Publications by authors named "Matthew Chrostek"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Machine Learning-Enabled High-Resolution Dynamic Deuterium MR Spectroscopic Imaging.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 Jul 28;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Deuterium magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (DMRSI) has recently been recognized as a potentially powerful tool for noninvasive imaging of brain energy metabolism and tumor. However, the low sensitivity of DMRSI has significantly limited its utility for both research and clinical applications. This work presents a novel machine learning-based method to address this limitation. The proposed method synergistically integrates physics-based subspace modeling and data-driven deep learning for effective denoising, making high-resolution dynamic DMRSI possible. Specifically, a novel subspace model was used to represent the dynamic DMRSI signals; deep neural networks were trained to capture the low-dimensional manifolds of the spectral and temporal distributions of practical dynamic DMRSI data. The learned subspace and manifold structures were integrated via a regularization formulation to remove measurement noise. Theoretical analysis, computer simulations, and in vivo experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the denoising efficacy of the proposed method which enabled high-resolution imaging capability. The translational potential was demonstrated in tumor-bearing rats, where the Warburg effect associated with cancer metabolism and tumor heterogeneity were successfully captured. The new method may not only provide an effective tool to enhance the sensitivity of DMRSI for basic research and clinical applications but also provide a framework for denoising other spatiospectral data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2021.3101149DOI Listing
July 2021

Zika virus-based immunotherapy enhances long-term survival of rodents with brain tumors through upregulation of memory T-cells.

PLoS One 2020 1;15(10):e0232858. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America.

Zika virus (ZIKV) exhibits a tropism for brain tumor cells and has been used as an oncolytic virus to target brain tumors in mice with modest effects on extending median survival. Recent studies have highlighted the potential for combining virotherapy and immunotherapy to target cancer. We postulated that ZIKV could be used as an adjuvant to enhance the long-term survival of mice with malignant glioblastoma and generate memory T-cells capable of providing long-term immunity against cancer remission. To test this hypothesis mice bearing malignant intracranial GL261 tumors were subcutaneously vaccinated with irradiated GL261 cells previously infected with the ZIKV. Mice also received intracranial injections of live ZIKV, irradiation attenuated ZIKV, or irradiated GL261 cells previously infected with ZIKV. Long-term survivors were rechallenged with a second intracranial tumor to examine their immune response and look for the establishment of protective memory T-cells. Mice with subcutaneous vaccination plus intracranial irradiation attenuated ZIKV or intracranial irradiated GL261 cells previously infected with ZIKV exhibited the greatest extensions to overall survival. Flow cytometry analysis of immune cells within the brains of long-term surviving mice after tumor rechallenge revealed an increase in the number of T-cells, including CD4+ and tissue-resident effector/ effector memory CD4+ T-cells, in comparison to long-term survivors that were mock-rechallenged, and in comparison to naïve untreated mice challenged with intracranial gliomas. These results suggest that ZIKV can serve as an adjuvant to subcutaneous tumor vaccines that enhance long-term survival and generate protective tissue-resident memory CD4+ T-cells.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232858PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7529292PMC
November 2020

Efficacy of Cell-Based Therapies for Traumatic Brain Injuries.

Brain Sci 2019 Oct 10;9(10). Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a leading cause of death and disability. Additionally, growing evidence suggests a link between TBI-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative disorders. Treatments for TBI patients are limited, largely focused on rehabilitation therapy, and ultimately, fail to provide long-term neuroprotective or neurorestorative benefits. Because of the prevalence of TBI and lack of viable treatments, new therapies are needed which can promote neurological recovery. Cell-based treatments are a promising avenue because of their potential to provide multiple therapeutic benefits. Cell-based therapies can promote neuroprotection via modulation of inflammation and promote neurorestoration via induction of angiogenesis and neurogenesis. Neural stem/progenitor cell transplantations have been investigated in preclinical TBI models for their ability to directly contribute to neuroregeneration, form neural-like cells, and improve recovery. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated in clinical trials through multiple different routes of administration. Intravenous administration of MSCs appears most promising, demonstrating a robust safety profile, correlation with neurological improvements, and reductions in systemic inflammation following TBI. While still preliminary, evidence suggests cell-based therapies may become a viable treatment for TBI based on their ability to promote neuroregeneration and reduce inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9100270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6826445PMC
October 2019

Efficacy of stem cell-based therapies for stroke.

Brain Res 2019 11 2;1722:146362. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA; Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

Stroke remains a prevalent disease with limited treatment options. Available treatments offer little in the way of enhancing neurogenesis and recovery. Because of the limitations of available treatments, new therapies for stroke are needed. Stem cell-based therapies for stroke offer promise because of their potential to provide neurorestorative benefits. Stem cell-based therapies aim to promote neurogenesis and replacement of lost neurons or protect surviving neurons in order to improve neurological recovery. The mechanism through which stem cell treatments mediate their therapeutic effect is largely dependent on the type of stem cell and route of administration. Neural stem cells have been shown in pre-clinical and clinical trials to promote functional recovery when used in intracerebral transplantations. The therapeutic effects of neural stem cells have been attributed to their formation of new neurons and promotion of neuroregeneration. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been shown to enhance neurogenesis in pre-clinical models in intracerebral transplantations, but lack clinical evidence to support this therapeutic approach in patients and appear to be less effective than neural stem cells. Intravenous and intra-arterial administration of BMSC and MSC have shown more promise, where their effects are largely mediated through neuroprotective mechanisms. The immune system has been implicated in exacerbating initial damage caused by stroke, and BMSC and MSC have demonstrated immunomodulatory properties capable of dampening post-stroke inflammation and potentially improving recovery. While still in development, stem cell therapies may yield new treatments for stroke which can improve neurological recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.146362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6815222PMC
November 2019
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