Publications by authors named "Matthew D Smyth"

178 Publications

Management of sagittal synostosis in the Synostosis Research Group: baseline data and early outcomes.

Neurosurg Focus 2021 Apr;50(4):E3

Divisions of1Pediatric Neurosurgery, Primary Children's Hospital, and.

Objective: Sagittal synostosis is the most common form of isolated craniosynostosis. Although some centers have reported extensive experience with this condition, most reports have focused on a single center. In 2017, the Synostosis Research Group (SynRG), a multicenter collaborative network, was formed to study craniosynostosis. Here, the authors report their early experience with treating sagittal synostosis in the network. The goals were to describe practice patterns, identify variations, and generate hypotheses for future research.

Methods: All patients with a clinical diagnosis of isolated sagittal synostosis who presented to a SynRG center between March 1, 2017, and October 31, 2019, were included. Follow-up information through October 31, 2020, was included. Data extracted from the prospectively maintained SynRG registry included baseline parameters, surgical adjuncts and techniques, complications prior to discharge, and indications for reoperation. Data analysis was descriptive, using frequencies for categorical variables and means and medians for continuous variables.

Results: Two hundred five patients had treatment for sagittal synostosis at 5 different sites. One hundred twenty-six patients were treated with strip craniectomy and 79 patients with total cranial vault remodeling. The most common strip craniectomy was wide craniectomy with parietal wedge osteotomies (44%), and the most common cranial vault remodeling procedure was total vault remodeling without forehead remodeling (63%). Preoperative mean cephalic indices (CIs) were similar between treatment groups: 0.69 for strip craniectomy and 0.68 for cranial vault remodeling. Thirteen percent of patients had other health problems. In the cranial vault cohort, 81% of patients who received tranexamic acid required a transfusion compared with 94% of patients who did not receive tranexamic acid. The rates of complication were low in all treatment groups. Five patients (2%) had an unintended reoperation. The mean change in CI was 0.09 for strip craniectomy and 0.06 for cranial vault remodeling; wide craniectomy resulted in a greater change in CI in the strip craniectomy group.

Conclusions: The baseline severity of scaphocephaly was similar across procedures and sites. Treatment methods varied, but cranial vault remodeling and strip craniectomy both resulted in satisfactory postoperative CIs. Use of tranexamic acid may reduce the need for transfusion in cranial vault cases. The wide craniectomy technique for strip craniectomy seemed to be associated with change in CI. Both findings seem amenable to testing in a randomized controlled trial.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.1.FOCUS201029DOI Listing
April 2021

Hemispherectomy Outcome Prediction Scale: Development and validation of a seizure freedom prediction tool.

Epilepsia 2021 May 13;62(5):1064-1073. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Pediatrics, BC Children's Hospital and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: To develop and validate a model to predict seizure freedom in children undergoing cerebral hemispheric surgery for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy.

Methods: We analyzed 1267 hemispheric surgeries performed in pediatric participants across 32 centers and 12 countries to identify predictors of seizure freedom at 3 months after surgery. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed based on 70% of the dataset (training set) and validated on 30% of the dataset (validation set). Missing data were handled using multiple imputation techniques.

Results: Overall, 817 of 1237 (66%) hemispheric surgeries led to seizure freedom (median follow-up = 24 months), and 1050 of 1237 (85%) were seizure-free at 12 months after surgery. A simple regression model containing age at seizure onset, presence of generalized seizure semiology, presence of contralateral 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography hypometabolism, etiologic substrate, and previous nonhemispheric resective surgery is predictive of seizure freedom (area under the curve = .72). A Hemispheric Surgery Outcome Prediction Scale (HOPS) score was devised that can be used to predict seizure freedom.

Significance: Children most likely to benefit from hemispheric surgery can be selected and counseled through the implementation of a scale derived from a multiple regression model. Importantly, children who are unlikely to experience seizure control can be spared from the complications and deficits associated with this surgery. The HOPS score is likely to help physicians in clinical decision-making.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16861DOI Listing
May 2021

Dural augmentation approaches and complication rates after posterior fossa decompression for Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia: a Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium study.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Feb 12:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

3Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL.

Objective: Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) is commonly performed for Chiari I malformation (CM-I) with syringomyelia (SM). However, complication rates associated with various dural graft types are not well established. The objective of this study was to elucidate complication rates within 6 months of surgery among autograft and commonly used nonautologous grafts for pediatric patients who underwent PFDD for CM-I/SM.

Methods: The Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium database was queried for pediatric patients who had undergone PFDD for CM-I with SM. All patients had tonsillar ectopia ≥ 5 mm, syrinx diameter ≥ 3 mm, and ≥ 6 months of postoperative follow-up after PFDD. Complications (e.g., pseudomeningocele, CSF leak, meningitis, and hydrocephalus) and postoperative changes in syrinx size, headaches, and neck pain were compared for autograft versus nonautologous graft.

Results: A total of 781 PFDD cases were analyzed (359 autograft, 422 nonautologous graft). Nonautologous grafts included bovine pericardium (n = 63), bovine collagen (n = 225), synthetic (n = 99), and human cadaveric allograft (n = 35). Autograft (103/359, 28.7%) had a similar overall complication rate compared to nonautologous graft (143/422, 33.9%) (p = 0.12). However, nonautologous graft was associated with significantly higher rates of pseudomeningocele (p = 0.04) and meningitis (p < 0.001). The higher rate of meningitis was influenced particularly by the higher rate of chemical meningitis (p = 0.002) versus infectious meningitis (p = 0.132). Among 4 types of nonautologous grafts, there were differences in complication rates (p = 0.02), including chemical meningitis (p = 0.01) and postoperative nausea/vomiting (p = 0.03). Allograft demonstrated the lowest complication rates overall (14.3%) and yielded significantly fewer complications compared to bovine collagen (p = 0.02) and synthetic (p = 0.003) grafts. Synthetic graft yielded higher complication rates than autograft (p = 0.01). Autograft and nonautologous graft resulted in equal improvements in syrinx size (p < 0.0001). No differences were found for postoperative changes in headaches or neck pain.

Conclusions: In the largest multicenter cohort to date, complication rates for dural autograft and nonautologous graft are similar after PFDD for CM-I/SM, although nonautologous graft results in higher rates of pseudomeningocele and meningitis. Rates of meningitis differ among nonautologous graft types. Autograft and nonautologous graft are equivalent for reducing syrinx size, headaches, and neck pain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.8.PEDS2087DOI Listing
February 2021

The Role of SPECT and PET in Epilepsy.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 03 21;216(3):759-768. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

The purpose of this article is to summarize the role of molecular imaging of the brain by use of SPECT, FDG PET, and non-FDG PET radiotracers in epilepsy. Quantitative image analysis with PET and SPECT has increased the diagnostic utility of these modalities in localizing epileptogenic onset zones. A multi-modal platform approach integrating the functional imaging of PET and SPECT with the morphologic information from MRI in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy can greatly improve outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.20.23336DOI Listing
March 2021

Morphologic Severity of Craniosynostosis: Implications for Speech and Neurodevelopment.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2021 Jan 20:1055665620984643. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: Single-suture craniosynostosis (SSC) can be associated with neurodevelopmental deficits. We examined the correlation between morphologic severity and incidence of speech-language or psychological concerns.

