Publications by authors named "Matt King"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Solid Earth change and the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

Nat Commun 2019 01 30;10(1):503. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, St Louis, MO, 63130, USA.

Recent studies suggest that Antarctica has the potential to contribute up to ~15 m of sea-level rise over the next few centuries. The evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is driven by a combination of climate forcing and non-climatic feedbacks. In this review we focus on feedbacks between the Antarctic Ice Sheet and the solid Earth, and the role of these feedbacks in shaping the response of the ice sheet to past and future climate changes. The growth and decay of the Antarctic Ice Sheet reshapes the solid Earth via isostasy and erosion. In turn, the shape of the bed exerts a fundamental control on ice dynamics as well as the position of the grounding line-the location where ice starts to float. A complicating issue is the fact that Antarctica is situated on a region of the Earth that displays large spatial variations in rheological properties. These properties affect the timescale and strength of feedbacks between ice-sheet change and solid Earth deformation, and hence must be accounted for when considering the future evolution of the ice sheet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-08068-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353952PMC
January 2019

"Antarctica just has this hero factor…": Gendered barriers to Australian Antarctic research and remote fieldwork.

PLoS One 2019 16;14(1):e0209983. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

Antarctica is often associated with images of masculine figures battling against the blizzard. The pervasiveness of heroic white masculine leadership and exploration in Antarctica and, more broadly, in Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Medicine (STEMM) research cultures, has meant women have had lesser access to Antarctic research and fieldwork opportunities, with a marked increase since the 1980s. This article presents findings from an exploratory online survey examining how 95 women experienced research and remote Antarctic fieldwork with the Australian Antarctic Program. Although women are entering polar science in greater numbers, a key theme of the qualitative findings of this survey is that gendered barriers to participation in research and fieldwork persist. We discuss five key gendered barriers including: 1) Physical barriers, 2) Caring responsibilities/unpaid work, 3) Cultural sexism/gender bias, 4) Lack of opportunities/recognition, and 5) Unwanted male attention/sexual harassment. We argue that the lack of attention paid to gender and sexuality in polar fieldwork contributes to the invisibility and exclusion of women and other marginalized identities broadly. To conclude, we point to the importance of targeted inclusivity, diversity and equity initiatives through Antarctic research globally and specifically by National Antarctic Programs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209983PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334902PMC
September 2019

An assessment of forward and inverse GIA solutions for Antarctica.

J Geophys Res Solid Earth 2016 Sep 29;121(9):6947-6965. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

School of Geographical Sciences University of Bristol Bristol UK.

In this work we assess the most recent estimates of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) for Antarctica, including those from both forward and inverse methods. The assessment is based on a comparison of the estimated uplift rates with a set of elastic-corrected GPS vertical velocities. These have been observed from an extensive GPS network and computed using data over the period 2009-2014. We find systematic underestimations of the observed uplift rates in both inverse and forward methods over specific regions of Antarctica characterized by low mantle viscosities and thin lithosphere, such as the northern Antarctic Peninsula and the Amundsen Sea Embayment, where its recent ice discharge history is likely to be playing a role in current GIA. Uplift estimates for regions where many GIA models have traditionally placed their uplift maxima, such as the margins of Filchner-Ronne and Ross ice shelves, are found to be overestimated. GIA estimates show large variability over the interior of East Antarctica which results in increased uncertainties on the ice-sheet mass balance derived from gravimetry methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016JB013154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5111427PMC
September 2016

Spatial and temporal Antarctic Ice Sheet mass trends, glacio-isostatic adjustment, and surface processes from a joint inversion of satellite altimeter, gravity, and GPS data.

J Geophys Res Earth Surf 2016 02 3;121(2):182-200. Epub 2016 Feb 3.

School of Geographical Sciences University of Bristol Bristol UK.

We present spatiotemporal mass balance trends for the Antarctic Ice Sheet from a statistical inversion of satellite altimetry, gravimetry, and elastic-corrected GPS data for the period 2003-2013. Our method simultaneously determines annual trends in ice dynamics, surface mass balance anomalies, and a time-invariant solution for glacio-isostatic adjustment while remaining largely independent of forward models. We establish that over the period 2003-2013, Antarctica has been losing mass at a rate of -84 ± 22 Gt yr, with a sustained negative mean trend of dynamic imbalance of -111 ± 13 Gt yr. West Antarctica is the largest contributor with -112 ± 10 Gt yr, mainly triggered by high thinning rates of glaciers draining into the Amundsen Sea Embayment. The Antarctic Peninsula has experienced a dramatic increase in mass loss in the last decade, with a mean rate of -28 ± 7 Gt yr and significantly higher values for the most recent years following the destabilization of the Southern Antarctic Peninsula around 2010. The total mass loss is partly compensated by a significant mass gain of 56 ± 18 Gt yr in East Antarctica due to a positive trend of surface mass balance anomalies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015JF003550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4845667PMC
February 2016

Greenland supraglacial lake drainages triggered by hydrologically induced basal slip.

