Publications by authors named "Matthew J Selleck"

12 Publications

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Peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer: Are Hispanics at higher risk?

J Surg Oncol 2020 Dec 9;122(8):1624-1629. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Division of Surgical Oncology, University of California, Irvine, California, USA.

Background: A recent study from our group identified Hispanic race/ethnicity as an independent predictor of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) in gastric cancer. We sought to identify the tumor factors that might contribute to this strong association in Hispanics.

Methods: California Cancer Registry data were used to identify patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma from 2004 to 2014. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine odds ratios for cancer stage, tumor location, grade, histology, and PC.

Results: Of 16,275 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who met inclusion criteria, 6463 (39.7%) were non-Hispanic White (NHW), 4953 (30.4%) were Hispanic, 1020 (6.3%) were non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and 3915 (23.6%) were Asian/other. Compared to NHW, Hispanics were more likely to have a poorly differentiated grade (65.9% vs. 57.6%; p < .001), signet ring adenocarcinoma (28.1% vs. 17.6%; p < .001) and stage IV (51.9% vs. 45.0%; p < .001) gastric cancer. The proportion of stage IV patients with PC was also significantly higher in Hispanics compared to NHW, NHB, and Asian/other (28.5% vs. 16.6%, 20.5%, and 25.2%, respectively; p < .001).

Conclusions: Hispanic ethnicity is an independent predictor of aggressive tumor phenotype and PC. Disproportionate incidence of signet ring adenocarcinoma and PC highlight the need to explore the genomic differences in Hispanic gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26210DOI Listing
December 2020

Rate of Peritoneal Carcinomatosis in Resected Stage II and III Colon Cancer.

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 Dec 14;27(13):4943-4948. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Department of Surgery, University of California at Irvine, Orange, CA, USA.

Introduction: Incidence of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) after curative resection of stage II and III colon cancer varies widely. Although certain features are considered high risk for PC, the impact of these features on PC incidence is unclear.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients ≥ 18 years old with resected stage II and III colonic adenocarcinoma treated at two academic institutions from 2007 to 2018. Clinicopathologic features, treatment and outcomes data were recorded. Patients with reported high-risk features (pT3N0-2 with mucinous/signet ring components, pT4, pN1c, perforation) were identified. The remaining stage II and III patients were used for comparison.

Results: Of 219 eligible patients, 93/219 (42.5%) were stage II and 126/219 (57.5%) were stage III. Median follow-up time was 25 (1-146) months. Adjuvant systemic treatment was administered to 133/219 (60.7%) patients. Overall incidence of PC was 14/219 (6.4%) and the median time to PC was 18 (1-37) months. The high-risk and comparison groups contained 113 and 106 patients, respectively. Incidence of PC was significantly different between groups (high-risk 9.7% vs comparison 2.8%, p = 0.04). Median time to PC was not significantly different between the groups [high-risk 17 (1-37) months vs comparison 20 (7-36) months, p = 0.88].

Conclusion: Overall PC incidence in patients with resected stage II and III colon cancer was 6.4%. Although the high-risk group developed PC at a significantly higher rate, the rate of PC in this group was still below 10%. The results of this study represent real-world rates of PC and should be taken into account when designing future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08689-yDOI Listing
December 2020

Response to Neoadjuvant Treatment Is Influenced by Grade in Gastric Cancer.

Am Surg 2019 Dec;85(12):1419-1422

From the *Loma Linda University Health, Loma Linda, California and.

