Publications by authors named "Matthew Browne"

73 Publications

The identification of Australian low-risk gambling limits: A comparison of gambling-related harm measures.

J Behav Addict 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

5The Social Research Centre, Australian National University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.

Background And Aims: Problem gambling severity and gambling-related harm are closely coupled, but conceptually distinct, constructs. The primary aim was to compare low-risk gambling limits when gambling-related harm was defined using the negative consequence items of the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI-Harm) and the Short Gambling Harms Scale items (SGHS-Harm). A secondary aim was compare low-risk limits derived using a definition of harm in which at least two harms across different domains (e.g. financial and relationship) were endorsed with a definition of harm in which at least two harms from any domain were endorsed.

Methods: Data were collected from dual-frame computer-assisted telephone interviews of 5,000 respondents in the fourth Social and Economic Impact Study (SEIS) of Gambling in Tasmania. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyse were conducted to identify low-risk gambling limits.

Results: PGSI-Harm and SGHS-Harm definitions produced similar overall limits: 30-37 times per year; AUD$510-$544 per year; expenditure comprising no more than 10.2-10.3% of gross personal income; 400-454 minutes per year; and 2 types of gambling activities per year. Acceptable limits (AUC ≥0.70) were identified for horse/dog racing, keno, and sports/other betting using the PGSI definition; and electronic gaming machines, keno, and bingo using the SGHS definition. The requirement that gamblers endorse two or more harms across different domains had a relatively negligible effect.

Discussion And Conclusions: Although replications using alternative measures of harm are required, previous PGSI-based limits appear to be robust thresholds that have considerable potential utility in the prevention of gambling-related harm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.2021.00012DOI Listing
March 2021

Young people who purchase loot boxes are more likely to have gambling problems: An online survey of adolescents and young adults living in NSW Australia.

J Behav Addict 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

1Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Bundaberg, QLD, Australia.

Background And Aims: Loot boxes are a common feature in video games where players win, buy or are gifted a virtual box or other container that is unwrapped to reveal virtual items of value, such as skins, weapons, in-game currency or special abilities. The current study aimed to relate the use of loot boxes to gambling problems and harm.

Methods: An online survey was conducted with 1,954 adolescents and young adults from NSW Australia, 59.9% female (aged 12-24), recruited by online panel aggregator, Qualtrics.

Results: Buying and selling loot boxes was associated with higher 12-month gambling frequency and gambling problems in young adults, aged 18-24 (Problem Gambling Severity Index). Young adults who bought loot boxes additionally had more gambling-related harms (Short Gambling Harms Screen). Young women, aged 18-24, who opened, bought and/or sold loot boxes spent more money in the last 12 months on gambling. In adolescents, aged 12-17, buying loot boxes was similarly associated with gambling problems (DSM-IV-MR-J). Furthermore, adolescent girls who bought and/or sold loot boxes viewed gambling more positively than other girls (Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale). There was no evidence, however, that longer-term experience in opening or purchasing loot boxes, a differentiating feature of the survey, is associated with current gambling problems.

Discussion And Conclusions: This study suggests that loot boxes may be attractive to people who are already predisposed to engage in other gambling, and females who use loot boxes may have unique vulnerabilities to gambling problems that could be explored in future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.2021.00007DOI Listing
February 2021

Predictive factors of the general public's willingness to be seen and seek treatment from a nurse practitioner in Australia: a cross-sectional national survey.

Hum Resour Health 2021 Feb 17;19(1):21. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

CQUniversity Australia, University Drive, Building 8/G.47, Branyan Australia, Bundaberg, Qld, 4670, Australia.

Background: Health care delivery in Australia is experiencing challenges with services struggling to keep up with the increasing demands of an aging population, rising levels of chronic disease and limited funding for care. Where adjunct models of health care such as the Nurse Practitioner (NP) have the potential to address this gap, in Australia, they remain an underutilised service. Clarifying the nature of the consumers 'willingness' to be seen by NPs warrants further investigation.

Methods: Australia-wide, cross-sectional population-based survey was undertaken using computer-assisted telephone interviewing technique.

Results: While just over 53% of the general public participants (n = 1318) had heard of an NP, once they became aware of their scope of practice, the majority agreed or strongly agreed they were willing to be seen by an NP in the community (91.6%), the emergency department 88.2%), to manage chronic conditions (86%), to have scrips written and referrals made (85.3%), and if they did not have to wait so long to see a medical doctor (81%). Factors significantly predicting willingness were being: female, less than 65 years of age, native English speakers, or residents from town/regional and rural settings.

Conclusion: Despite limited awareness of the NP role, a large proportion of the Australian population, across different demographic groups, are willing to be seen and treated by an NP. Expansion of this role to support medical services in areas of need could improve healthcare delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12960-021-00562-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890991PMC
February 2021

Opportunity Costs or Not? Validating the Short Gambling Harm Screen against a Set of "Unimpeachable" Negative Impacts.

J Clin Med 2021 Feb 2;10(3). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton 4701, Australia.

Assessing the harmful consequences of gambling is an area of active investigation. One measure intended to capture gambling-related harm is the 10-item short gambling harm screen (SGHS). Although good psychometric properties have been reported, it has been suggested that the screen's less severe probes may not represent genuinely harmful consequences, but rather may reflect rational opportunity costs. Consequently, it has been argued that the screen may lead to overestimation of the extent of gambling-related harm in the population. The current study sought to examine the psychometric performance of three less severe suspect items in the SGHS. Associations between each of these items and a specially constructed scale of relatively severe "unimpeachable" gambling harms were calculated from archival data from 5551 Australian and New Zealand gamblers. All three suspect items, both individually and upon aggregation, predicted greater endorsement of "unimpeachable" harms, and indicated the presence of gambling problems. Moreover, the SGHS as a whole is highly correlated with "unimpeachable" gambling harms. Including suspect items in the SGHS was found to improve predictions of low- and moderate-risk gambling status, but slightly decreased predictions of severe gambling problems. The results are inconsistent with the notion that SGHS harm probes capture either inconsequential consequences or opportunity costs. They confirm prior findings that harm symptomatology is unidimensional, and that the report of multiple more prevalent, but less severe, harms serves as an effective indicator of the spectrum of experienced harm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867326PMC
February 2021

As the Pandemic Progresses, How Does Willingness to Vaccinate against COVID-19 Evolve?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jan 19;18(2). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Building 7, Central Queensland University, Bruce Highway, Rockhampton, QLD 4702, Australia.