Nature 2015 Jun;522(7554):73-6

1] School of Land and Food, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 76, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia [2] School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK.

Water-driven fracture propagation beneath supraglacial lakes rapidly transports large volumes of surface meltwater to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet. These drainage events drive transient ice-sheet acceleration and establish conduits for additional surface-to-bed meltwater transport for the remainder of the melt season. Although it is well established that cracks must remain water-filled to propagate to the bed, the precise mechanisms that initiate hydro-fracture events beneath lakes are unknown. Here we show that, for a lake on the western Greenland Ice Sheet, drainage events are preceded by a 6-12 hour period of ice-sheet uplift and/or enhanced basal slip. Our observations from a dense Global Positioning System (GPS) network allow us to determine the distribution of meltwater at the ice-sheet bed before, during, and after three rapid drainages in 2011-2013, each of which generates tensile stresses that promote hydro-fracture beneath the lake. We hypothesize that these precursors are associated with the introduction of meltwater to the bed through neighbouring moulin systems (vertical conduits connecting the surface and base of the ice sheet). Our results imply that as lakes form in less crevassed, interior regions of the ice sheet, where water at the bed is currently less pervasive, the creation of new surface-to-bed conduits caused by lake-draining hydro-fractures may be limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14480DOI Listing
June 2015

Simulation of windblown dust transport from a mine tailings impoundment using a computational fluid dynamics model.

Aeolian Res 2014 Sep;14:75-83

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States.

Mining operations are potential sources of airborne particulate metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, due to potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Dust emissions and dispersion of dust and aerosol from the Iron King Mine tailings in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona, a Superfund site, are currently being investigated through in situ field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling. These tailings are heavily contaminated with lead and arsenic. Using a computational fluid dynamics model, we model dust transport from the mine tailings to the surrounding region. The model includes gaseous plume dispersion to simulate the transport of the fine aerosols, while individual particle transport is used to track the trajectories of larger particles and to monitor their deposition locations. In order to improve the accuracy of the dust transport simulations, both regional topographical features and local weather patterns have been incorporated into the model simulations. Results show that local topography and wind velocity profiles are the major factors that control deposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aeolia.2014.02.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4303573PMC
September 2014

Modeling the emission, transport and deposition of contaminated dust from a mine tailing site.

Rev Environ Health 2014 ;29(1-2):91-4

Mining operations are potential sources of airborne particulate metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, due to potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Dust emissions and dispersion of contaminants from the Iron King Mine tailings in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona, a Superfund site, are currently being investigated through in situ field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling. These tailings are significantly contaminated with lead and arsenic with an average soil concentration of 1616 and 1420 ppm, respectively. Similar levels of these contaminants have also been measured in soil samples taken from the area surrounding the mine tailings. Using a computational fluid dynamics model, we have been able to model dust transport from the mine tailings to the surrounding region. The model includes a distributed Eulerian model to simulate fine aerosol transport and a Lagrangian approach to model fate and transport of larger particles. In order to improve the accuracy of the dust transport simulations both regional topographical features and local weather patterns have been incorporated into the model simulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2014-0023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4012896PMC
September 2014

Greenland ice sheet motion insensitive to exceptional meltwater forcing.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Dec 18;110(49):19719-24. Epub 2013 Nov 18.

School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9XP, Scotland.

Changes to the dynamics of the Greenland ice sheet can be forced by various mechanisms including surface-melt-induced ice acceleration and oceanic forcing of marine-terminating glaciers. We use observations of ice motion to examine the surface melt-induced dynamic response of a land-terminating outlet glacier in southwest Greenland to the exceptional melting observed in 2012. During summer, meltwater generated on the Greenland ice sheet surface accesses the ice sheet bed, lubricating basal motion and resulting in periods of faster ice flow. However, the net impact of varying meltwater volumes upon seasonal and annual ice flow, and thus sea level rise, remains unclear. We show that two extreme melt events (98.6% of the Greenland ice sheet surface experienced melting on July 12, the most significant melt event since 1889, and 79.2% on July 29) and summer ice sheet runoff ~3.9 σ above the 1958-2011 mean resulted in enhanced summer ice motion relative to the average melt year of 2009. However, despite record summer melting, subsequent reduced winter ice motion resulted in 6% less net annual ice motion in 2012 than in 2009. Our findings suggest that surface melt-induced acceleration of land-terminating regions of the ice sheet will remain insignificant even under extreme melting scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1315843110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3856804PMC
December 2013

A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance.