Neoadjuvant therapy is commonly used in the management of gastric cancer. Primary tumor response to treatment correlates with prognosis. Published studies have compared efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy based on stage but not grade. The objective of this study was to determine the change in staging of gastric cancer after neoadjuvant therapy and resection based on grade. A retrospective analysis of gastric cancer patients treated at our institution between 2005 and 2017 was performed. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, clinical and pathological stage, and microscopic treatment response were analyzed based on grade. Of the 269 patients identified during this period, 82 patients underwent definitive surgical resection, of which 38 patients received neoadjuvant therapy (low grade (grades 1 and 2), n = 17; high grade (grade 3), n = 18; and unknown grade, n = 3). Pathologic downstaging was observed in 52.9 per cent (9/17) of low-grade tumors compared with 22.2 per cent (4/18) of high-grade tumors. Majority of high-grade tumors (77.8%, 14/18) had either upstaging or unchanged stage. High-grade gastric cancers often lack response to neoadjuvant therapy. Novel targeted therapies based on biologic behavior should be evaluated and incorporated into neoadjuvant treatment. Neoadjuvant studies should stratify patients based on grade and report response by grade.
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December 2019

Gastric Cancer Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Risk Score.

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 Jan 25;27(1):240-247. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Loma Linda University Health, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Background: Gastric cancer (GC) peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is associated with a poor prognosis. Although grade, histology, and stage are associated with PC, the cumulative risk of PC when multiple risk factors are present is unknown. This study aimed to develop a cumulative GCPC risk score based on individual demographic/tumor characteristics.

Methods: Patient-level data (2004-2014) from the California Cancer Registry were reviewed by creating a keyword search algorithm to identify patients with gastric PC. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess demographic/tumor characteristics associated with PC in a randomly selected testing cohort. Scores were assigned to risk factors based on beta coefficients from the logistic regression result, and these scores were applied to the remainder of the subjects (validation cohort). The summed scores of each risk factor formed the total risk score. These were grouped, showing the percentages of patients with PC.

Results: The study identified 4285 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (2757 males, 64.3%). The median age of the patients was 67 years (interquartile range [IQR], 20 years). Most of the patients were non-Hispanic white (n = 1748, 40.8%), with proximal (n = 1675, 39.1%) and poorly differentiated (n = 2908, 67.9%) tumors. The characteristics most highly associated with PC were T4 (odds ratio [OR], 3.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.19-4.44), overlapping location (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.52-3.39), age of 20-40 years (OR 3.42; 95% CI 2.24-5.21), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.36-2.54). The demographic/tumor characteristics used in the risk score included age, race/ethnicity, T stage, histology, tumor grade, and location. Increasing GCPC score was associated with increasing percentage of patients with PC.

Conclusion: Based on demographic/tumor characteristics in GC, it is possible to distinguish groups with varying odds for PC. Understanding the risk for PC based on the cumulative effect of high-risk features can help clinicians to customize surveillance strategies and can aid in early identification of PC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-019-07624-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925067PMC
January 2020

Role of lymph node ratio in selection of adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy chemoradiation) in patients with resected gastric cancer.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2018 Aug;9(4):708-717

Division of Surgical Oncology, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Background: Recent randomized controlled trials have failed to show a survival difference between adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with resected gastric cancer (GC). However, a subset of patients with lymph node (LN) positive disease may still benefit from CRT. Additional evidence is needed to help guide physicians in identifying patients in whom CRT should be considered. Our objective was then to compare survival outcomes based on lymph node ratio (LNR) (ratio of metastatic to harvested LNs) for patients with gastric and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma treated with surgery and either CT or CRT.

Methods: This retrospective population-based study used California Cancer Registry (CCR) data from 2004 to 2013. It included 1,493 patients diagnosed with stage IB-III gastric/GEJ adenocarcinoma and treated with CT or CRT following total or partial gastrectomy. Overall survival (OS) was the primary outcome and GC-specific survival was secondary. Mortality hazards ratios (HR) for these outcomes were computed using propensity score weighted Cox regression models, stratified by LNR strata categories as 0%, 1-9%, 10-25% and >25%.

Results: Out of 1,493 patients that met inclusion criteria, 462 were treated with CT while 1,031 received CRT. Median follow-up for all subjects was 76 months and median survival was 54 months for CRT and 35 for the CT cohort, P<0.001. Compared to CT, CRT was associated with improved survival among patients with LNR of 10-25% [HR =0.62 (95% CI, 0.46-0.83)] and >25% [HR =0.67 (95% CI, 0.56-0.80)]. Similar findings were observed for GC-specific survival and for analyses limited to patients that had at least 15 LNs evaluated.