Methods: In 62 patients (33 sagittal, 17 metopic, and 12 unicoronal), morphologic severity was determined via preoperative computed tomography (CT). Severity metrics for sagittal, metopic, and unicoronal synostosis were adjusted cephalic index (aCI), interfrontal angle (IFA), and anterior cranial fossa area ratio (ACFR), respectively. Speech-language and psychological concerns were assessed at age ≥4.5 years and defined as recommendation for therapy or monitoring.

Results: Mean assessment age was 5.7 years; 32% had a speech-language concern and 44% had a psychological concern; 44% had neither. Sagittal: Mean aCI of those with a speech-language concern (0.62) and those without (0.62) were equivalent ( = .580), as were mean aCI of those with a psychological concern (0.62) and those without (0.62; = .572). Metopic: Mean IFA with (117.9) and without (125.2) a speech-language concern were equivalent ( = .326), as were mean IFA with (120.2) and without (123.2) a psychological concern ( = .711). Unicoronal: Mean ACFR with (0.65) and without (0.69) a psychological concern ( = .423) were equivalent. However, mean ACFR with (0.74) and without (0.63) a speech-language concern were not ( = .022*). Bivariate rank correlation showed significant association between morphologic severity and speech-language score only for unicoronal synostosis (ρ = .722; = .008*).

Conclusion: A significant portion of patients with SSC had speech-language or psychological concerns. We found no correlation between morphologic severity and incidence of speech-language or psychological concerns for patients with sagittal or metopic synostosis. Morphological severity did correlate with speech concerns in patients with unicoronal synostosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1055665620984643DOI Listing
January 2021

Convolutional Neural Networks for Pediatric Refractory Epilepsy Classification Using Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 6;149:e1112-e1122. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Pediatric Surgery and Neurosurgery, McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, Houston, Texas, USA.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the performance of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) trained with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) latency data in the classification of patients with pediatric epilepsy from healthy controls.

Methods: Preoperative rfMRI and anatomic magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 63 pediatric patients with refractory epilepsy and 259 pediatric healthy controls. Latency maps of the temporal difference between rfMRI and the global mean signal were calculated using voxel-wise cross-covariance. Healthy control and epilepsy latency z score maps were pseudorandomized and partitioned into training data (60%), validation data (20%), and test data (20%). Healthy control individuals and patients with epilepsy were labeled as negative and positive, respectively. CNN models were then trained with the designated training data. Model hyperparameters were evaluated with a grid-search method. The model with the highest sensitivity was evaluated using unseen test data. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, F1 score, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were used to evaluate the ability of the model to classify epilepsy in the test data set.

Results: The model with the highest validation sensitivity correctly classified 74% of unseen test patients with 85% sensitivity, 71% specificity, F1 score of 0.56, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.86.

Conclusions: Using rfMRI latency data, we trained a CNN model to classify patients with pediatric epilepsy from healthy controls with good performance. CNN could serve as an adjunct in the diagnosis of pediatric epilepsy. Identification of pediatric epilepsy earlier in the disease course could decrease time to referral to specialized epilepsy centers and thus improve prognosis in this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.12.131DOI Listing
May 2021

Occipital-Cervical Fusion and Ventral Decompression in the Surgical Management of Chiari-1 Malformation and Syringomyelia: Analysis of Data From the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

Neurosurgery 2021 01;88(2):332-341

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Occipital-cervical fusion (OCF) and ventral decompression (VD) may be used in the treatment of pediatric Chiari-1 malformation (CM-1) with syringomyelia (SM) as adjuncts to posterior fossa decompression (PFD) for complex craniovertebral junction pathology.

Objective: To examine factors influencing the use of OCF and OCF/VD in a multicenter cohort of pediatric CM-1 and SM subjects treated with PFD.

Methods: The Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium registry was used to examine 637 subjects with cerebellar tonsillar ectopia ≥ 5 mm, syrinx diameter ≥ 3 mm, and at least 1 yr of follow-up after their index PFD. Comparisons were made between subjects who received PFD alone and those with PFD + OCF or PFD + OCF/VD.

Results: All 637 patients underwent PFD, 505 (79.2%) with and 132 (20.8%) without duraplasty. A total of 12 subjects went on to have OCF at some point in their management (PFD + OCF), whereas 4 had OCF and VD (PFD + OCF/VD). Of those with complete data, a history of platybasia (3/10, P = .011), Klippel-Feil (2/10, P = .015), and basilar invagination (3/12, P < .001) were increased within the OCF group, whereas only basilar invagination (1/4, P < .001) was increased in the OCF/VD group. Clivo-axial angle (CXA) was significantly lower for both OCF (128.8 ± 15.3°, P = .008) and OCF/VD (115.0 ± 11.6°, P = .025) groups when compared to PFD-only group (145.3 ± 12.7°). pB-C2 did not differ among groups.

Conclusion: Although PFD alone is adequate for treating the vast majority of CM-1/SM patients, OCF or OCF/VD may be occasionally utilized. Cranial base and spine pathologies and CXA may provide insight into the need for OCF and/or OCF/VD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803430PMC
January 2021

Comparison of 2 Sagittal Craniosynostosis Repair Techniques: Spring-Assisted Surgery Versus Endoscope-Assisted Craniectomy With Helmet Molding Therapy.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2020 Oct 23:1055665620966521. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Introduction: This study compares anthropometric outcomes of 2 sagittal synostosis repair techniques: spring-assisted surgery and endoscope-assisted craniectomy with molding helmet therapy.

Methods: Patients undergoing spring-assisted surgery (n = 27) or endoscope-assisted craniectomy with helmet therapy (n = 40) at separate institutions were retrospectively reviewed. Pre- and 1-year postoperative computed tomography (CT) or laser scans were analyzed for traditional cranial index (CI), adjusted cranial index (aCI), and cranial vault volume (CVV). Nine patient-matched scans were analyzed for measurement consistency.

