Publications by authors named "Matthew C Choy"

10 Publications

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Tofacitinib Is Safe and Effective When Used in Combination With Infliximab for the Management of Refractory Ulcerative Colitis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Nov 26. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Gastroenterology, Austin Health, Department of Medicine, Austin Academic Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.07.046DOI Listing
November 2020

Diagnostic ileocolonoscopy: getting the basics right.

Frontline Gastroenterol 2020 Oct 27;11(6):484-490. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Wolfson Endoscopy Unit, St Marks Hospital, Harrow, UK.

Proficient colonoscopy technique that optimises patient comfort while simultaneously enhancing the timely detection of pathology and subsequent therapy is an aspirational and achievable goal for every endoscopist. This article aims to provide strategies to improve colonoscopy quality for both endoscopists and patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/flgastro-2019-101266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569527PMC
October 2020

Letter: how can we reduce mortality in elderly patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis?

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020 06;51(12):1444-1445

Department of Gastroenterology, Austin Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15702DOI Listing
June 2020

Letter: infliximab induction regimens in steroid-refractory acute severe colitis-a propensity score analysis.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020 03;51(6):665-666

Department of Gastroenterology, Austin Health, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15630DOI Listing
March 2020

Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: Optimal Salvage Therapy in Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019 06;25(7):1169-1186

Department of Gastroenterology, Austin Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Infliximab is an effective salvage therapy in acute severe ulcerative colitis; however, the optimal dosing strategy is unknown. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the impact of infliximab dosage and intensification on colectomy-free survival in acute severe ulcerative colitis.

Methods: Studies reporting outcomes of hospitalized steroid-refractory acute severe ulcerative colitis treated with infliximab salvage were identified. Infliximab use was categorized by dose, dose number, and schedule. The primary outcome was colectomy-free survival at 3 months. Pooled proportions and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were reported.

Results: Forty-one cohorts (n = 2158 cases) were included. Overall colectomy-free survival with infliximab salvage was 79.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75.48% to 83.6%) at 3 months and 69.8% (95% CI, 65.7% to 73.7%) at 12 months. Colectomy-free survival at 3 months was superior with 5-mg/kg multiple (≥2) doses compared with single-dose induction (odds ratio [OR], 4.24; 95% CI, 2.44 to 7.36; P < 0.001). However, dose intensification with either high-dose or accelerated strategies was not significantly different to 5-mg/kg standard induction at 3 months (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.27; P = 0.24) despite being utilized in patients with a significantly higher mean C-reactive protein and lower albumin levels.

Conclusions: In acute severe ulcerative colitis, multiple 5-mg/kg infliximab doses are superior to single-dose salvage. Dose-intensified induction outcomes were not significantly different compared to standard induction and were more often used in patients with increased disease severity, which may have confounded the results. This meta-analysis highlights the marked variability in the management of infliximab salvage therapy and the need for further studies to determine the optimal dose strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izy383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6783899PMC
June 2019

Salvage therapy for acute severe ulcerative colitis during pregnancy.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jun 8;2018. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Gastroenterology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with an age of onset that affects young people during the peak of their reproductive years. Management of flares of disease during pregnancy can be complex and there are few case reports of pregnant women with acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC). We present the case of a 31-year-old pregnant woman who at 16 weeks gestation developed ASUC in the context of primary non-response to infliximab therapy. She subsequently underwent an emergency laparoscopic colectomy after failing to respond to hydrocortisone and cyclosporine salvage therapy. Her pregnancy was further complicated by HELLP (Haemolysis, Elevated liver enzymes and Low Platelets) syndrome resulting in premature delivery at 27 weeks gestation. This case highlights the management issues involved in ASUC during pregnancy and the assessment of disease activity, use of salvage therapies, and provides a framework to approach this complex medical emergency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2017-223540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6011425PMC
June 2018

Predicting response after infliximab salvage in acute severe ulcerative colitis.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Jul 27;33(7):1347-1352. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Gastroenterology, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia.

Background And Aim: Acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) is a medical emergency requiring prompt therapeutic intervention. Although infliximab has been used as salvage therapy for over 15 years, clinical predictors of treatment success are lacking. We performed a retrospective analysis to identify factors that predict colectomy and may guide dose intensification.

