Publications by authors named "Matthew D Stocker"

4 Publications

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Depth-Dependent Response of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sediments to Changes in Water Column Nutrient Levels.

J Environ Qual 2019 Jul;48(4):1074-1081

Concentrations of in bottom sediments can influence the assessment of microbial stream water quality. Runoff events bring nutrients to streams that can support the growth of in sediments. The objective of this work was to evaluate depth-dependent changes in populations after nutrients are introduced to the water column. Bovine feces were collected fresh and mixed into sediment. Studies were performed in a microcosm system with continuous flow of synthetic stream water over inoculated sediment. Dilutions of autoclaved bovine manure were added to water on Day 16 at two concentrations, and KBr tracer was introduced into the water column to evaluate ion diffusion. Concentrations of , total coliforms, and total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, along with orthophosphate-P and ammonium N, were monitored in water and sediment for 32 d. Sediment samples were analyzed in 0- to 1-cm and 1- to 3-cm sectioned depths. Concentrations of and total coliforms in top sediments were approximately one order of magnitude greater than in bottom sediments throughout the experiment. Introduction of nutrients to the water column triggered an increase of nutrient levels in both top and bottom sediments and increased concentrations of bacteria in the water. However, the added nutrients had a limited effect on in sediment where bacterial inactivation continued. Vertical gradients of concentrations in sediments persisted during the inactivation periods both before and after nutrient addition to the water column.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2018.12.0450DOI Listing
July 2019

Export from Manured Fields Depends on the Time between the Start of Rainfall and Runoff Initiation.

J Environ Qual 2018 09;47(5):1293-1297

After rainfall or irrigation begins, surface-applied chemicals and manure-borne microorganisms typically enter the soil with infiltration until the soil saturates, after which time the chemicals and microbes are exported from the field in the overland flow. This process is viewed as a reason for the dependence of chemical export on the time between rainfall start and runoff initiation that has been documented for agricultural chemicals. The objective of this work was to observe and quantify such dependence for released from solid farmyard dairy manure in field conditions. Experiments were performed for 6 yr and consisted of manure application followed by an immediate simulated rainfall event and a second event 1 wk later. The nonlinearity of the release seen in laboratory and plot studies did not manifest itself in the field. The number of exported cells in runoff was proportional to rainfall depth after runoff initiation in each trial. The proportionality coefficient, termed export rate, demonstrated a strong dependence on the runoff delay time that could be approximated with the exponential decrease. The export rate decreased by one order of magnitude when the rainfall depth at runoff initiation increased from 18 to 42 mm. The same dependence could approximate data from the simulated rainfall event 1 wk after the manure application, assuming that the initial content in manure after 1 wk of weathering was 10% of the initial content. Overall, accounting for the dependence of manure-borne export on the runoff delay time should improve the accuracy of export predictions related to the assessment of agricultural practices on microbial water quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2018.02.0081DOI Listing
September 2018

Spatial Patterns of Concentrations in Sediment before and after High-Flow Events in a First-Order Creek.

J Environ Qual 2018 09;47(5):958-966

Understanding spatial patterns of in freshwater sediments is necessary to characterize sediments as microbial reservoirs and to evaluate the impact of sediment resuspension on microbial water quality in watersheds. Sediment particle size distributions and streambed concentrations were measured along a 500-m-long reach of a first-order creek 1 d before and on Days 1, 3, 6, and 10 after each of two artificial high-flow events, with natural high-flow events also occurring within the sampling periods. Spatial variability of was greater in sediments than in water within any given sampling; however, variation between sampling days was greater for water than for sediment. The mean relative difference analysis revealed temporally stable patterns of concentrations in sediments. rich locations along the reach corresponded to areas with higher organic matter and fine particle contents. Although low ( < 0.5 d) or negative survival rates were observed at most locations along the reach during times where no precipitation was recorded, a small number of locations showed such large concentration increase that on average the survival rate remained positive at the reach scale. The studied creek appears to have hot spots of concentration increase, where conditions for populations to increase are much more favorable than in most other locations across the reach. The effect of this increase can be seen at the reach scale but is difficult to discern without individual sampling that is dense in space and time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2017.11.0451DOI Listing
September 2018

Irrigation waters and pipe-based biofilms as sources for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Environ Monit Assess 2016 Jan 24;188(1):56. Epub 2015 Dec 24.

USDA-ARS Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, 10300 Baltimore Ave. Bldg. 173, Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA.

The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in environmental surface waters has gained recent attention. Wastewater and drinking water distribution systems are known to disseminate antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with the biofilms that form on the inner-surfaces of the pipeline as a hot spot for proliferation and gene exchange. Pipe-based irrigation systems that utilize surface waters may contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a similar manner. We conducted irrigation events at a perennial stream on a weekly basis for 1 month, and the concentrations of total heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms, as well as the concentrations of these bacterial groups that were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, were monitored at the intake water. Prior to each of the latter three events, residual pipe water was sampled and 6-in. sections of pipeline (coupons) were detached from the system, and biofilm from the inner-wall was removed and analyzed for total protein content and the above bacteria. Isolates of biofilm-associated bacteria were screened for resistance to a panel of seven antibiotics, representing five antibiotic classes. All of the monitored bacteria grew substantially in the residual water between irrigation events, and the biomass of the biofilm steadily increased from week to week. The percentages of biofilm-associated isolates that were resistant to antibiotics on the panel sometimes increased between events. Multiple-drug resistance was observed for all bacterial groups, most often for fecal coliforms, and the distributions of the numbers of antibiotics that the total coliforms and fecal coliforms were resistant to were subject to change from week to week. Results from this study highlight irrigation waters as a potential source for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can subsequently become incorporated into and proliferate within irrigation pipe-based biofilms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-5067-4DOI Listing
January 2016
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