Results: The spring-assisted group was older at both time points ( < .050) and spring-assisted group CVV was larger preoperatively and postoperatively ( < .01). However, the change in CVV did not differ between the groups ( = .210). There was no difference in preoperative CI (helmet vs spring: 70.1 vs 71.2, = .368) between the groups. Postoperatively, helmet group CI (77.0 vs 74.3, = .008) was greater. The helmet group also demonstrated a greater increase in CI (6.9 vs 3.1, < .001). The proportion of patients achieving CI of 75 or greater was not significantly different between the groups (helmet vs spring: CI, 65% vs 52%, = .370). There was no detectable bias in CI between matched CT and laser scans. Differences were identified between scan types in aCI and CVV measurements; subsequent analyses used corrected CVV and aCI measures for laser scan measures.

Conclusions: Both techniques had equivalent proportions of patients achieving normal CI, comparable effects on cranial volume, and similar operative characteristics. The study suggests that there may be greater improvement in CI in the helmet group. However, further research should be performed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1055665620966521DOI Listing
October 2020

Use of fast-sequence spine MRI in pediatric patients.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Sep 18:1-6. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

1Department of Neurological Surgery and.

Objective: The immediate and long-term risk of anesthesia in the pediatric population is controversial. Traditional spine MRI protocols require the patient to remain still during the examination, and in young children this frequently results in the need for sedation administration. The authors' goal was to develop an abbreviated spine MRI protocol to reduce sedation administration in young patients undergoing spine MRI.

Methods: After IRB approval, the medical records of all pediatric patients who underwent a fast spine MRI protocol between 2017 and 2019 were reviewed. The protocol consisted of T2-weighted half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo, T1-weighted turbo spin echo, and T2-weighted STIR sequences acquired in the sagittal plane. The total acquisition time was 2 minutes with no single sequence acquisition longer than 60 seconds. Interpretability of the scans was assessed in accordance with the radiology report in conjunction with the neurosurgeon's clinical notes.

Results: A total of 47 fast spine MRI sessions were performed in 45 patients. The median age at the time of the MRI was 2.4 years (25th-75th quartile, 1.1-4.3 years; range 0.16-18.58 years). The most common indication for imaging was to rule out or follow a known syrinx (n = 30), followed by the need to rule out or follow known spinal dysraphism (n = 22). There were no uninterpretable or unusable scans. Eight of 47 scans were noted to have moderate motion artifact limitations with respect to the quality of the scan. Seven patients underwent a subsequent MRI with a sedated standard spine protocol within 1 year from the fast scan, which confirmed the findings on the fast MRI protocol with no new findings identified.

Conclusions: The authors report the first pediatric series of a fast spine MRI protocol for use in young patients. The protocol does not require sedation and is able to identify and monitor syrinx, spinal dysraphism, and potentially other intraspinal anomalies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.5.PEDS20137DOI Listing
September 2020

Using Histopathology to Assess the Reliability of Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Guiding Additional Brain Tumor Resection: A Multicenter Study.

Neurosurgery 2020 12;88(1):E49-E59

Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) is a powerful tool for guiding brain tumor resections, provided that it accurately discerns residual tumor.

Objective: To use histopathology to assess how reliably iMRI may discern additional tumor for a variety of tumor types, independent of the indications for iMRI.

Methods: A multicenter database was used to calculate the odds of additional resection during the same surgical session for grade I to IV gliomas and pituitary adenomas. The reliability of iMRI for identifying residual tumor was assessed using histopathology of tissue resected after iMRI.

Results: Gliomas (904/1517 cases, 59.6%) were more likely than pituitary adenomas (176/515, 34.2%) to receive additional resection after iMRI (P < .001), but these tumors were equally likely to have additional tissue sent for histopathology (398/904, 44.4% vs 66/176, 37.5%; P = .11). Tissue samples were available for resections after iMRI for 464 cases, with 415 (89.4%) positive for tumor. Additional resections after iMRI for gliomas (361/398, 90.7%) were more likely to yield additional tumor compared to pituitary adenomas (54/66, 81.8%) (P = .03). There were no significant differences in resection after iMRI yielding histopathologically positive tumor between grade I (58/65 cases, 89.2%; referent), grade II (82/92, 89.1%) (P = .98), grade III (72/81, 88.9%) (P = .95), or grade IV gliomas (149/160, 93.1%) (P = .33). Additional resection for previously resected tumors (122/135 cases, 90.4%) was equally likely to yield histopathologically confirmed tumor compared to newly-diagnosed tumors (293/329, 89.0%) (P = .83).

Conclusion: Histopathological analysis of tissue resected after use of iMRI for grade I to IV gliomas and pituitary adenomas demonstrates that iMRI is highly reliable for identifying residual tumor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa338DOI Listing
December 2020

School-Aged Anthropometric Outcomes After Endoscopic or Open Repair of Metopic Synostosis.

Pediatrics 2020 09 11;146(3). Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery and

Background And Objectives: Metopic craniosynostosis can be treated by fronto-orbital advancement or endoscopic strip craniectomy with postoperative helmeting. Infants younger than 6 months of age are eligible for the endoscopic repair. One-year postoperative anthropometric outcomes have been shown to be equivalent, with significantly less morbidity after endoscopic treatment. The authors hypothesized that both repairs would yield equivalent anthropometric outcomes at 5-years postoperative.

Methods: This study was a retrospective chart review of 31 consecutive nonsyndromic patients with isolated metopic craniosynostosis treated with either endoscopic or open correction. The primary anthropometric outcomes were frontal width, interfrontal divergence angle, the Whitaker classification, and the presence of lateral frontal retrusion. Peri-operative variables included estimated blood loss, rates of blood transfusion, length of stay, and operating time.

Results: There was a significantly lower rate of lateral frontal retrusion in the endoscopic group. No statistically significant differences were found in the other 3 anthropometric outcomes at 5-years postoperative. The endoscopic group was younger at the time of surgery and had improved peri-operative outcomes related to operating time, hospital stay and blood loss. Both groups had low complication and reoperation rates.

Conclusions: In our cohort of school-aged children with isolated metopic craniosynostosis, patients who underwent endoscopic repair had superior or equivalent outcomes on all 4 primary anthropometric measures compared with those who underwent open repair. Endoscopic repair was associated with significantly faster recovery and decreased morbidity. Endoscopic repair should be considered in patients diagnosed with metopic craniosynostosis before 6 months of age.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-0238DOI Listing
September 2020

Impact of Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Other Factors on Surgical Outcomes for Newly Diagnosed Grade II Astrocytomas and Oligodendrogliomas: A Multicenter Study.

Neurosurgery 2020 12;88(1):63-73

Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Few studies use large, multi-institutional patient cohorts to examine the role of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) in the resection of grade II gliomas.

Objective: To assess the impact of iMRI and other factors on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for newly diagnosed grade II astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.

Methods: Retrospective analyses of a multicenter database assessed the impact of patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related factors on OS and PFS.

