were lower preoperative hemoglobin, higher preoperative international normalized ratio (INR), and longer operative time (P < .01, P = .04, P = .05, respectively). For each preoperative 1g/dL decrease in hemoglobin, the chance of transfusion increased by 79%. For each 0.1-unit increase in the preoperative INR, transfusion chance increased by 158%. For each additional operative hour, the chance of transfusion increased by 74%. There were no differences in transfusion rates among categories of revision hip surgery (P = .23). No differences in demographic or surgical variables were found between revision types.

Conclusion: Despite the use of tranexamic acid, transfusions are commonly required in revision THA. Preoperative hemoglobin and INR optimization are recommended when medically feasible. Efforts should also be made to decrease operative time when technically possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.03.032DOI Listing
August 2021

Acquired Idiopathic Stiffness After Contemporary Total Knee Arthroplasty: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Results Over 25 Years.

J Arthroplasty 2021 08 1;36(8):2980-2985. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Acquired idiopathic stiffness (AIS) remains a common failure mode of contemporary total knee arthroplasties (TKAs). The present study investigated the incidence of AIS and manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) at a single institution over time, determined outcomes of MUAs, and identified risk factors associated with AIS and MUA.

Methods: We identified 9771 patients (12,735 knees) who underwent primary TKAs with cemented, modular metal-backed, posterior-stabilized implants from 2000 to 2016 using our institutional total joint registry. Mean age was 68 years, 57% were female, and mean body mass index was 33 kg/m. Demographic, surgical, and comorbidity data were investigated via univariate Cox proportional hazard models and fit to an adjusted multivariate model to access risk for AIS and MUA. Mean follow-up was 7 years.

Results: During the study period, 456 knees (3.6%) developed AIS and 336 knees (2.6%) underwent MUA. Range of motion (ROM) increased a mean of 34° after the MUA; however, ROM for patients treated with MUA was inferior to patients without AIS at final follow-up (102° vs 116°, P < .0001). Significant risk factors included younger age (HR 2.3, P < .001), increased tourniquet time (HR 1.01, P < .001), general anesthesia (HR 1.3, P = .007), and diabetes (HR 1.5, P = .001).

Conclusion: Acquired idiopathic stiffness has continued to have an important adverse impact on the outcomes of a subset of patients undergoing primary TKAs. When utilized, MUA improved mean ROM by 34°, but patients treated with MUA still had decreased ROM compared to patients without AIS. Importantly, we identified several significant risk factors associated with AIS and subsequent MUA.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.03.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292170PMC
August 2021

Biomechanical, histological, and molecular characterization of a new posttraumatic model of arthrofibrosis in rats.

J Orthop Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Experimental analyses of posttraumatic knee arthrofibrosis utilize a rabbit model as a gold standard. However, a rodent model of arthrofibrosis offers many advantages including reduced cost and comparison with other models of organ fibrosis. This study aimed to characterize the biomechanical, histological, and molecular features of a novel posttraumatic model of arthrofibrosis in rats. Forty eight rats were divided into two equal groups. An immobilization procedure was performed on the right hind limbs of experimental rats. One group was immobilized for 4 weeks and the other for 8 weeks. Both groups were remobilized for 4 weeks. Limbs were studied biomechanically via assessment of torque versus degree of extension, histologically via whole knee specimen, and molecularly via gene expression of posterior capsular tissues. Significant differences were observed between experimental and control limbs at 4 N-cm of torque in the 4-week (knee extension: 115° ± 8° vs. 169° ± 17°, respectively; p = 0.007) and 8-week immobilization groups (knee extension: 99° ± 12° vs. 174° ± 9°, respectively; p = 0.008). Histologically, in each group experimental limbs demonstrated increased posterior capsular thickness and total area of tissue when compared to control limbs (p < 0.05). Gene expression values evaluated in each group were comparable. This study presents a novel rat model of arthrofibrosis with severe and persistent knee contractures demonstrated biomechanically and histologically. Statement of clinical significance: Arthrofibrosis is a common complication following contemporary total knee arthroplasties. The proposed model is reproducible, cost-effective, and can be employed for translational investigations studying the pathogenesis of arthrofibrosis and efficacy of neoadjuvant pharmacologic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.25054DOI Listing
April 2021

Elevated Expression of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor (PAI-1/SERPINE1) is Independent from rs1799889 Genotypes in Arthrofibrosis.