Controversy around the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines may lead to low vaccination rates. Survey data were collected in April and August 2020 from a total of 2343 Australian adults. A quarter ( = 575, 24%) completed both surveys. A generalized linear mixed model analysis was conducted to determine whether willingness to vaccinate changed in the repeated sample, and a multinominal logistic regression was conducted in all participants to determine whether willingness to vaccinate was associated with demographics, chronic disease, or media use. Willingness to vaccinate slightly decreased between April (87%) and August (85%) but this was not significant. Willingness to vaccinate was lower in people with a certificate or diploma (79%) compared to those with a Bachelor degree (87%), < 0.01 and lower in infrequent users of traditional media (78%) compared to frequent users of traditional media (89%), < 0.001. Women were more likely to be unsure if they would be willing to vaccinate (10%) compared to men (7%), < 0.01. There were no associations between willingness to vaccinate and age, chronic disease, or social media use. Promotion of a COVID-19 vaccine should consider targeting women, and people with a certificate or diploma, via non-traditional media channels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832839PMC
January 2021

The Relationship Between Family Gambling Problems, Other Family Stressors, and Health Indicators in a Large Population-Representative Sample of Australian Adults.

J Gambl Stud 2020 Nov 27. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

School of Medical, Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia.

Purpose: Harms due to excessive gambling can be experienced by gamblers and those close to them. Family gambling problems (FGPs) are currently under-researched, particularly in population-representative samples. This study aimed to identify prevalence, risk factors, and the complex of stressors and health-related consequences associated with FGPs, as well as isolating the impact of FGPs on physical and psychological health problems.

Methods: We analysed data from the National Health Survey 2011-13, a large (N = 15,475) nationally representative sample of Australian adults. Participants reported on the presence of 14 family stressors (including FGPs), self-assessed health status, and risky health behaviours. Psychological impact was measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-10, as well as several indicators of the presence of mental health problems.

Results: Overall, 1.7% of households reported a FGP. Interviewees in these households reported three times the number of other stressors than those without a FGP. In addition, they were around eight times more likely to be experiencing other addictions (drug and alcohol related problems) and stressors associated with socially deviant behaviours (trouble with police, abuse or violent crime, and witness to violence). Once age, gender, socioeconomic disadvantage, and other stressors were controlled for, FGPs significantly predicted lower self-assessed health and higher psychological distress.

Conclusions: FGPs occur within a complex of other addictions and stressors, impacting the quality of life of people close to problem gambling. The findings are discussed in relation to their support for General Strain Theory (Agnew, Criminology 30:47-87, 1992).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-020-09990-xDOI Listing
November 2020

A framework for indirect elicitation of the public health impact of gambling problems.

BMC Public Health 2020 Nov 16;20(1):1717. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

School of Health, Medical & Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, University Dr, Branyan QLD, Bundaberg, 4670, Australia.

Gambling problems are increasingly understood as a health-related condition, with harms from excessive time and money expenditure contributing to significant population morbidity. In many countries, the prevalence of gambling problems is known with some precision. However, the true severity of gambling problems in terms of their impact on health and wellbeing is the subject of ongoing debate. We firstly review recent research that has attempted to estimate harm from gambling, including studies that estimate disability weights using direct elicitation. Limitations of prior approaches are discussed, most notably potential inflation due to non-independent comorbidity with other substance use and mental health conditions, and potential biases in the subjective attribution of morbidity to gambling. An alternative indirect elicitation approach is outlined, and a conceptual framework for its application to gambling is provided. Significant risk factors for propensity to develop gambling problems are enumerated, and relative risks for comorbidities are calculated from recent meta-analyses and reviews. Indirect elicitation provides a promising alternative framework for assessing the causal link between gambling problems and morbidity. This approach requires implementation of propensity score matching to estimate the counterfactual, and demands high quality information of risk factors and comorbid conditions, in order to estimate the unique contribution of gambling problems. Gambling harm is best understood as a decrement to health utility. However, achieving consensus on the severity of gambling problems requires triangulation of results from multiple methodologies. Indirect elicitation with propensity score matching and accounting for comorbidities would provide an important step towards full integration of gambling within a public health paradigm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09813-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7670710PMC
November 2020

Training gamblers to re-think their gambling choices: How contextual analytical thinking may be useful in promoting safer gambling.

J Behav Addict 2020 Oct 3;9(3):766-784. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

3Brain and Mind Centre, School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, M02F Mallett Street Campus, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Background And Aims: Harmful gambling has been associated with the endorsement of fallacious cognitions that promote excessive consumption. These types of beliefs stem from intuitively derived assumptions about gambling that are fostered by fast-thinking and a lack of objective, critical thought. The current paper details an experiment designed to test whether a four-week online intervention to strengthen contextual analytical thinking in gamblers is effective in changing gamblers cognitions and encouraging safer gambling consumption.

Methods: Ninety-four regular gamblers who reported experiencing gambling-related harm were randomly allocated to either an experimental (n = 46) or control condition (n = 48), including 45 males, ranging from 19 to 65 years of age (M = 36.61; SD = 9.76). Following baseline measurement of gambling beliefs and prior week gambling consumption, participants in the experimental condition were required to complete an adaption of the Gamblers Fallacy Questionnaire designed to promote analytical thinking by educating participants on common judgement errors specific to gambling once a week for four weeks. Post-intervention measures of beliefs and gambling consumption were captured in week five.