Results: A total of 232 resections (112 astrocytomas and 120 oligodendrogliomas) were analyzed. Oligodendrogliomas had longer OS (P < .001) and PFS (P = .01) than astrocytomas. Multivariate analyses demonstrated improved OS for gross total resection (GTR) vs subtotal resection (STR; P = .006, hazard ratio [HR]: .23) and near total resection (NTR; P = .02, HR: .64). GTR vs STR (P = .02, HR: .54), GTR vs NTR (P = .04, HR: .49), and iMRI use (P = .02, HR: .54) were associated with longer PFS. Frontal (P = .048, HR: 2.11) and occipital/parietal (P = .003, HR: 3.59) locations were associated with shorter PFS (vs temporal). Kaplan-Meier analyses showed longer OS with increasing extent of surgical resection (EOR) (P = .03) and 1p/19q gene deletions (P = .02). PFS improved with increasing EOR (P = .01), GTR vs NTR (P = .02), and resections above STR (P = .04). Factors influencing adjuvant treatment (35.3% of patients) included age (P = .002, odds ratio [OR]: 1.04) and EOR (P = .003, OR: .39) but not glioma subtype or location. Additional tumor resection after iMRI was performed in 105/159 (66%) iMRI cases, yielding GTR in 54.5% of these instances.

Conclusion: EOR is a major determinant of OS and PFS for patients with grade II astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. Intraoperative MRI may improve EOR and was associated with increased PFS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa320DOI Listing
December 2020

Evaluation of the Patient-Practitioner Consultation on Surgical Treatment Options for Patients With Craniosynostosis.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Jul-Aug;31(5):1186-1190

*Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO †Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Primary Children's Hospital, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT ‡Neurological Surgery §Division of Plastic Surgery, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, WA ||Department of Neurological Surgery, Columbia University, Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York-Presbyterian, New York, NY ¶Division of Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT #Division of Neurosurgery, British Columbia Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada **Plastic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA ††Division of Plastic Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY ‡‡Department of Neurosurgery, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO.

Introduction: Endoscope-assisted craniectomy and spring-assisted cranioplasty with post-surgical helmet molding are minimally invasive alternatives to the traditional craniosynostosis treatment of open cranial vault remodeling. Families are often faced with deciding between techniques. This study aimed to understand providers' practice patterns in consulting families about surgical options.

Methods: An online survey was developed and distributed to 31 providers. The response rate was 84% (26/31).

Results: Twenty-six (100%) respondents offer a minimally invasive surgical option for sagittal craniosynostosis, 21 (81%) for coronal, 20 (77%) for metopic, 18 (69%) for lambdoid, and 12 (46%) for multi-suture. Social issues considered in determining whether to offer a minimally invasive option include anticipated likelihood of compliance (23 = 88%), distance traveled for care (16 = 62%) and financial considerations (6 = 23%). Common tools to explain options include verbal discussion (25 = 96%), 3D reconstructed CT scans (17 = 65%), handouts (13 = 50%), 3D models (12 = 46%), hand drawings (11 = 42%) and slides (10 = 38%). Some respondents strongly (7 = 27%) or somewhat (3 = 12%) encourage a minimally invasive option over open repair. Others indicate they remain neutral (7 = 27%) or tailor their approach to meet perceived needs (8 = 31%). One (4%) somewhat encourages open repair. Despite this variation, all completely (17 = 65%), strongly (5 = 19%) or somewhat agree (4 = 15%) they use shared decision making in presenting surgical options.

Conclusion: This survey highlights the range of practice patterns in presenting surgical options to families and reveals possible discrepancies in the extent providers believe they use shared decision making and the extent it is actually used.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006327DOI Listing
October 2020

3D pediatric cranial bone imaging using high-resolution MRI for visualizing cranial sutures: a pilot study.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Jun 12:1-7. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

2Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, and.

Objective: There is an unmet need to perform imaging in young children and obtain CT-equivalent cranial bone images without subjecting the patients to radiation. In this study, the authors propose using a high-resolution fast low-angle shot golden-angle 3D stack-of-stars radial volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (GA-VIBE) MRI sequence that is intrinsically robust to motion and has enhanced bone versus soft-tissue contrast.

Methods: Patients younger than 11 years of age, who underwent clinical head CT scanning for craniosynostosis or other cranial malformations, were eligible for the study. 3D reconstructed images created from the GA-VIBE MRI sequence and the gold-standard CT scan were randomized and presented to 3 blinded reviewers. For all image sets, each reviewer noted the presence or absence of the 6 primary cranial sutures and recorded on 5-point Likert scales whether they recommended a second scan be performed.

Results: Eleven patients (median age 1.8 years) underwent MRI after clinical head CT scanning was performed. Five of the 11 patients were sedated. Three clinicians reviewed the images, and there were no cases, either with CT scans or MR images, in which a reviewer agreed a repeat scan was required for diagnosis or surgical planning. The reviewers reported clear imaging of the regions of interest on 99% of the CT reviews and 96% of the MRI reviews. With CT as the standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the GA-VIBE MRI sequence to detect suture closure were 97% and 96%, respectively (n = 198 sutures read).

Conclusions: The 3D reconstructed images using the GA-VIBE sequence in comparison to the CT scans created clinically acceptable cranial images capable of detecting cranial sutures. Future directions include reducing the scan time, improving motion correction, and automating postprocessing for clinical utility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.4.PEDS20131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7736460PMC
June 2020

Endoscopic treatment of combined metopic-sagittal craniosynostosis.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Apr 17:1-9. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

1Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, and.

Objective: Combined metopic-sagittal craniosynostosis is traditionally treated with open cranial vault remodeling and fronto-orbital advancement, sometimes in multiple operations. Endoscopic treatment of this multisuture synostosis presents a complex challenge for the surgeon and orthotist.

Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed the preoperative and 1-year postoperative CT scans of 3 patients with combined metopic-sagittal synostosis, all of whom were treated with simultaneous endoscope-assisted craniectomy of the metopic and sagittal sutures followed by helmet therapy. Established anthropometric measurements were applied to assess pre- and postoperative morphology, including cranial index and interfrontal divergence angle (IFDA). Patients' measurements were compared to those obtained in 18 normal controls.

Results: Two boys and one girl underwent endoscope-assisted craniectomy at a mean age of 81 days. The mean preoperative cranial index was 0.70 (vs control mean of 0.82, p = 0.009), corrected postoperatively to a mean of 0.82 (vs control mean of 0.80, p = 0.606). The mean preoperative IFDA was 110.4° (vs control mean of 152.6°, p = 0.017), corrected postoperatively to a mean of 139.1° (vs control mean of 140.3°, p = 0.348). The mean blood loss was 100 mL and the mean length of stay was 1.7 days. No patient underwent reoperation. The mean clinical follow-up was 3.4 years.