Conclusions: LNR appears to be a simple and readily available measure that could be used in treatment planning for resected GC. CRT offers significant survival advantage over CT among patients with high LN disease burden (LNR of ≥10%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jgo.2018.05.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6087859PMC
August 2018

Sexual and urinary outcomes in robotic rectal surgery: review of the literature and technical considerations.

Updates Surg 2018 Sep 17;70(3):415-421. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Loma Linda University, 11175 Campus Street, 21111, Loma Linda, CA, 92350, USA.

Several studies have reported high rates of urogenital dysfunction after open and laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer. Robotic surgery has several features that could facilitate identification and preservation of autonomic nerves. This manuscript aims to summarize the literature regarding urogenital function after robotic rectal cancer surgery and focus on technical aspects of nerve-sparing total mesorectal excision. Comprehensive searches were conducted through online databases. Selection criteria included: original articles assessing urinary and sexual function after robotic surgery of males and/or females with standardized questionnaires. A total of 16 articles were included in the review. Seven of the nine cohort studies evaluating male sexual function showed earlier recovery or better outcomes in patients operated with robotic techniques. Two studies did not find any statistically significant difference. Three out of four case series found no difference in sexual function scores measured preoperatively and after 1 year. Female sexual function was assessed in seven studies: two case series show no deterioration of at 1 year. Three comparative studies showed no difference between robotic and laparoscopic groups. Two randomized control trials showed different results in terms of male and female sexual functions with better preservation at 1 year in the robotic group in one and no difference in another. Urinary functions assessed in males and/or females in the 16 studies showed no statistically significant differences at long-term follow-up. At present, there is no evidence of superiority of robotic surgery for performing nerve-sparing rectal cancer surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-018-0581-xDOI Listing
September 2018

Impact of Breast Reconstruction on Time to Definitive Surgical Treatment, Adjuvant Therapy, and Breast Cancer Outcomes.

Ann Surg Oncol 2018 Oct 16;25(10):3096-3105. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Background: Delays in surgery and adjuvant treatment for breast cancer are associated with decreased survival. However, the time between diagnosis and surgery is rising, partly attributed to the added complexity of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR). We sought to investigate time to treatment and survival outcomes in breast cancer patients undergoing IBR.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 2004-2014 California Cancer Registry data for stage 0-III breast cancer patients undergoing mastectomy. Time to surgery, adjuvant systemic therapy and radiation therapy, propensity score, and covariate-adjusted overall mortality hazard ratios (HRs) were assessed by IBR status.

Results: Of 56,782 patients, 13,738 (24.2%) underwent IBR, with a median follow-up of 68.8 months. Median time between diagnosis and surgery was increased for patients undergoing IBR compared with those without {49 days (interquartile range [IQR] 34-73) vs. 35 days (IQR 21-56), p < 0.001}. IBR did not affect the interval from surgery to adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation, but prolonged time to endocrine therapy by 5 days (p = 0.014). Significantly lower survival was observed when time to surgery exceeded 120 days (vs. 0-30 days; HR 1.14 [1.02-1.28], p = 0.023), and improved survival with IBR (vs. without; HR 0.67 [0.61-0.74], p < 0.001). The benefit associated with reconstruction persisted for all age groups except age 80 + years, while surgical delay > 120 days demonstrated significantly lower survival in women < 60 years of age.

Conclusions: While IBR delays time to definitive surgery, its use did not substantially affect time to adjuvant treatment or survival outcomes. Further research is ongoing to mitigate the effects of potential selection bias in favor of IBR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-018-6663-7DOI Listing
October 2018

High-Risk Stage II Colon Cancer: Not All Risks Are Created Equal.