Results: The experimental condition reported significantly fewer erroneous cognitions, greater endorsement of protective cognitions, and reduced time spent gambling post-intervention compared to baseline. The control group also reported a reduction in cognitions relating to predicting and controlling gambling outcomes.

Conclusion: Cognitive interventions that encourage gamblers to challenge gambling beliefs by reflecting on gambling involvement and promoting critical thinking may be an effective tool for reducing the time people invest in gambling activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.2020.00049DOI Listing
October 2020

Developing a sociocultural framework of compliance: an exploration of factors related to the use of early warning systems among acute care clinicians.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Aug 11;20(1):736. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Central Queensland University, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Building 18, Bruce Highway, Rockhampton, 4702, Australia.

Background: Early warning systems (EWS) are most effective when clinicians monitor patients' vital signs and comply with the recommended escalation of care protocols once deterioration is recognised.

Objectives: To explore sociocultural factors influencing acute care clinicians' compliance with an early warning system commonly used in Queensland public hospitals in Australia.

Methods: This interpretative qualitative study utilised inductive thematic analysis to analyse data collected from semi-structured interviews conducted with 30 acute care clinicians from Queensland, Australia.

Results: This study identified that individuals and teams approached compliance with EWS in the context of 1) the use of EWS for patient monitoring; and 2) the use of EWS for the escalation of patient care. Individual and team compliance with monitoring and escalation processes is facilitated by intra and inter-professional factors such as acceptance and support, clear instruction, inter-disciplinary collaboration and good communication. Noncompliance with EWS can be attributed to intra and inter-professional hierarchy and poor communication.

Conclusions: The overarching organisational context including the hospital's embedded quality improvement and administrative protocols (training, resources and staffing) impact hospital-wide culture and influence clinicians' and teams' compliance or non-compliance with early warning system's monitoring and escalation processes. Successful adoption of EWS relies on effective and meaningful interactions among multidisciplinary staff.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05615-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7422559PMC
August 2020

Maze test score time adjustments when using nondominant hand in fitness-to-drive assessments.

Int J Rehabil Res 2020 Dec;43(4):324-329

Department of Psychology, School of Health Medical and Applied Science, Central Queensland University, Bundaberg, Australia.

Drivers with medical conditions may need to demonstrate their fitness by participating in clinical and on-road assessments. Scores from the clinic-based occupational therapy-drive home maze test (OT-DHMT) can contribute to fitness-to-drive recommendations. The OT-DHMT is a short, timed test that has previously been shown to be valid and reliable, and norms are available for completion with a driver's dominant hand. Following stroke or trauma, many drivers need to complete assessments and resume driving using their nondominant hand. The validity of a person's OT-DHMT score when completed with a nondominant hand is unknown. This study investigated if a person's OT-DHMT score time requires adjustment when completed with a nondominant hand. The OT-DHMT was administered with a convenience sample of 148 community-dwelling participants, aged 21-81 years (M = 48.6, SD = 19.38) using both their dominant and nondominant hands, in a random order. OT-DHMT score times were significantly faster when using dominant (M = 15.73) compared with nondominant (M = 17.64) hand, d = 1.91 [confidence interval (CI) 1.13, 2.69], t = 4.84, P < 0.01. Employing a generalized weighted least squares regression model indicated that multiplying a driver's nondominant hand time by 0.833 s for drivers aged ≤60, and by 0.929 s for drivers aged 61+ can approximate dominant hand completion times. The OT-DHMT has been validated for use with people using their nondominant hand. Time adjustments are required for people using their nondominant hand when completing the OT-DHMT, and a larger adjustment is required for people aged ≤60 reinforcing previous findings that younger people have faster OT-DHMT completion times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MRR.0000000000000429DOI Listing
December 2020

The prevention paradox applies to some but not all gambling harms: Results from a Finnish population-representative survey.

J Behav Addict 2020 Jun 7;9(2):371-382. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

3Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Public Health Solutions, Helsinki, Finland.

Background And Aims: The Prevention Paradox (PP) suggests that a large proportion of aggregate harm from gambling occurs to people who do not have a gambling disorder. However, it has not yet been tested using a population-representative sample. We aimed to test whether the PP applies to gambling in Finland. The prevalence rates of diverse harmful consequences from gambling were surveyed amongst a population-representative sample of past-year gamblers.

Methods: The study used first wave data (N = 7,186) of Finnish Gambling Harms survey, collected via online and postal surveys in 2017. A subset of 3,795 adults (≥18 years), who had gambled at least monthly in 2016, were selected for analysis.

Measurements: Gambling-related harms were evaluated with the 72-item Harms Checklist. Problem and Pathological Gambling Measure (PPGM) measured respondents' probable disordered gambling from the subset of items for impaired control (4 questions) and other issues (3 questions).

Findings: Consistent with previous findings, the majority of harms were reported by those in the less severe PPGM categories (i.e. scoring <5). However, considering each domain separately, this was true only for financial, emotional/psychological, and work/study harms. The PP was not supported for health, relationship, or social deviance harms.

Conclusions: The population prevalence of the most serious harms (e.g. unsafe living conditions) is concentrated among those with severe impaired control issues. However, even excluding the ∼15% of harms occurring to occasional gamblers, most financial, emotional and work/study impacts occur to those with lower levels of control issues. Efforts at harm reduction should focus on the entire spectrum of issues that people experience from their gambling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.2020.00018DOI Listing
June 2020

Do EGMs have a Stronger Association with Problem Gambling than Racing and Casino Table Games? Evidence from a Decade of Australian Prevalence Studies.

J Gambl Stud 2020 Jun;36(2):499-511

School of Psychology, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia.