Conclusions: Endoscope-assisted craniectomy with helmet therapy is a viable single-stage treatment option for combined metopic-sagittal synostosis, providing correction of the stigmata of trigonoscaphocephaly, with normalization of the cranial index and IFDA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.2.PEDS2029DOI Listing
April 2020

Radiological and clinical associations with scoliosis outcomes after posterior fossa decompression in patients with Chiari malformation and syrinx from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Apr 10:1-7. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Objective: In patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) and a syrinx who also have scoliosis, clinical and radiological predictors of curve regression after posterior fossa decompression are not well known. Prior reports indicate that age younger than 10 years and a curve magnitude < 35° are favorable predictors of curve regression following surgery. The aim of this study was to determine baseline radiological factors, including craniocervical junction alignment, that might predict curve stability or improvement after posterior fossa decompression.

Methods: A large multicenter retrospective and prospective registry of pediatric patients with CM-I (tonsils ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum) and a syrinx (≥ 3 mm in width) was reviewed for clinical and radiological characteristics of CM-I, syrinx, and scoliosis (coronal curve ≥ 10°) in patients who underwent posterior fossa decompression and who also had follow-up imaging.

Results: Of 825 patients with CM-I and a syrinx, 251 (30.4%) were noted to have scoliosis present at the time of diagnosis. Forty-one (16.3%) of these patients underwent posterior fossa decompression and had follow-up imaging to assess for scoliosis. Twenty-three patients (56%) were female, the mean age at time of CM-I decompression was 10.0 years, and the mean follow-up duration was 1.3 years. Nine patients (22%) had stable curves, 16 (39%) showed improvement (> 5°), and 16 (39%) displayed curve progression (> 5°) during the follow-up period. Younger age at the time of decompression was associated with improvement in curve magnitude; for those with curves of ≤ 35°, 17% of patients younger than 10 years of age had curve progression compared with 64% of those 10 years of age or older (p = 0.008). There was no difference by age for those with curves > 35°. Tonsil position, baseline syrinx dimensions, and change in syrinx size were not associated with the change in curve magnitude. There was no difference in progression after surgery in patients who were also treated with a brace compared to those who were not treated with a brace for scoliosis.

Conclusions: In this cohort of patients with CM-I, a syrinx, and scoliosis, younger age at the time of decompression was associated with improvement in curve magnitude following surgery, especially in patients younger than 10 years of age with curves of ≤ 35°. Baseline tonsil position, syrinx dimensions, frontooccipital horn ratio, and craniocervical junction morphology were not associated with changes in curve magnitude after surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.1.PEDS18755DOI Listing
April 2020

Factors associated with syrinx size in pediatric patients treated for Chiari malformation type I and syringomyelia: a study from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Mar 6:1-11. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

31Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Objective: Factors associated with syrinx size in pediatric patients undergoing posterior fossa decompression (PFD) or PFD with duraplasty (PFDD) for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) with syringomyelia (SM; CM-I+SM) are not well established.

Methods: Using the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium registry, the authors analyzed variables associated with syrinx radiological outcomes in patients (< 20 years old at the time of surgery) with CM-I+SM undergoing PFD or PFDD. Syrinx resolution was defined as an anteroposterior (AP) diameter of ≤ 2 mm or ≤ 3 mm or a reduction in AP diameter of ≥ 50%. Syrinx regression or progression was defined using 1) change in syrinx AP diameter (≥ 1 mm), or 2) change in syrinx length (craniocaudal, ≥ 1 vertebral level). Syrinx stability was defined as a < 1-mm change in syrinx AP diameter and no change in syrinx length.

Results: The authors identified 380 patients with CM-I+SM who underwent PFD or PFDD. Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed younger age at surgery and PFDD as being independently associated with syrinx resolution, defined as a ≤ 2-mm or ≤ 3-mm AP diameter or ≥ 50% reduction in AP diameter. Radiological syrinx resolution was associated with improvement in headache (p < 0.005) and neck pain (p < 0.011) after PFD or PFDD. Next, PFDD (p = 0.005), scoliosis (p = 0.007), and syrinx location across multiple spinal segments (p = 0.001) were associated with syrinx diameter regression, whereas increased preoperative frontal-occipital horn ratio (FOHR; p = 0.007) and syrinx location spanning multiple spinal segments (p = 0.04) were associated with syrinx length regression. Scoliosis (HR 0.38 [95% CI 0.16-0.91], p = 0.03) and smaller syrinx diameter (5.82 ± 3.38 vs 7.86 ± 3.05 mm; HR 0.60 [95% CI 0.34-1.03], p = 0.002) were associated with syrinx diameter stability, whereas shorter preoperative syrinx length (5.75 ± 4.01 vs 9.65 ± 4.31 levels; HR 0.21 [95% CI 0.12-0.38], p = 0.0001) and smaller pB-C2 distance (6.86 ± 1.27 vs 7.18 ± 1.38 mm; HR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02-2.05], p = 0.04) were associated with syrinx length stability. Finally, younger age at surgery (8.19 ± 5.02 vs 10.29 ± 4.25 years; HR 1.89 [95% CI 1.31-3.04], p = 0.01) was associated with syrinx diameter progression, whereas increased postoperative syrinx diameter (6.73 ± 3.64 vs 3.97 ± 3.07 mm; HR 3.10 [95% CI 1.67-5.76], p = 0.003), was associated with syrinx length progression. PFD versus PFDD was not associated with syrinx progression or reoperation rate.

Conclusions: These data suggest that PFDD and age are independently associated with radiological syrinx improvement, although forthcoming results from the PFDD versus PFD randomized controlled trial (NCT02669836, clinicaltrials.gov) will best answer this question.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.1.PEDS19493DOI Listing
March 2020

Cost comparison of surgical management of nonsagittal synostosis: traditional open versus endoscope-assisted techniques.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Jan 10:1-10. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

1Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri.

Objective: Management of craniosynostosis at an early age is important for mitigating the risk of abnormal cranial development, but treatment can result in significant expenses. Previous research has shown that endoscope-assisted craniectomy (EAC) is less costly than open cranial vault remodeling (CVR) for patients with sagittal synostosis. The aim of this study was to strengthen the existing body of healthcare cost research by elucidating the charges associated with open and endoscopic treatment for patients with nonsagittal synostosis.

Methods: The authors performed a retrospective analysis of data obtained in 41 patients who underwent open CVR and 38 who underwent EAC with postoperative helmet therapy for nonsagittal, single-suture craniosynostosis (metopic, coronal, and lambdoid) between 2008 and 2018. All patients were < 1 year of age at the time of surgery and had a minimum 1 year of follow-up. Inpatient charges, physician fees, helmet charges, and outpatient clinic visits in the 1st year were analyzed.