Meta Gene 2021 Jun 5;28. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

Arthrofibrosis is characterized by excessive extracellular matrix deposition in patients with total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) and causes undesirable joint stiffness. The pathogenesis of arthrofibrosis remains elusive and currently there are no diagnostic biomarkers for the pathological formation of this connective tissue. Fibrotic soft tissues are known to have elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) (encoded by ), a secreted serine protease inhibitor that moderates extracellular matrix remodeling and tissue homeostasis. The 4G/5G insertion/deletion (rs1799889) is a well-known polymorphism that directly modulates PAI-1 levels. Homozygous 4G/4G allele carriers typically have higher PAI-1 levels and may predispose patients to soft tissue fibrosis (e.g., liver, lung, and kidney). Here, we examined the genetic contribution of the rs1799889 polymorphism to musculoskeletal fibrosis in arthrofibrotic (n = 100) and non-arthrofibrotic (n = 100) patients using Sanger Sequencing. Statistical analyses revealed that the allele frequencies of the rs1799889 polymorphism are similar in arthrofibrotic and non-arthrofibrotic patient cohorts. Because the fibrosis related rs1799889 polymorphism is independent of arthrofibrosis susceptibility in TKA patients, the possibility arises that fibrosis of joint connective tissues may involve unique genetic determinants distinct from those linked to classical soft tissue fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mgene.2021.100877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8011541PMC
June 2021

Pelvic Tilt and the Pubic Symphysis to Sacrococcygeal Junction Distance: Risk Factors for Hip Dislocation Observed on Anteroposterior Pelvis Radiographs.

J Arthroplasty 2021 07 9;36(7S):S367-S373. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is among the most common causes of early revision in contemporary practice. Abnormal spinopelvic alignment increases risk for dislocation, but methods to identify such are limited and can be complex. We sought to determine the effect of pelvic tilt, using a novel radiographic measurement, on dislocation risk by evaluating those with and without a history of dislocation.

Methods: Using our institutional total joint registry, we identified 10,082 primary THAs performed between 2006 and 2015. Postoperatively, 177 dislocated (1.7%). Dislocators were matched 1:1 to control patients who did not dislocate. Pelvic tilt was calculated using the pubic symphysis to sacrococcygeal junction distance (PSCD) from a supine anteroposterior pelvis radiograph both preoperatively and postoperatively. The association between dislocation and both pelvic tilt and PSCD was then evaluated by logistic regression. Mean follow-up was 3 years.

Results: Patients who dislocated had more posterior pelvic tilt (mean pelvic tilt of 57° vs 60°; P = .02) and smaller PSCDs (mean 41 mm vs 46 mm; P = .04) than controls. Patients with a PSCD <0 mm (symphysis above sacrococcygeal junction) had 9-fold odds of dislocation compared to those with a PSCD >50 (odds ratio 9; P = .006).

Conclusion: Patients who dislocated following primary THA had more posterior pelvic tilt. Additionally, those with a PSCD <0 had 9-fold odds of dislocation. Assessing the PSCD can alert a surgeon of increased risk for dislocation and identification of a negative PSCD should encourage further investigation or optimization of the preoperative plan to minimize dislocation risk.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, case-control study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.02.079DOI Listing
July 2021

Acute Kidney Injury When Treating Periprosthetic Joint Infections After Total Knee Arthroplasties with Antibiotic-Loaded Spacers: Incidence, Risks, and Outcomes.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 05;103(9):754-760

Department of Orthopedic Surgery (L.D., A.K.L., D.J.B., and M.P.A.), Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine (D.R.O.), and Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine (N.L.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Two-stage exchange arthroplasty with a high-dose antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) spacer and intravenous or oral antibiotics is the most common method of managing a periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, little is known about the contemporary incidence, the risk factors, and the outcomes of acute kidney injuries (AKIs) in this cohort.

Methods: We identified 424 patients who had been treated with 455 ALBC spacers after resection of a PJI following a primary TKA from 2000 to 2017. The mean age at resection was 67 years, the mean body mass index (BMI) was 33 kg/m2, 47% of the patients were women, and 15% had preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD). The spacers (87% nonarticulating) contained a mean of 8 g of vancomycin and 9 g of an aminoglycoside per construct (in situ for a mean of 11 weeks). Eighty-six spacers also had amphotericin B (mean, 412 mg). All of the patients were concomitantly treated with systemic antibiotics for a mean of 6 weeks. An AKI was defined as a creatinine level of ≥1.5 times the baseline or an increase of ≥0.3 mg/dL within any 48-hour period. The mean follow-up was 6 years (range, 2 to 17 years).