Although it is often assumed that electronic gaming machines (EGMs) are associated with the highest level of risk, it has proved difficult to find reliable evidence in support of this proposition. In this paper, we analysed statistics from major Australian community prevalence studies for the period 2011-2020 to investigate whether EGMs (in comparison to racing and casino table games) have a stronger association with problem gambling. All prevalence studies reviewed used telephone sampling and the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess problem gambling. In this paper, we examine the principal hypothesis using several lines of evidence, including whether problem gamblers are more likely to gamble and gamble regularly on EGMs as opposed to racing and casino games and if the EGM-problem gambling association was maintained after controlling for other forms of participation. Results showed that of all gambling activities, EGMs do appear to have the strongest association with problem gambling. Despite having a disproportionately higher level of participation on racing and casino games as compared with other gamblers, problem gamblers are more likely to report regular or weekly participation in EGM gambling and this may be the reason why this activity emerges most strongly as a predictor of problem gambling in multivariate models. This finding is particularly salient, given the very high prevalence of EGM participation, compared to other risky gambling forms. The findings underscore the importance of survey reporting that presents results in a form that can inform policy relevant research relating to the potential impact of different gambling activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-020-09950-5DOI Listing
June 2020

Beliefs About Gambling Mediate the Effect of Cognitive Style on Gambling Problems.

J Gambl Stud 2020 Sep;36(3):871-886

Brain and Mind Centre, School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, M02F Mallett Street Campus, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Problem gambling is often accompanied by a range of irrational cognitions that promote excessive gambling. The cognitive basis for these beliefs has been largely overlooked in the gambling literature. Dual process theory suggests there are two parallel cognitive processing systems, an intuitive and an analytic system, and that there are potential individual differences in preference for one or the other cognitive style. The current study explored whether people's cognitive styles are an important factor in the development of specific beliefs about gambling that in-turn contribute to gambling problems. The sample consisted of 1168 regular gamblers (539 female, ranging from 18 to 78 years of age; M = 35.47, SD = 10.78) recruited via Mechanical Turk. Participants completed a survey assessing cognitive style, problem gambling severity, and measures of protective and erroneous beliefs. In a path model, greater analytical thinking and lower intuitive thinking was associated with fewer erroneous gambling beliefs, which in turn were related to fewer gambling problems. A second model showed that protective beliefs also mediated the relationship between cognitive style and gambling, demonstrating that greater analytical thinking and lower intuitive thinking was associated with protective beliefs that similarly reduced problem gambling severity. Results suggest that a person's cognitive style influences peoples gambling by contributing to the endorsement of irrational or unsafe beliefs about gambling. Encouraging people to think more analytically may be useful in reducing erroneous beliefs about gambling that promote problematic gambling behaviour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-020-09942-5DOI Listing
September 2020

Patient Deterioration in Australian Regional and Rural Hospitals: Is the Queensland Adult Deterioration Detection System the Criterion Standard?

J Patient Saf 2020 Mar 14. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

From the CQUniversity Australia, Branyan.

Objective: This study compares the efficiency of six early warning systems (EWSs) to determine whether the EWS used in most public hospitals in Queensland, Australia, The Queensland Adult Deterioration Detection System (Q-ADDS), is best suited for use in small regional and rural hospitals.

Method: In this retrospective case-control study, patients who experienced an in-hospital severe adverse event (index patients) for a 3.5-year period were demographically and diagnostically matched with patients who had uneventful hospital stays (control patients). The EWS efficiency was based on the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) and the number of false and true alerts generated by each EWS.

Result: The incidence of severe adverse events was 1.2% of in-hospital patients, and 2500 sets of vital signs were collected from 159 index and 172 control patients. The EWSs were only able to identify approximately half of the index patients. The AUROC was 0.666 to 0.801 and the EWS generated 2.4 to 7.6 false alerts to every true alert per 1000 admissions. The National Early Warning Score had the best ratio of false to true alerts (2.4:1) but was only able to identify 40.8% of deteriorating patients. The Q-ADDS identified 46.5% of the deteriorating patients and had a false to true alert ratio of 3.2:1. When compared with the National Early Warning Score, systems with higher AUROCs (0.744 and 0.801) also had higher proportion of false alerts. None of the alternative EWSs seem to provide marked benefits over Q-ADDS.

Conclusions: At present, there is insufficient evidence to replace Q-ADDS with an alternative EWS. Because the EWSs were only able to identify half of the deteriorating patients, EWSs should be used in conjunction with good clinical judgment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PTS.0000000000000689DOI Listing
March 2020

Human-Animal Co-Sleeping: An Actigraphy-Based Assessment of Dogs' Impacts on Women's Nighttime Movements.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Feb 11;10(2). Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Appleton Institute for Behavioural Science, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Adelaide 5000, Australia.

Humans regularly enter into co-sleeping arrangements with human and non-human partners. Studies of adults who co-sleep report that co-sleeping can impact sleep quality, particularly for women. Although dog owners often choose to bedshare with their dogs, we know relatively little about the nature of these relationships, nor the extent to which co-sleeping might interfere with sleep quality or quantity. In an effort to rectify this, we selected a sample of 12 adult female human ( = 50.8 years) and dog dyads, and monitored their activity using actigraphy. We collected movement data in one-minute epochs for each sleep period for an average of 10 nights per participant. This resulted in 124 nights of data, covering 54,533 observations ( = 7.3 hours per night). In addition, we collected subjective sleep diary data from human participants. We found a significant positive relationship between human and dog movement over sleep periods, with dogs influencing human movement more than humans influenced dog movement. Dog movement accompanied approximately 50% of human movement observations, and dog movement tripled the likelihood of the human transitioning from a non-moving state to a moving state. Nevertheless, humans rarely reported that their dog disrupted their sleep. We encourage the continued exploration of human-animal co-sleeping in all its facets and provide recommendations for future research in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10020278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7070703PMC
February 2020

Gamble with Your Head and Not Your Heart: A Conceptual Model for How Thinking-Style Promotes Irrational Gambling Beliefs.