Ann Surg Oncol 2018 Jul 19;25(7):1980-1985. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Loma Linda University Cancer Center, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Introduction: Adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended in patients with stage II colon cancer with high-risk features (HRF). However, there is no quantification of the amount of risk conferred by each HRF or the overall survival (OS) benefit gained by chemotherapy based on the risk factor.

Objective: To assess survival benefits associated with adjuvant chemotherapy among stage II colon cancer patients having one or more HRF [T4 tumors, less than 12 lymph nodes examined (< 12LN), positive margins, high-grade tumor, perineural invasion (PNI), and lymphovascular invasion (LVI)].

Methods: Patients diagnosed with stage II colon cancer between 2010 and 2013 were identified from California Cancer Registry. Propensity score weighted all-cause mortality hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for combinations of HRF.

Results: A total of 5160 stage II colon cancer patients were identified, of which 2398 had at least one HRF and 510 of 2398 (21%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Compared with patients with a single HRF, presence of any 2 or ≥ 3 HRF showed increasingly poorer survival [HR 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.73 and HR 2.50, 95% CI 1.96-3.20, respectively]. Chemotherapy was associated with improved overall survival only among patients with T4 as the single HRF (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34-0.78) or combinations involving T4 as T4/< 12 LN (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.90), T4/high grade (HR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11-0.61), and T4/LVI (HR 0.16, 95% CI 0.04-0.61).

Conclusions: Not all high-risk features have similar adverse effects on OS. T4 tumors and their combination with other HRF achieve the most survival benefit with adjuvant therapy. Type and number of high-risk features should be taken into consideration when recommending adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II colon cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-018-6484-8DOI Listing
July 2018

Comparison of perioperative chemotherapy with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for resectable gastric cancer: findings from a population-based study.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2018 Feb;9(1):35-45

Division of Surgical Oncology, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Background: Both perioperative chemotherapy (PC) and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improve survival in resectable gastric cancer; however, these treatments have never been formally compared. Our objective was to evaluate treatment trends and compare survival outcomes for gastric cancer patients treated with surgery and either PC or CRT.

Methods: We performed a retrospective population-based cohort study between 2007 through 2013 using California Cancer Registry data. Patients diagnosed with stage IB-III gastric adenocarcinoma and treated with total or partial gastrectomy were eligible for this study. Based on the type of treatment received, patients were grouped into surgery-only, PC, or CRT. Primary and secondary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and gastric cancer-specific survival (GCCS) respectively. Mortality hazards ratios (HRs) for each of these outcomes were computed using propensity score weighted and covariate-adjusted Cox regression models, stratified by clinical node status.

Results: Of 2,146 patients who underwent surgical resection, 1,067 had surgery-only, while 771 and 308 received PC or CRT, respectively. Median OS was 25, 33, and 52 months for surgery-only, PC, and CRT, respectively; P<0.001. Overall, patients treated with PC had significantly poorer survival compared to CRT (HR =1.45; 95% CI: 1.22-1.73). PC was also associated with higher mortality in patients with signet ring histology (HR =1.66; 95% CI: 1.21-2.28) and clinical node negative cancer (HR =1.85; 95% CI: 1.32-2.60). Survival was not different between PC CRT in clinical node positive patients (HR =1.29; 95% CI: 0.84-2.08). Of note, the percentage of patients receiving PC increased from 17.5% in 2007-2008, to 41.5% in 2013-2014; P<0.001.

Conclusions: Despite the rapid adoption of PC, overall, CRT is associated with better survival than PC. Specifically, clinical node negative and signet ring histology patients had better survival when treated with CRT compared to PC. Based on these findings, we recommend against indiscriminate adoption of PC and consideration for CRT over PC in clinical node negative patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jgo.2017.10.13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5848040PMC
February 2018

Making Meaningful Clinical Use of Biomarkers.

Biomark Insights 2017 19;12:1177271917715236. Epub 2017 Jun 19.