Results: The mean ages of the children treated with EAC and open CVR were 3.5 months and 8.7 months, respectively. Patients undergoing EAC with postoperative helmet therapy required more outpatient clinic visits in the 1st year than patients undergoing CVR (4 vs 2; p < 0.001). Overall, 13% of patients in the EAC group required 1 helmet, 30% required 2 helmets, 40% required 3 helmets, and 13% required 4 or more helmets; the mean total helmeting charges were $10,072. The total charges of treatment, including inpatient charges, physician fees, outpatient clinic visit costs, and helmet charges, were significantly lower for the EAC group than they were for the open CVR group ($50,840 vs $95,588; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Despite the additional charges for postoperative helmet therapy and the more frequent outpatient visits, EAC is significantly less expensive than open CVR for patients with metopic, coronal, and lambdoid craniosynostosis. In conjunction with the existing literature on clinical outcomes and perioperative resource utilization, these data support EAC as a cost-minimizing treatment for eligible patients with nonsagittal synostosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.11.PEDS19515DOI Listing
January 2020

A Multi-Institutional Analysis of Factors Influencing Surgical Outcomes for Patients with Newly Diagnosed Grade I Gliomas.

World Neurosurg 2020 Mar 31;135:e754-e764. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Objective: To assess the impact of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI), extent of resection (EOR), and other factors on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with newly diagnosed grade I gliomas.

Methods: A multicenter database was queried to identify patients with grade I gliomas. Retrospective analyses assessed the impact of patient, treatment, and tumor characteristics on OS and PFS.

Results: A total of 284 patients underwent treatment for grade I gliomas, including 248 resections (205 with iMRI, 43 without), 23 biopsies, and 13 laser interstitial thermal therapy treatments. Log-rank analyses of Kaplan-Meier plots showed improved 5-year OS (P = 0.0107) and PFS (P = 0.0009) with increasing EOR, and a trend toward improved 5-year OS for patients with lower American Society of Anesthesiologists score (P = 0.0528). Greater EOR was associated with significantly increased 5-year PFS for pilocytic astrocytoma (P < 0.0001), but not for ganglioglioma (P = 0.10) or dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (P = 0.57). Temporal tumors (P = 0.04) and location of "other" (P = 0.04) were associated with improved PFS, and occipital/parietal tumors (P = 0.02) were associated with decreased PFS compared with all other locations. Additional tumor resection was performed after iMRI in 49.7% of cases using iMRI, which produced gross total resection in 64% of these additional resection cases.

Conclusions: Patients with grade I gliomas have extended OS and PFS, which correlates positively with increasing EOR, especially for patients with pilocytic astrocytoma. iMRI may increase EOR, indicated by the rate of gross total resection after iMRI use but was not independently associated with increased OS or PFS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.12.156DOI Listing
March 2020

Corpus callosotomy performed with laser interstitial thermal therapy.

J Neurosurg 2019 Dec 13:1-9. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

2Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri.

Objective: Corpus callosotomy is a palliative procedure that is effective at reducing seizure burden in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The procedure is traditionally performed via open craniotomy with interhemispheric microdissection to divide the corpus callosum. Concerns for morbidity associated with craniotomy can be a deterrent to patients, families, and referring physicians for surgical treatment of epilepsy. Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a less invasive procedure that has been widely adopted in neurosurgery for the treatment of tumors. In this study, the authors investigated LITT as a less invasive approach for corpus callosotomy.

Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed all patients treated for medically refractory epilepsy by corpus callosotomy, either partial or completion, with LITT. Chart records were analyzed to summarize procedural metrics, length of stay, adverse events, seizure outcomes, and time to follow-up. In select cases, resting-state functional MRI was performed to qualitatively support effective functional disconnection of the cerebral hemispheres.

Results: Ten patients underwent 11 LITT procedures. Five patients received an anterior two-thirds LITT callosotomy as their first procedure. One patient returned after LITT partial callosotomy for completion of callosotomy by LITT. The median hospital stay was 2 days (IQR 1.5-3 days), and the mean follow-up time was 1.0 year (range 1 month to 2.86 years). Functional outcomes are similar to those of open callosotomy, with the greatest effect in patients with a significant component of drop attacks in their seizure semiology. One patient achieved an Engel class II outcome after anterior two-thirds callosotomy resulting in only rare seizures at the 18-month follow-up. Four others were in Engel class III and 5 were Engel class IV. Hemorrhage occurred in 1 patient at the time of removal of the laser fiber, which was placed through the bone flap of a prior open partial callosotomy.

Conclusions: LITT appears to be a safe and effective means for performing corpus callosotomy. Additional data are needed to confirm equipoise between open craniotomy and LITT for corpus callosotomy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.9.JNS191769DOI Listing
December 2019

Evaluation of Direct Surgical Remodeling of Frontal Bossing in Patients With Sagittal Synostosis.

J Craniofac Surg 2019 Nov-Dec;30(8):2350-2354

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI.

Background: The need for surgical correction of frontal bossing in patients with sagittal synostosis is currently debated. The authors retrospectively analyzed frontal bossing in patients with isolated, nonsyndromic sagittal synostosis who underwent calvarial remodeling with and without frontal craniotomy and compared with control subjects.

Methods: The authors analyzed computed tomography (CT) scans of patients with sagittal synostosis <9 months of age (6.2 ± 1.6 months) who underwent modified-pi procedure either with frontal craniotomy (FC, n = 15) or without frontal craniotomy (NFC, n = 10). Only patients treated with both pre-operative and 1-year post-operative CT scans were included. Non-synostotic age-matched control scans were also analyzed. Cephalic index (CI), 3 previously validated measures of frontal bossing (bossing angle, horizontal bossing ratio, and vertical bossing ratio), and pre-nasion volume ratio were obtained. Additionally, three-dimensional photographs of 10 FC patients were evaluated for frontal bossing between 1 and 8 years post-operatively.

Results: Pre-operatively, no significant differences were found between the 2 groups (.064
Conclusions: At 1-year following modified-pi procedure, FC patients approached normalization of their forehead morphology to a greater extent than NFC patients. However, neither group completely normalized during this time period. Frontal bossing in FC patients continued to decrease with age, which reveals the post-operative dynamic nature of frontal bone morphology during childhood for these patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000005786DOI Listing
January 2020

Radiological and clinical predictors of scoliosis in patients with Chiari malformation type I and spinal cord syrinx from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 Aug 16:1-8. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

23Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Objective: Scoliosis is frequently a presenting sign of Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) with syrinx. The authors' goal was to define scoliosis in this population and describe how radiological characteristics of CM-I and syrinx relate to the presence and severity of scoliosis.

Methods: A large multicenter retrospective and prospective registry of pediatric patients with CM-I (tonsils ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum) and syrinx (≥ 3 mm in axial width) was reviewed for clinical and radiological characteristics of CM-I, syrinx, and scoliosis (coronal curve ≥ 10°).