J Gambl Stud 2020 Mar;36(1):183-206

School of Human, Medical, and Applied Sciences, CQUniversity, University Drive, Bundaberg, QLD, 4670, Australia.

Dual process theory suggests that people use two processing systems to filter information and form judgments that direct a course of action: an intuitive and an analytic system. While the intuitive system is necessary for efficient and effective daily functioning, reliance on fast, intuitive thinking when gambling is likely to result in biased or flawed decision-making. Those who gamble tend to endorse an array of fallacious or irrational beliefs that contribute to risky decision-making and excessive gambling. This paper argues that gambling beliefs may be developed and reinforced through underlying cognitive mechanisms described by dual process theory. More specifically, gamblers tend to apply assumptions and theories developed based on their understanding of the natural world to artificial gambling contexts where such rules do not apply. As a result, gamblers develop biased interpretations and understandings for how gambling works, which tend to align with personal schemas, experiences and gambling motivations. These beliefs are used in future gambling contexts to inform decision-making. Gamblers are often unlikely or unwilling to reflect on the veracity of beliefs as they are often used to justify gambling behaviours. Educating gamblers on how they make decisions and encouraging them to think more analytically may help to reduce the strength with which erroneous beliefs about gambling are endorsed, resulting in safer gambling decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09927-zDOI Listing
March 2020

Measuring Behavioural Dependence in Gambling: A Case for Removing Harmful Consequences from the Assessment of Problem Gambling Pathology.

J Gambl Stud 2020 Dec;36(4):1027-1044

School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Bundaberg Campus, B8 G.47 University Drive, Branyan, QLD, 4670, Australia.

Behavioural dependence (BD) for gambling has traditionally been subsumed under the concept of 'problems': a hybrid construct that includes both indicators of BD, and adverse consequences (harm) arising from excessive time and money expenditure. Although progress has been made towards specific measurement of harm, dedicated measures of BD do not exist. Theory led us to expect that (1) dependence and harm are measurably distinct constructs, (2) harm mediates the relationship between dependence and wellbeing, and finally, that (3) separate measures should be more effective than a unidimensional problems measure in predicting wellbeing. Candidate BD items from six existing measures of gambling problems were extracted and evaluated with respect to DSM-5 criteria and content overlap, leading to 17 candidate items. This was further reduced to 8 items based on both item content and psychometric criteria, using data from an online panel of 1524 regular gamblers, with demographic characteristics similar to Australian population norms. Participants also completed measures of harm, problems, and subjective wellbeing. All three hypotheses were confirmed. BD was shown to be highly reliable and unidimensional, and measurably distinct from gambling harms. Harm mediated the negative relationship between BD and wellbeing. The harm + BD model yielded better predictions of personal wellbeing that a unidimensional, continuous problems measure-and explained about twice the variance of a simple contrast between problem and non-problem gamblers. We conclude that is psychometrically justified to specifically measure gambling BD, and this may be of particular use in theoretically-driven applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09916-2DOI Listing
December 2020

Encouraging Gamblers to Think Critically Using Generalised Analytical Priming is Ineffective at Reducing Gambling Biases.

J Gambl Stud 2020 Sep;36(3):851-869

School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, M02F Mallett Street Campus, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Gambling has been associated with an array of fallacious beliefs that foster risky gambling decisions. Research into other belief systems suggests that the endorsement of non-evidence based beliefs, such as the paranormal or conspiracy theories, can be reduced when people think more analytically. The purpose of this study was to explore whether an intervention designed to elicit analytical thinking was effective in altering the gambling beliefs and simulated gambling behaviour of 178 regular electronic gaming machine (EGM) gamblers (102 males, 76 female). Participants were randomly allocated to complete either an analytic or a neutral priming task, followed by completion of belief measures (erroneous and protective) and play on a simulated EGM game. Results failed to show that priming for analytical thinking changed betting on an EGM; including features of bet size, bet change, persistence and theoretical losses. Contrary to expectations, results suggest that priming analytical thinking using generalised interventions does not appear to be effective in altering peoples' simulated gambling involvement or gambling beliefs. In fact, priming people to think more critically might be counterproductive by contributing to greater positive expectations about gambling outcomes. The results further suggested that the number of times a player alters their bet is a good indicator of theoretical gambling losses and is associated with irrational gambling cognitions. Interventions designed to promote safer thinking in gamblers should be implemented with care, as results from our study suggest that encouraging critical thinking in at-risk or problem gamblers may not be effective in reducing risky gambling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09910-8DOI Listing
September 2020

Avoiding gambling harm: An evidence-based set of safe gambling practices for consumers.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(10):e0224083. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Prior studies have identified self-regulatory strategies that are infrequently used by problem-gamblers, but which might be protective if used. However, guidelines with evidence-based safe gambling practices (SGPs) that prevent gambling-related harm are lacking. This study aimed to: 1) identify a parsimonious set of evidence-based SGPs that best predict non-harmful gambling amongst gamblers who are otherwise most susceptible to experiencing gambling harm; 2) examine how widely are they used; and 3) assess whether their use differs by gambler characteristics. A sample of 1,174 regular gamblers in Alberta Canada completed an online survey measuring uptake of 43 potential SGPs, gambling harms and numerous risk factors for harmful gambling. Elastic net regression identified a sub-sample of 577 gamblers most susceptible to gambling harm and therefore most likely to benefit from the uptake of SGPs. A second elastic net predicted gambling harm scores in the sub-sample, using the SGPs as candidate predictors. Nine SGPs best predicted non-harmful gambling amongst this sub-sample. The behaviour most strongly associated with increased harm was using credit to gamble. The behaviour most strongly associated with reduced harm was 'If I'm not having fun gambling, I stop'. These SGPs form the basis of evidence-based safe gambling guidelines which can be: 1) promoted to consumers, 2) form the basis of self-assessment tests, 3) used to measure safe gambling at a population level, and 4) inform supportive changes to policy and practice. The guidelines advise gamblers to: stop if they are not having fun, keep a household budget, keep a dedicated gambling budget, have a fixed amount they can spend, engage in other leisure activities, avoid gambling when upset or depressed, not use credit for gambling, avoid gambling to make money, and not think that strategies can help you win. These guidelines are a promising initiative to help reduce gambling-related harm.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0224083PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6797237PMC
March 2020

Mobile EGM Games: Evidence That Simulated Games Encourage Real-Money Gambling.