Division of Biochemistry, Department of Basic Sciences and Center for Health Disparities & Molecular Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

This review discusses the current state of biomarker discovery for the purposes of diagnostics and therapeutic monitoring. We underscore relevant challenges that have defined the gap between biomarker discovery and meaningful clinical use. We highlight recent advancements in and propose a way to think about future biomarker development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1177271917715236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5479428PMC
June 2017

Differential protein expression in exosomal samples taken from trauma patients.

Proteomics Clin Appl 2017 09 10;11(9-10). Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Center for Health Disparities Research and Molecular Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are among the most misdiagnosed and underreported types of head trauma. The potential long-term impact of undiagnosed or incorrectly identified concussions and other head injuries are potentially devastating, as evidenced by the increasing societal burden exhibited by soldiers returning from combat and athletes in contact sports. Concussions and TBI are notoriously difficult to correctly diagnose and prognosis for these injuries is poorly understood. In order to increase the likelihood of successful diagnosis, treatment, and prediction of outcomes, a definitive differential diagnosis will need to be established. The establishment of a "trauma-specific profile" or a panel of known trauma markers will significantly aid in this goal. Small membrane vesicles called exosomes have been shown to contain proteins and injury-specific biomarkers. In the future it is possible that they could become an important tool, utilized for their diagnostic and therapeutic potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prca.201700061DOI Listing
September 2017

Contemporary outcomes of lower extremity vascular repairs extending below the knee: A multicenter retrospective study.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2016 07;81(1):63-70

From the University of Texas Health Sciences Center (G.F., K.C-O.), Houston, Texas; David Grant Medical Center (J.J.D.), University of California-Davis, Sacramento, California; Los Angeles County and University of Southern California Hospital (R.M., K.I.), Los Angeles, California; University of Arizona (A.H., B.J.), Tucson, Arizona; University of Florida-Jacksonville (D.S.), Jacksonville, Florida; Loma Linda University Medical Center (M.J.S., T.A.O.), Loma Linda, California.

Objectives: To determine the outcomes of vascular injury interventions extending below the knee.

Methods: Vascular injury repairs extending below the knee from January 2008 to December 2014 were collected from six American College of Surgeons Level I trauma centers. Demographics, management, and outcomes were collected and analyzed.

Results: A total of 194 vascular injuries were identified. The mean age was 33.7 years, with 88.1% male, and 71.1% had blunt injury. Admission systolic blood pressure was less than 90 mm Hg in 10.8%; prehospital tourniquets were used in 5.6%. Median mangled extremity severity score (MESS) was 6.0 [interquartile range, 6]. Imaging used included computed tomography angiography (58.2%) and angiography (7.2%); with 66 (34.0%) proceeding directly to OR based on examination alone. Vascular interventions were conducted primarily by vascular (66.0%) and trauma (25.3%) surgeons at a median time from injury of 8 hours (interquartile range, 7 hours). Initial interventions included graft interposition (57.7%) with saphenous vein (111) or synthetic graft (1), primary repair (14.9%), endovascular stent-graft (1.5%), and patch angioplasty (2.1%). Fasciotomy was performed at initial operation in 41.8%, and for delayed compartment syndrome in 2.1%. Vascular reintervention was required in 20 patients (6.7%) for bleeding (seven patients) or thrombosis (13 patients). There was a higher reintervention rates for thrombosis among interposition grafts with distal anastomotic sites at the below-knee popliteal compared to those extending to the tibioperoneal trunk or distal trifurcation vessels, but this was not significant. (4/60, 6.7% vs. 6/49, 12.2%; p = 0.34). Postintervention amputation rates were significantly higher among interposition grafts extending distal to the popliteal (4/60 [6.7%] vs. 15/49 [30.6%]; p = 0.006).

Conclusions: The management of vascular injuries extending below the knee remains a complex issue of extremity trauma care. The need for delayed amputation is significantly more common when revascularization below the distal popliteal artery is required.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level III; therapeutic/care management study, level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000000996DOI Listing
July 2016
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