Results: Based on available imaging of patients with CM-I and syrinx, 260 of 825 patients (31%) had a clear diagnosis of scoliosis based on radiographs or coronal MRI. Forty-nine patients (5.9%) did not have scoliosis, and in 516 (63%) patients, a clear determination of the presence or absence of scoliosis could not be made. Comparison of patients with and those without a definite scoliosis diagnosis indicated that scoliosis was associated with wider syrinxes (8.7 vs 6.3 mm, OR 1.25, p < 0.001), longer syrinxes (10.3 vs 6.2 levels, OR 1.18, p < 0.001), syrinxes with their rostral extent located in the cervical spine (94% vs 80%, OR 3.91, p = 0.001), and holocord syrinxes (50% vs 16%, OR 5.61, p < 0.001). Multivariable regression analysis revealed syrinx length and the presence of holocord syrinx to be independent predictors of scoliosis in this patient cohort. Scoliosis was not associated with sex, age at CM-I diagnosis, tonsil position, pB-C2 distance (measured perpendicular distance from the ventral dura to a line drawn from the basion to the posterior-inferior aspect of C2), clivoaxial angle, or frontal-occipital horn ratio. Average curve magnitude was 29.9°, and 37.7% of patients had a left thoracic curve. Older age at CM-I or syrinx diagnosis (p < 0.0001) was associated with greater curve magnitude whereas there was no association between syrinx dimensions and curve magnitude.

Conclusions: Syrinx characteristics, but not tonsil position, were related to the presence of scoliosis in patients with CM-I, and there was an independent association of syrinx length and holocord syrinx with scoliosis. Further study is needed to evaluate the nature of the relationship between syrinx and scoliosis in patients with CM-I.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.5.PEDS18527DOI Listing
August 2019

Feasibility of fast brain diffusion MRI to quantify white matter injury in pediatric hydrocephalus.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 Jul 19:1-8. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

4Neurosurgery.

Objective: Traditionally, diffusion MRI (dMRI) has been performed in parallel with high-resolution conventional MRI, which requires long scan times and may require sedation or general anesthesia in infants and young children. Conversely, fast brain MRI permits image acquisition without the need for sedation, although its short pulse sequences, susceptibility to motion artifact, and contrast resolution have limited its use to assessing ventricular size or major structural variations. Here, the authors demonstrate the feasibility of leveraging a 3-direction fast brain MRI protocol to obtain reliable dMRI measures.

Methods: Fast brain MRI with 3-direction dMRI was performed in infants and children before and after hydrocephalus treatment. Regions of interest in the posterior limbs of the internal capsules (PLICs) and the genu of the corpus callosum (gCC) were drawn on diffusion-weighted images, and mean diffusivity (MD) data were extracted. Ventricular size was determined by the frontal occipital horn ratio (FOHR). Differences between and within groups pre- and posttreatment, and FOHR-MD correlations were assessed.

Results: Of 40 patients who met inclusion criteria (median age 27.5 months), 15 (37.5%), 17 (42.5%), and 8 (20.0%) had posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), congenital hydrocephalus (CH), or no intracranial abnormality (controls), respectively. A hydrocephalus group included both PHH and CH patients. Prior to treatment, the FOHR (p < 0.001) and PLIC MD (p = 0.027) were greater in the hydrocephalus group than in the controls. While the mean gCC MD in the hydrocephalus group (1.10 × 10-3 mm2/sec) was higher than that of the control group (0.98), the difference was not significant (p = 0.135). Following a median follow-up duration of 14 months, decreases in FOHR, PLIC MD, and gCC MD were observed in the hydrocephalus group and were similar to those in the control group (p = 0.107, p = 0.702, and p = 0.169, respectively). There were no correlations identified between FOHR and MDs at either time point.

Conclusions: The utility of fast brain MRI can be extended beyond anatomical assessments to obtain dMRI measures. A reduction in PLIC and gCC MD to levels similar to those of controls was observed within 14 months following shunt surgery for hydrocephalus in PHH and CH infants. Further studies are required to assess the role of fast brain dMRI for assessing clinical outcomes in pediatric hydrocephalus patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.5.PEDS18596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6982356PMC
July 2019

Cleft and Craniofacial Multidisciplinary Team Clinic: A Look at Attrition Rates for Patients With Complete Cleft Lip and Palate and Nonsyndromic Single-Suture Craniosynostosis.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2019 11 13;56(10):1287-1294. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA.

Objective: To evaluate attrition rates prior to expected completion of team care for children with complete cleft lip and palate (cleft) or nonsyndromic single-suture craniosynostosis (synostosis).

Design: A single-institution retrospective review of attendance data from 2002 to 2016.

Setting: Single cleft and craniofacial center in the United States.

Patients/participants: A sample of 983 patients with either cleft or synostosis. Patients who were more than 2 to 3 years from their last visit were considered lost to follow-up. Patients with cleft older than 16 years or synostosis over 11 years were considered graduated from team care.

Results: Survival analysis shows that in our patients with cleft, 25% leave before age 8 and over 60% are lost from team by age 16. In patients with synostosis, 25% leave before age 6 and 45% are lost by age 11. Cox regression showed underrepresented minorities being 1.7 times more likely to become lost in the cleft group (hazard ratio: 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-2.74).

Conclusions: Overall, attrition rates were high at our institution. Many patients are lost to follow-up prior to receiving key medical interventions. Improved family education and personalized care are needed to help ensure continuity of care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1055665619856245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7083519PMC
November 2019

Long-Term Characterization of Cranial Defects After Surgical Correction for Single-Suture Craniosynostosis.

Ann Plast Surg 2019 06;82(6):679-685

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI.

Introduction: Craniosynostosis is typically corrected surgically within the first year of life through cranial vault reconstruction. These procedures often leave open calvarial defects at the time of surgery, which are anticipated to close over time in a large proportion of cases. However, residual calvarial defects may result as long-term sequelae from cranial vault remodeling. When larger defects are present, they may necessitate further reconstruction for closure.Better understanding of the calvarial osseous healing process may help to identify which defects will resolve or shrink to acceptable size and which will require further surgery. Our study aims to assess the long-term changes in defect size after cranial vault reconstruction for craniosynostosis.

Methods: One-year postoperative and long-term computed tomography scans were retrieved from the craniofacial anomalies archive. Analysis used custom software. All defects above the size of 1 cm were analyzed and tracked for calvarial location, surface area, and circularity. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to model the effect of initial defect size on the rate of defect closure.

Results: We analyzed a total of 74 defects. The mean ± SD initial defect surface area was 3.27 ± 3.40 cm. The mean ± SD final defect surface area was 1.71 ± 2.54 cm. The mean ± SD percent decrease was 55.06% ± 28.99%. There was a significant difference in the percentage decrease of defects in the parietal and frontoparietal locations: 68.4% and 43.7%, respectively (P = 0.001). Monte Carlo simulation results suggest that less than 10% of defects above the size of 9 cm will close to the size of 2.5 cm or less.