J Gambl Stud 2020 Dec;36(4):1253-1265

Central Queensland University, Adelaide, Australia.

Electronic gaming machines (EGMs) and other gambling-themed simulators are a popular sub-genre of video-games or "apps" played on mobile devices (King et al. in Comput Hum Behav 31(Supplement C):305-313, 2014). Qualitative evidence suggests that some people use gambling-themed simulators in an attempt to limit their real-money expenditure (Thorne et al. in J Gambl Issues 34:221-243, 2016), although playing such games might also encourage gambling due to anticipated enjoyment or profit. To test the potential relationship between use of simulated mobile gambling products and real-money gambling, a study was devised to explore current and retrospective accounts, as well as a prospective trial of how weekly play on EGM simulators might influence subsequent gambling. A total of 736 EGM gamblers (421 male) completed an initial scoping survey on their current and retrospective use of simulated and real-money gambling products. By invitation, 556 people (314 male) from the initial survey also volunteered in a 24 weeks follow-up study where approximately half (48.2%) were randomly assigned to play a simulated game, "Lucky Lolly Slots", for at least 5 min each week. Simulated gambling sessions were recorded for both Lucky Lolly Slots and any other gambling apps played by the participants. Results showed that people who had played gambling-themed EGM apps at some point in their lifetime had a higher frequency of play on real-money EGMs and were more likely to admit to current gambling problems. In addition, those people who played a simulated EGM app prior to age 13 nominated an earlier age at which they "gambled the most" in adolescence. In the 24 weeks trial, people's app play (number of sessions) in 1 week reliably predicted increases in real-money gambling the following week. We found no evidence that people who were trying to reduce their expenditure were contrarily influenced to gamble less as a result of their app play, with their app-sessions similarly being related to increases in expenditure. The present results suggest that gamblers who play simulated games are likely to be influenced to gamble more on real-money forms of gambling as a result of their use. The study raises particular concerns about the widespread availability and popularity of such gambling-themed simulators amongst children and adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09869-6DOI Listing
December 2020

Investigating risk factors that predict a dog's fear during veterinary consultations.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(7):e0215416. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Roseworthy Campus, Roseworthy, South Australia, Australia.

Attending the veterinary clinic is an integral part of the physical welfare of every companion dog. However, some dogs experience their veterinary visits negatively, which poses a risk of injury to the veterinary staff, their guardian (owner) and themselves. It may also influence the regularity of non-urgent veterinary appointments. To date there have been conflicting reports relating to the proportion of dogs that show fear during their veterinary visits. In this study, we explored the risk factors associated with fear during veterinary examination and in novel situations (including first time at the veterinary clinic) from 26,555 responses in the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire database. According to their guardians, 41% of companion dogs displayed mild to moderate fearful behaviour when examined by a veterinarian, and 14% exhibited severe or extreme fear. A similar trend was observed with dogs responding fearfully when in unfamiliar situations, including the dog's first time at the veterinary clinic. Chi-squared tests showed every bivariate relationship between fear and the environmental and demographic factors measured was significant (p < 0.05). The most important predictors of fear in a veterinary examination were, in order: the dog's breed group (27.1%), their history of roles or activities (16.7%), where they were sourced (15.2%), their weight (12%), the age of other dogs in the household (9.5%) and dog owner experience (6.3%). However, combined these risk factors only explain a total of 7% of variance of fear observed during veterinary examination. This suggests that fear exhibited during veterinary visits is common in dogs, but that the environment or human-animal interactions are likely to contribute more to prevalence and severity of this problem than the demographic factors measured here. We conclude by highlighting opportunities for future research aimed at facilitating less stressful veterinary visits for dogs and their guardians.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215416PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6645454PMC
February 2020

The privilege paradox: Geographic areas with highest socio-economic advantage have the lowest rates of vaccination.

Vaccine 2019 07 28;37(32):4525-4532. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

School of Human, Health & Social Sciences, Central Queensland University, University Dr, Branyan, QLD 4670, Australia.

The present study is the first to examine associations between area-level socio-demographic factors and uptake of vaccination among 5-year old children throughout Australia. A public-health focused ecological methodology was used that combined postcode-level socio-demographic variables from the 2016 Census with postcode-level vaccination data. Analyses included one-way analysis of variance and assessment of linear trends for each socio-demographic variable across five categories of vaccination rate; ranging from lowest (≤90%) to highest (96.1-100%), as well as using vaccination rate as a continuous variable. Multiple regression analysis was also conducted using select indicators to predict vaccination rates in postcodes from major cities. The results of the univariate analyses showed that communities with lower rates of vaccination had relatively less disadvantage, and had relatively greater education and occupation status, as measured by SEIFA (ABS [4]). When we looked at the ASGS Remoteness Areas, we saw that the vaccination rates were lowest in postcodes from the major cities of Australia, and vaccination rates increased as communities became more remote. When the community is further refined to postcodes located in the major cities, and to the target group of parents/partners in a family with children aged 4-7, we found that postcodes with lower vaccination rates were characterised as having a relatively greater proportion of people with: a high education level (bachelor degree level or higher); having white-collar jobs as managers; having no religion, having people in the older age category (50-54); and conversely being unemployed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.06.060DOI Listing
July 2019

Contrasting Effects of Gambling Consumption and Gambling Problems on Subjective Wellbeing.