Methods: Fifty-four hospitalized patients received infliximab for ASUC at seven Australian centers (April 2014-May 2015). Follow-up was over 12 months. The data were primarily analyzed for predictors of colectomy. Accelerated (AI) versus standard (SI) infliximab induction strategies were also compared.

Results: Of 54 patients identified, the overall colectomy rate was 15.38% (8/52) at 3 months and 26.92% (14/52) at 12 months. Two patients were lost to follow-up. There was a numerically higher colectomy rate in those treated with AI compared with SI (P = 0.3); however, those treated with AI had more severe biochemical disease. A C-reactive protein (CRP)/albumin ratio cut-off of 0.37 post-commencement of infliximab and before discharge was a significant predictor of colectomy with an area under receiver operating curve of 0.73. Pretreatment CRP and albumin levels were not predictive of colectomy. A Mayo Endoscopic Score of 2 had a 94% PPV for avoidance of colectomy following infliximab salvage.

Conclusions: The baseline Mayo Endoscopic Score and the CRP/albumin ratio following infliximab salvage are significant predictors of treatment response for ASUC and identify patients at high risk of colectomy. Whether this risk can be mitigated using infliximab dose intensification requires prospective evaluation before the CRP/albumin ratio can be integrated into ASUC management algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.14072DOI Listing
July 2018

Examining maintenance care following infliximab salvage therapy for acute severe ulcerative colitis.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Jan;33(1):226-231

Department of Gastroenterology, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia.

Background And Aim: Data supporting the optimal maintenance drug therapy and strategy to monitor ongoing response following successful infliximab (IFX) induction, for acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC), are limited. We aimed to evaluate maintenance and monitoring strategies employed in patients post-IFX induction therapy.

Methods: Patients in six Australian tertiary centers treated with IFX for steroid-refractory ASUC between April 2014 and May 2015 were identified via hospital IBD and pharmacy databases. Patients were followed up for 1 year with clinical data over 12 months recorded. Analysis was limited to patient outcomes beyond 3 months.

Results: Forty one patients were identified. Five of the 41 (12%) patients underwent colectomy within 3 months, and one patient was lost to follow-up. Six of 35 (17%) of the remaining patients progressed to colectomy by 12 months. Maintenance therapy: Patients maintained on thiopurine monotherapy (14/35) versus IFX/thiopurine therapy (15/35) were followed up. Two of 15 (13%) patients who received combination maintenance therapy underwent a colectomy at 12 months, compared with 1/14 (7%) patients receiving thiopurine monotherapy (P = 0.610). Monitoring during maintenance: Post-discharge, thiopurine metabolites were monitored in 15/27 (56%); fecal calprotectin in 11/32 (34%); and serum IFX levels in 4/20 (20%). Twenty of 32 (63%) patients had an endoscopic evaluation after IFX salvage with median time to first endoscopy of 109 days (interquartile range 113-230).

Conclusion: Following IFX induction therapy for ASUC, the uptake of maintenance therapy in this cohort and strategies to monitor ongoing response were variable. These data suggest that the optimal maintenance and monitoring strategy post-IFX salvage therapy remains to be defined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.13850DOI Listing
January 2018

An Overview of the Innate and Adaptive Immune System in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2017 01;23(1):2-13

*Department of Gastroenterology, The Austin Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; †Department of Gastroenterology, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; ‡Department of Medicine, Austin Academic Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; and §Department of Medicine, Eastern Hill Academic Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are thought to develop as a result of complex interactions between host genetics, the immune system and the environment including the gut microbiome. Although an improved knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of IBDs has led to great advances in therapy such as the highly effective anti-tumor necrosis factor class of medications, a significant proportion of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis do not respond to anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies. Further understanding of the different immune pathways involved in the genesis of chronic intestinal inflammation is required to help find effective treatments for IBDs. In this review, the role of the mucosal innate and adaptive immune system in IBD is summarized, highlighting new areas of discovery which may hold the key to identifying novel predictive or prognostic biomarkers and new avenues of therapeutic discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MIB.0000000000000955DOI Listing
January 2017