Conclusions: We describe and make available a novel validated method of measuring cranial defects. We find that the large majority of initial defects greater than 9 cm remain at least 1 in in size (2.5 cm) 1 year postoperatively. In addition, there appear to be regional differences in closure rates across the cranium, with frontoparietal defects closing more slowly than those in the parietal region. This information will aid surgeons in the decision-making process regarding cranioplasty after craniosynostosis correction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000001906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6519078PMC
June 2019

A comparison of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to invasive electrocortical stimulation for sensorimotor mapping in pediatric patients.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 4;23:101850. Epub 2019 May 4.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States of America; Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States of America; Neuroscience, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States of America; Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States of America; Center for Innovation in Neuroscience and Technology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States of America; Brain Laser Center, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States of America.

Localizing neurologic function within the brain remains a significant challenge in clinical neurosurgery. Invasive mapping with direct electrocortical stimulation currently is the clinical gold standard but is impractical in young or cognitively delayed patients who are unable to reliably perform tasks. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging non-invasively identifies resting state networks without the need for task performance, hence, is well suited to pediatric patients. We compared sensorimotor network localization by resting state fMRI to cortical stimulation sensory and motor mapping in 16 pediatric patients aged 3.1 to 18.6 years. All had medically refractory epilepsy that required invasive electrographic monitoring and stimulation mapping. The resting state fMRI data were analyzed using a previously trained machine learning classifier that has previously been evaluated in adults. We report comparable functional localization by resting state fMRI compared to stimulation mapping. These results provide strong evidence for the utility of resting state functional imaging in the localization of sensorimotor cortex across a wide range of pediatric patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6514367PMC
March 2020

Evaluation of pediatric glioma outcomes using intraoperative MRI: a multicenter cohort study.

J Neurooncol 2019 Jun 12;143(2):271-280. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: The use of intraoperative MRI (iMRI) during treatment of gliomas may increase extent of resection (EOR), decrease need for early reoperation, and increase progression-free and overall survival, but has not been fully validated, particularly in the pediatric population.

Objective: To assess the accuracy of iMRI to identify residual tumor in pediatric patients with glioma and determine the effect of iMRI on decisions for resection, complication rates, and other outcomes.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a multicenter database of pediatric patients (age ≤ 18 years) who underwent resection of pathologically confirmed gliomas.

Results: We identified 314 patients (mean age 9.7 ± 4.6 years) with mean follow-up of 48.3 ± 33.6 months (range 0.03-182.07 months) who underwent surgery with iMRI. There were 201 (64.0%) WHO grade I tumors, 57 (18.2%) grade II, 24 (7.6%) grade III, 9 (2.9%) grade IV, and 23 (7.3%) not classified. Among 280 patients who underwent resection using iMRI, 131 (46.8%) had some residual tumor and underwent additional resection after the first iMRI. Of the 33 tissue specimens sent for pathological analysis after iMRI, 29 (87.9%) showed positive tumor pathology. Gross total resection was identified in 156 patients (55.7%), but this was limited by 69 (24.6%) patients with unknown EOR.

Conclusions: Analysis of the largest multicenter database of pediatric gliomas resected using iMRI demonstrated additional tumor resection in a substantial portion of cases. However, determining the impact of iMRI on EOR and outcomes remains challenging because iMRI use varies among providers nationally. Continued refinement of iMRI techniques for use in pediatric patients with glioma may improve outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-019-03154-7DOI Listing
June 2019

Evaluation of Endoscopic Strip Craniectomy and Orthotic Therapy for Bilateral Coronal Craniosynostosis.

J Craniofac Surg 2019 Mar/Apr;30(2):453-457

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO.

Background: Bilateral coronal craniosynostosis is the premature fusion of both coronal sutures. Traditionally, this condition is treated by frontal-orbital advancement (FOA). Endoscopic strip craniectomy with cranial orthotic therapy, which has gained popularity in treating single suture craniosynostosis, has recently been adapted for the treatment of bicoronal synostosis. There have been few studies documenting the outcomes of this treatment. The objective of this study is to compare the morphological outcomes of endoscopic strip craniectomy and FOA in patients with bicoronal synostosis.

Methods: A retrospective case series was done on 24 patients with bilateral coronal synostosis treated with endoscopic strip craniectomy or FOA at 2 institutions. Patients with preoperative and 1-year postoperative computed tomography scans were included. Multiple measures of cranial shape and size were assessed: cephalic index, turricephaly index, basofrontal angle, circumference Z-score, and cranial vault volume Z-score.

Results: The 2 groups were similar statistically in terms of morphology at preoperative scan. There were no statistical differences between the FOA group and endoscopic group at postoperative scan in any of the morphologic outcomes measured. Cranial vault volume Z-scores increased postoperatively in both the endoscopic (P < 0.001) and FOA (P = 0.034) groups.

Conclusions: One year after repair there were no significant morphological difference between patients with bicoronal synostosis treated with the endoscopic approach and those treated by FOA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000005118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6541507PMC
August 2019

Regression of cephalic index following endoscopic repair of sagittal synostosis.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2018 10;23(1):54-60

1Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, and.

OBJECTIVEMetrics used to quantify preoperative severity and postoperative outcomes for patients with sagittal synostosis include cephalic index (CI), the well-known standard, and the recently described adjusted cephalic index (aCI), which accounts for altered euryon location. This study tracks the time course of these measures following endoscopic repair with orthotic helmet therapy. The authors hypothesize that CI and aCI show significant regression following endoscope-assisted repair.METHODSCT scans or 3D photographs of patients with nonsyndromic sagittal synostosis treated before 6 months of age by endoscope-assisted strip craniectomy and postoperative helmet therapy (n = 41) were reviewed retrospectively at three time points (preoperatively, 0-2 months after helmeting, and > 24 months postoperatively). The CI and aCI were measured at each time point.RESULTSMean CI and aCI increased from 71.8 to 78.2 and 62.7 to 72.4, respectively, during helmet treatment (p < 0.001). At final follow-up, mean CI and aCI had regressed significantly from 78.2 to 76.5 and 72.4 to 69.7, respectively (p < 0.001). The CI regressed in 33 of 41 cases (80%) and aCI in 39 of 41 cases (95%). The authors observed a mean loss of 31% of improvement in aCI achieved through treatment. A strong, positive correlation existed between CI and aCI (R = 0.88).CONCLUSIONSRegression following endoscope-assisted strip craniectomy with postoperative helmet therapy commonly occurs in patients with sagittal synostosis. Future studies are required to determine whether duration of helmet therapy or modifications in helmet design affect regression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.7.PEDS18195DOI Listing
October 2018