Science 2012 Nov;338(6111):1183-9

School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agreement between different satellite methods--especially in Greenland and West Antarctica--and that combining satellite data sets leads to greater certainty. Between 1992 and 2011, the ice sheets of Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changed in mass by -142 ± 49, +14 ± 43, -65 ± 26, and -20 ± 14 gigatonnes year(-1), respectively. Since 1992, the polar ice sheets have contributed, on average, 0.59 ± 0.20 millimeter year(-1) to the rate of global sea-level rise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1228102DOI Listing
November 2012

Lower satellite-gravimetry estimates of Antarctic sea-level contribution.

Nature 2012 Nov 21;491(7425):586-9. Epub 2012 Oct 21.

School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK.

Recent estimates of Antarctica's present-day rate of ice-mass contribution to changes in sea level range from 31 gigatonnes a year (Gt yr(-1); ref. 1) to 246 Gt yr(-1) (ref. 2), a range that cannot be reconciled within formal errors. Time-varying rates of mass loss contribute to this, but substantial technique-specific systematic errors also exist. In particular, estimates of secular ice-mass change derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data are dominated by significant uncertainty in the accuracy of models of mass change due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Here we adopt a new model of GIA, developed from geological constraints, which produces GIA rates systematically lower than those of previous models, and an improved fit to independent uplift data. After applying the model to 99 months (from August 2002 to December 2010) of GRACE data, we estimate a continent-wide ice-mass change of -69 ± 18 Gt yr(-1) (+0.19 ± 0.05 mm yr(-1) sea-level equivalent). This is about a third to a half of the most recently published GRACE estimates, which cover a similar time period but are based on older GIA models. Plausible GIA model uncertainties, and errors relating to removing longitudinal GRACE artefacts ('destriping'), confine our estimate to the range -126 Gt yr(-1) to -29 Gt yr(-1) (0.08-0.35 mm yr(-1) sea-level equivalent). We resolve 26 independent drainage basins and find that Antarctic mass loss, and its acceleration, is concentrated in basins along the Amundsen Sea coast. Outside this region, we find that West Antarctica is nearly in balance and that East Antarctica is gaining substantial mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature11621DOI Listing
November 2012

Physical activity of children with and without long-term illness or disability.

J Phys Act Health 2011 Nov;8(8):1066-73

Dept. of Sport Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.

Background: We know very little about physical activity in children with long-term illness or disability compared with those children without disabilities. Previous studies indicate low physical activity levels among all adolescents.

Methods: The sample consisted of Canadian (n = 2720) and Finnish pupils (n = 3459) approximately 13.5 and 15.5 years of age in general (mainstreamed) education. The study is a part of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Nationally representative data were collected in 2002 using a standardized questionnaire. The moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity screening measure was used.

Results: Approximately one-fifth of the pupils in both countries had a long-term disability, illness or medical condition. In both countries boys and girls with a long-term illness or disability were equally physically inactive, and adolescents with a long-term illness or disability were as physically active as those without disabilities.

Conclusions: There is no difference between young people with and without long-term illness/disability, and between boys and girls, in relation to their physical activity. However, all of them fall short of recommended guidelines. This indicates that promoting a physically active lifestyle should be of high priority in the lives of young people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jpah.8.8.1066DOI Listing
November 2011

Emotional health of Canadian and Finnish students with disabilities or chronic conditions.

Int J Rehabil Res 2009 Jun;32(2):154-61

Social Program Evaluation Group, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the dimensions of emotional health in two population-based groups (Finland and Canada) of adolescents (ages 13 and 15 years) who self-identify as having a disability or chronic condition, as conceptualized by the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Data from the 2002 WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey were used to compare the prevalence of emotional health (items on feeling low, feeling nervous) within and between countries. Eighteen percent of the Canadian and Finnish samples indicated they had a long-time disability, illness or medical condition. Canadian adolescents with disability or chronic conditions felt low significantly more frequently than their classmates without disability or chronic conditions. In both countries, students with disabilities who had more than one functional difficulty were significantly more likely to report feeling low and nervous. These results illustrate that the severity of disability as measured by the number of functional difficulties, and not merely the presence of disability or chronic condition, or particular functional difficulties, may play an important role in the emotional health of adolescents. Health promotion programs may use this information to guide practice to support the emotional health of students with disabilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MRR.0b013e32831e452eDOI Listing
June 2009

Simultaneous teleseismic and geodetic observations of the stick-slip motion of an Antarctic ice stream.