J Gambl Stud 2019 Sep;35(3):773-792

School of Medical, Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, B8 G.47 University Drive, Bundaberg, QLD, 4670, Australia.

Most research on gambling focuses on the negative consequences associated with excessive consumption, which implicitly leads to a reduction in health and wellbeing. However, few studies have measured subjective wellbeing with respect to gambling involvement, and almost none has attempted to distinguish the separate effects of consumption and problems. We used the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) in two surveys with different recruitment criteria. Study 1 (N = 1524, 50.6% female) was designed to compare differences in personal wellbeing among gamblers, and Study 2 (N = 1586, 70.2% female) compared wellbeing between gamblers and non-gamblers. Participants provided demographic information, and answered questions allowing them to be grouped into high/low levels of consumption, and problem gambling risk categories. After accounting for gambling problems, higher consumption was associated with higher wellbeing. Study 2 showed consistent results; revealing that both high and low consumption non-problem gamblers (NPGs) had higher personal wellbeing than non-gamblers. Nevertheless, the deleterious effect of gambling problems on wellbeing was larger than the effect of consumption. After accounting for population prevalence (i.e., per capita), only 15.3% of the negative influence of gambling problems on PWI was attributable to problem gamblers; the remainder associated with lower risk categories. Although results were consistent when controlling for demographic covariates, the positive link between consumption and wellbeing may be due to unmeasured variables such as personality traits, health, and socioeconomic status. Nevertheless, the assessment of subjective wellbeing provides a unique perspective on both the positive and negative effects of gambling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09862-zDOI Listing
September 2019

Sports betting incentives encourage gamblers to select the long odds: An experimental investigation using monetary rewards.

J Behav Addict 2019 Jun 7;8(2):268-276. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences,CQUniversity, Melbourne, VIC,Australia.

Background And Aims: Incentives for wagering products can provide extra value to gamblers. However, there is no financial reason why this added value should lead people to take greater gambling risks. This study aimed to experimentally test if wagering incentives cause gamblers to choose higher-risk (long odds) bets than un-incentivized bets.

Methods: An online experiment was conducted with wagering customers ( = 299, female = 12). Participants bet $4 on each of six video game simulations of a sport that they had wagered on in the past 12 months (Australian Football League, Cricket, or Soccer). Each game offered different common wagering incentives: Bonus bet, Better odds/winnings, Reduced risk, Cash rebate, Player's choice of inducement, or No-inducement. For each game, participants could bet on long, medium, or short odds, and subsequently viewed a highlight reel of the simulated game outcome and bet outcome.

Results: Participants selected significantly longer odds (i.e., riskier) bets on games when an incentive was offered compared to the No-inducement condition. Better odds/winnings was the most attractive incentive, followed by Bonus bet, Cash rebate, Reduced risk, and No-incentive, respectively. No significant differences were observed based on demographics or problem gambling severity.

Discussion And Conclusions: The choice of long odds with incentivized bets increases the volatility of player returns. Increased volatility results in more gamblers in a losing position and fewer gamblers with larger wins. Moreover, if long odds bets are priced to provide poorer value to bettors compared to short odds, they would increase gamblers' losses and equivalently increase operators' profits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.8.2019.30DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044548PMC
June 2019

A Quantification of the Net Consumer Surplus from Gambling Participation.

J Gambl Stud 2019 Dec;35(4):1147-1162

School of Psychology, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Gambling exposes people to risk for harm, but also has recreational benefits. The present study aimed to measure gambling harm and gambling benefits on similar scales using two novel methods adapted from the Burden of Disease approach (McCormack et al. in Psychol Med 18(4):1007-1019, 1988; Torrance et al. in Health Serv Res 7(2):118-133, 1972) to find whether gambling either adds or subtracts from quality of life. A Tasmanian population-representative survey of 5000 adults (2534 female) from random digit dialling (RDD) of landline telephones in Tasmania (50%), as well as pre-screened Tasmanian RDD mobiles (17%) and listed mobile numbers (33%), measured gambling benefits and harms amongst gamblers (59.2%) and a non-exclusive set of people who were "affected" by someone else's gambling (4.5%). The majority of gamblers indicated no change to their quality of life from gambling (82.5% or 72.6% based on direct elicitation or time trade off methods, respectively). Nevertheless, a weighted average of all the positive and negative influences on quality of life, inclusive of gamblers and affected others, revealed that the quality of life change from gambling is either a very modest + 0.05% or a more concerning - 1.9% per capita. Gambling generates only small or negative net consumer surpluses for Tasmanians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09845-0DOI Listing
December 2019

A randomized controlled trial protocol investigating effectiveness of an activity-pacing program for deconditioned older adults.

Can J Occup Ther 2019 Apr 24;86(2):136-147. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Background.: Acute hospitalization of older adults can lead to deconditioning and the need for rehabilitation to facilitate a return to home and previous lifestyle. An occupational therapy intervention to combat deconditioning is activity pacing, an active self-management strategy where individuals learn to modify how and when activities are completed with the aim of improving participation in occupation.

Purpose.: This study will examine the effectiveness of occupational therapy with activity pacing during rehabilitation for deconditioned older adults.

Method.: A randomized controlled trial is proposed with inclusion criteria of older adults, 65+ years old, living independently in the community prior to admission, with adequate cognition and language to participate in the intervention. Participation, health status, self-efficacy in daily activities, self-efficacy in activity pacing techniques, and symptom management (pain and fatigue) will be measured at admission, discharge, and 3 months postdischarge.

Implications.: Determining if an activity-pacing program is effective will provide occupational therapists with evidence to support service delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0008417419830374DOI Listing
April 2019

A Multivariate Evaluation of 25 Proximal and Distal Risk-Factors for Gambling-Related Harm.

J Clin Med 2019 Apr 13;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Faculty of Extension, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada.