Results: Fifty-four AKIs occurred in 52 (14%) of the 359 patients without preexisting CKD versus 32 AKIs in 29 (45%) of the 65 patients with CKD (odds ratio [OR], 5; p = 0.0001); none required acute dialysis. Overall, when the vancomycin concentration or aminoglycoside concentration was >3.6 g/batch of cement, the risk of AKI increased (OR, 1.9 and 1.8, respectively; p = 0.02 for both). Hypertension (β = 0.17; p = 0.002), perioperative hypovolemia (β = 0.28; p = 0.0001), and acute atrial fibrillation (β = 0.13; p = 0.009) were independent predictors for AKI in patients without preexisting CKD. At the last follow-up, 8 patients who had sustained an AKI had progressed to CKD, 4 of whom received dialysis.

Conclusions: In our study, the largest series to date that we are aware of regarding this issue, AKI occurred in 14% of patients with normal renal function at baseline, and 2% developed CKD after undergoing a 2-stage exchange arthroplasty for a PJI after TKA. However, the risk of AKI was fivefold greater in those with preexisting CKD. The causes of acute renal blood flow impairment were independent predictors for AKI.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.01825DOI Listing
May 2021

Biconvex Patellar Components: 96% Durability at 10 Years in 262 Revision Total Knee Arthroplasties.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Jul;103(13):1220-1228

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: The optimal strategy to address osseous deficiencies of the patella during revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial. One possible solution is a cemented biconvex patellar component used such that the non-articular convexity both improves fixation and makes up for bone loss. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of the use of biconvex patellar components in a large series of revision TKAs.

Methods: From 1996 to 2014, 262 revision TKAs were performed at a single institution using a biconvex patellar component. Implant survivorship, clinical and radiographic results, and complications were assessed. The mean patient age at the TKA revision was 69 years, and 53% of the patients were female. The mean follow-up was 7 years.

Results: The 10-year survivorship free of revision of the biconvex patellar component due to aseptic loosening was 96%. The 10-year survivorship free of any revision of the biconvex patellar component was 87%. The 10-year survivorship free of any rerevision and free of any reoperation was 75% and 70%, respectively. The mean Knee Society Score (KSS) improved from 45.4 before the index revision to 67.7 after it. The mean residual composite thickness seen on the most recent radiographs was 18.1 mm. In addition to the complications leading to revision, the most common complications were periprosthetic patellar fracture (6%), of which 3 required revision; superficial wound infection (6%) requiring antibiotic therapy only or irrigation and debridement; and arthrofibrosis (3%).

Conclusions: In this cohort of 262 revision TKAs, biconvex patellar components used to treat marked patellar bone loss demonstrated excellent durability with a 10-year survivorship free of patellar rerevision due to aseptic loosening of 96%. The biconvex patellar components were reliable as evidenced by substantial improvements in clinical outcomes scores and a low risk of complications.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.01064DOI Listing
July 2021

Total Femur Antibiotic Spacers: Effective Salvage for Complex Periprosthetic Joint Infections.

J Arthroplasty 2021 07 6;36(7):2567-2574. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: A simultaneous periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of an ipsilateral hip and knee arthroplasty is a challenging complication of lower extremity reconstructive surgery. We evaluated the use of total femur antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement spacers in the staged treatment of such limb-threatening PJIs.

Methods: Thirteen patients were treated with a total femur antibiotic spacer. The mean age at the time of spacer placement was 65 years. Nine patients had polymicrobial PJIs. All spacers incorporated vancomycin (3.0 g/40 g PMMA) and gentamicin (3.6 g/40 g PMMA), while 8 also included amphotericin (150 mg/40 g PMMA). Eleven spacers were biarticular. Twelve spacers were implanted through one longitudinal incision, while 8 of 12 reimplantations occurred through 2 smaller, separate hip and knee incisions. Mean follow-up after reimplantation was 3 years.

Results: Twelve (92%) patients underwent reimplantation of a total femur prosthesis at a mean of 26 weeks. One patient died of medical complications 41 days after spacer placement. At latest follow-up, 3 patients had experienced PJI recurrence managed with irrigation and debridement. One required acetabular component revision for instability. All 12 reimplanted patients retained the total femur prosthesis with no amputations. Eleven (91%) were ambulatory, and 7 (58%) remained on suppressive antibiotics.

Conclusion: Total femur antibiotic spacers are a viable, but technically demanding, limb-salvage option for complex PJIs involving the ipsilateral hip and knee. In the largest series to date, there were no amputations and 75% of reimplanted patients remained infection-free. Radical debridement, antimicrobial diversity, prolonged spacer retention, and limiting recurrent soft tissue violation are potential tenets of success.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.02.072DOI Listing
July 2021
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