Nature 2008 Jun;453(7196):770-4

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA.

Long-period seismic sources associated with glacier motion have been recently discovered, and an increase in ice flow over the past decade has been suggested on the basis of secular changes in such measurements. Their significance, however, remains uncertain, as a relationship to ice flow has not been confirmed by direct observation. Here we combine long-period surface-wave observations with simultaneous Global Positioning System measurements of ice displacement to study the tidally modulated stick-slip motion of the Whillans Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The seismic origin time corresponds to slip nucleation at a region of the bed of the Whillans Ice Stream that is likely stronger than in surrounding regions and, thus, acts like an 'asperity' in traditional fault models. In addition to the initial pulse, two seismic arrivals occurring 10-23 minutes later represent stopping phases as the slip terminates at the ice stream edge and the grounding line. Seismic amplitude and average rupture velocity are correlated with tidal amplitude for the different slip events during the spring-to-neap tidal cycle. Although the total seismic moment calculated from ice rigidity, slip displacement, and rupture area is equivalent to an earthquake of moment magnitude seven (M(w) 7), seismic amplitudes are modest (M(s) 3.6-4.2), owing to the source duration of 20-30 minutes. Seismic radiation from ice movement is proportional to the derivative of the moment rate function at periods of 25-100 seconds and very long-period radiation is not detected, owing to the source geometry. Long-period seismic waves are thus useful for detecting and studying sudden ice movements but are insensitive to the total amount of slip.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature06990DOI Listing
June 2008

Seasonal speedup along the western flank of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

Science 2008 May 17;320(5877):781-3. Epub 2008 Apr 17.

Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th Street, Seattle, WA 98105-6698, USA.

It has been widely hypothesized that a warmer climate in Greenland would increase the volume of lubricating surface meltwater reaching the ice-bedrock interface, accelerating ice flow and increasing mass loss. We have assembled a data set that provides a synoptic-scale view, spanning ice-sheet to outlet-glacier flow, with which to evaluate this hypothesis. On the ice sheet, these data reveal summer speedups (50 to 100%) consistent with, but somewhat larger than, earlier observations. The relative speedup of outlet glaciers, however, is far smaller (<15%). Furthermore, the dominant seasonal influence on Jakobshavn Isbrae's flow is the calving front's annual advance and retreat. With other effects producing outlet-glacier speedups an order of magnitude larger, seasonal melt's influence on ice flow is likely confined to those regions dominated by ice-sheet flow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1153288DOI Listing
May 2008

Fracture propagation to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet during supraglacial lake drainage.

Science 2008 May 17;320(5877):778-81. Epub 2008 Apr 17.

Department of Geology and Geophysics, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.

Surface meltwater that reaches the base of an ice sheet creates a mechanism for the rapid response of ice flow to climate change. The process whereby such a pathway is created through thick, cold ice has not, however, been previously observed. We describe the rapid (<2 hours) drainage of a large supraglacial lake down 980 meters through to the bed of the Greenland Ice Sheet initiated by water-driven fracture propagation evolving into moulin flow. Drainage coincided with increased seismicity, transient acceleration, ice-sheet uplift, and horizontal displacement. Subsidence and deceleration occurred over the subsequent 24 hours. The short-lived dynamic response suggests that an efficient drainage system dispersed the meltwater subglacially. The integrated effect of multiple lake drainages could explain the observed net regional summer ice speedup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1153360DOI Listing
May 2008

Tidally controlled stick-slip discharge of a West Antarctic ice.

Science 2003 Aug;301(5636):1087-9

Ocean and Ice Branch, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA.

A major West Antarctic ice stream discharges by sudden and brief periods of very rapid motion paced by oceanic tidal oscillations of about 1 meter. Acceleration to speeds greater than 1 meter per hour and deceleration back to a stationary state occur in minutes or less. Slip propagates at approximately 88 meters per second, suggestive of a shear wave traveling within the subglacial till. A model of an episodically slipping friction-locked fault reproduces the observed quasi-periodic event timing, demonstrating an ice stream's ability to change speed rapidly and its extreme sensitivity to subglacial conditions and variations in sea level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1087231DOI Listing
August 2003

Preserving the vital pulp in operative dentistry.

Authors:
Matt King

Dent Update 2003 Apr;30(3):159

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April 2003

Preserving the vital pulpin operative dentistry.

Authors:
Matt King

Dent Update 2002 Dec;29(10):514

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December 2002