Individual differences in the risk of developing gambling-related harm play an important role in theoretical models and practical interventions. The present study attempted comprehensive measurement and evaluation of 25 known risk factors for gambling-related harm in order to determine which factors provided large and unique explanatory power. We surveyed 1650 regular gamblers from an online panel, screening in 1174 (466 male) who passed all checks of attention and response consistency. We evaluated each risk factor based on bivariate correlations with harms, then made separate multivariate evaluations of proximal (e.g., gambling motivations) and distal (e.g., religiosity) risk factors. Almost all bivariate correlations were significant, but most distal factors were not significant in multivariate models. Trait impulsivity was the most important risk factor by a large margin. Excessive consumption, less use of safe gambling practices, and more fallacies were key proximal risks of harm. Many well-known correlates of gambling harm (e.g., youth, lower educational attainment) do not show a direct role in the development of gambling harm when controlling for other factors. The results support theoretical models that emphasise early conditioning and biological vulnerability (manifested through impulsivity). Since maladaptive cognitive and behavioural schemas appear to be more important than motivations (e.g., escape, excitement, ego), interventions may benefit by targeting these proximal drivers of harm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8040509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6518151PMC
April 2019

The efficacy of twelve early warning systems for potential use in regional medical facilities in Queensland, Australia.

Aust Crit Care 2020 01 9;33(1):47-53. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

CQUniversity Australia, University Drive, Building 8/G.47 Bundaberg, Branyan Australia, Qld, 4670, Australia. Electronic address:

Aim: Early warning system (EWS) validation studies are conducted predominantly in tertiary metropolitan facilities and are not necessarily applicable to regional hospitals. This study evaluates 12 EWSs for use in regional subcritical hospitals.

Method: This is a retrospective case-control study of patients who experienced severe adverse events (SAEs) in two regional private hospitals. Vital signs collected over 72 h preceding the SAE were applied to 12 EWSs representing three classes of EWSs. The EWS area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC), sensitivity, specificity, and number of alerts were calculated.

Results: Data from 159 index and 172 control patients showed no significant differences in demographics, length of stay, and level of comorbidities. Only half of index patients achieved a medical emergency alert threshold score. On average, index patients triggered alerts 20.06 (22.67) hours preceding the SAE and alerted 2.25 (3.87) times over 72 h. The AUROC ranged from 0.628 to 0.747, with a single-parameter EWS having the lowest AUROC and an aggregated weighted EWS, the highest. The sensitivity of the EWS ranges from 0.359 to 0.692. The specificity was greater than 0.9 for all the EWSs tested.

Conclusions: Based on the EWS sensitivity and AUROC, there is a lack of conclusive evidence of the efficacy of the 12 EWSs tested. However, because the adoption of the EWS in Australian hospitals is mandatory, the implementation of an aggregated weighted EWS, such as Compass, should be considered in subcritical regional private hospitals. Given that only half of SAE achieved an EWS medical alert threshold score, it is important that good clinical judgement be used with EWS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aucc.2019.03.001DOI Listing
January 2020

Risk Factors for Gambling Problems Specifically Associated with Sports Betting.

J Gambl Stud 2019 Dec;35(4):1211-1228

Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQUniversity, Bundaberg, QLD, Australia.

Studies examining risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors have used screens that assess gambling problems in general. Because people experiencing gambling-related problems tend to gamble on multiple forms, it is unclear whether problems identified amongst sports bettors are due to sports betting itself. The present study examined a range of distal and proximal demographic, behavioural and psychological risk factors using a modified version of the Problem Gambling Severity Index which respondents answered only in relation to their sports betting. In general, those at risk were younger, spoke a language other than English, were more engaged sports bettors and gamblers, and tended not to watch the event they had bet on. They particularly endorsed money-oriented motivations, and had higher erroneous cognitions, gambling urges, and were more likely to experience alcohol issues. Higher-risk sports bettors were also more likely to apportion less responsibility for their gambling to themselves, and to have lower self control. A penalised model found that key predictors were money motivations, gambling urges and erroneous cognitions, alcohol issues and lower self-control, but not sports betting behaviour. These findings suggest that one's psychological relationship to sports betting is a primary driver of gambling-related problems, rather than just betting behaviour. As sports betting expands through new products and legalisation in additional jurisdictions, understanding who is most at risk from this form of gambling is important to inform legislation as well as harm reduction and treatment measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09848-xDOI Listing
December 2019

The impact of exposure to wagering advertisements and inducements on intended and actual betting expenditure: An ecological momentary assessment study.

J Behav Addict 2019 Mar 28;8(1):146-156. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Australian Gambling Research Centre,Australian Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne, VIC,Australia.

Background And Aims: Research suggests that a large proportion of regular sports and race bettors experience harm related to their gambling. In Australia, people who bet regularly are targeted by a proliferation of different forms of inducements and advertising - many of which are believed to encourage excessive betting and erroneous perceptions of risk. However, scant research has examined the impact of marketing messaging to this group, which is also limited to cross-sectional or qualitative designs. We aimed to determine whether exposure to wagering advertisements and inducements influenced intended betting expenditure, actual betting expenditure, and spending more than intended.

Methods: We report on an ecological momentary assessment study, measuring regular exposure to 20 different forms of marketing, as well as wagering spend from 318 race bettors and 279 sports bettors. Up to 15 assessments per participant were conducted over 3 weeks (mean = 11.46, median = 14), yielding 6,843 observations for analysis.

Results: Exposure to advertising and inducements was reliably linked to a greater likelihood of betting, higher intended and actual betting expenditure, and spending more than intended. "Push" messaging and inducements that convey the impression of reduced risk (stake-back inducements and multibet offers) were particularly influential, as well as brands promoted during events and advertisements on betting websites/apps.

Discussion And Conclusions: Given that a large proportion of regular sports and race bettors experience problems, restrictions on these forms of marketing are advisable. These findings suggest that this is particularly important for marketing that is "pushed" to gamblers or that suggests reduced risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.8.2019.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044597PMC
March 2019