Publications by authors named "Matt Hutchings"

2 Publications

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Toxicity reduction evaluation, toxicity identification evaluation and toxicity tracking in direct toxicity assessment.

Ecotoxicology 2004 Jul;13(5):475-84

AstraZeneca, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham Devon TQ5 8BA, UK.

Toxicity reduction evaluations (TREs) in the River Esk and Lower Tees Estuary were based on the approach described by USEPA, but adapted to tackle the specific problems of the two sites. A combination of toxicity tracking and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was used at both locations to enhance the understanding of source and type of toxicants present. The assessment of toxicity at Langholm focussed on pesticides present in the sewerage network. The TIE programme indicated that the most likely toxic agents within the effluent were the organophosphate pesticides diazinon and to lesser extent propetamphos, although these did not account for all of the observed toxicity. The exact source of these toxicants was not clear although toxicity tracking identified two potential candidates. The TRE undertaken on the discharge to the lower Tees utilised high-throughput methods with standard test organisms to generate toxicity information throughout a complex sewerage network. The toxicity tracking information was used in conjunction with TIEs to identify a number of key sources of toxicity. Substantial toxicity was associated with a currently untreated industrial effluent. Chemical analysis and TIE highlighted cyanide as the likely toxicant in this effluent and its possible significance in the final discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:ectx.0000035297.90620.73DOI Listing
July 2004

Bioassay selection, experimental design and quality control/assurance for use in effluent assessment and control.

Ecotoxicology 2004 Jul;13(5):437-47

WRc-NSF, Henley Road, Medmenham, Marlow, Buckinghamshire, SL7 2HD, UK.

In the UK Direct Toxicity Assessment Programme, carried out in 1998-2000, a series of internationally recognised short-term toxicity test methods for algae, invertebrates and fishes, and rapid methods (ECLOX and Microtox) were used extensively. Abbreviated versions of conventional tests (algal growth inhibition tests, Daphnia magna immobilisation test and the oyster embryo-larval development test) were valuable for toxicity screening of effluent discharges and the identification of causes and sources of toxicity. Rapid methods based on chemiluminescence and bioluminescence were not generally useful in this programme, but may have a role where the rapid test has been shown to be an acceptable surrogate for a standardised test method. A range of quality assurance and control measures were identified. Requirements for quality control/assurance are most stringent when deriving data for characterising the toxic hazards of effluents and monitoring compliance against a toxicity reduction target. Lower quality control/assurance requirements can be applied to discharge screening and the identification of causes and sources of toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:ectx.0000035294.15964.9aDOI Listing
July 2004