Publications by authors named "Mats Jerkeman"

123 Publications

Clinical and biological impact of SAMHD1 expression in mantle cell lymphoma.

Virchows Arch 2021 Nov 4. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Div. of Pathology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, SE14186, Stockholm, Sweden.

SAMHD1 is a deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase) that restricts viral replication in infected cells and limits the sensitivity to cytarabine by hydrolysing its active metabolite, as recently shown in acute myeloid leukemia. Cytarabine is an essential component in the Nordic mantle cell lymphoma protocols (MCL2 and MCL3) for induction and high-dose chemotherapy treatment before autologous stem cell transplantation for younger patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). We here investigated the expression of SAMHD1 in a population-based cohort of MCL (N = 150). SAMHD1 was highly variably expressed in MCL (range, 0.4% to 100% of positive tumor cells). Cases with blastoid/pleomorphic morphology had higher SAMHD1 expression (P = 0.028) and SAMHD1 was also correlated to tumor cell proliferation (P = 0.016). SAMHD1 expression showed moderate correlation to the expression of the transcriptional regulator SOX11 (P = 0.036) but genetic silencing of SOX11 and SAMHD1 by siRNA in MCL cell lines did not suggest mutual regulation. We hypothesized that expression of SAMHD1 could predict short time to progression in patients treated with Cytarabine as part of high-dose chemotherapy. Despite the correlation with known biological adverse prognostic factors, neither low or high SAMHD1 expression correlated to PFS or OS in patients treated according to the Nordic MCL2 or MCL3 protocols (N = 158).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-021-03228-wDOI Listing
November 2021

Pre-treatment health-related quality of life parameters have prognostic impact in patients >65 years with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: The Nordic Lymphoma Group MCL4 (LENA-BERIT) experience.

Hematol Oncol 2021 Oct 28. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Division of Oncology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare, often aggressive type of B-cell lymphoma with poor survival and no cure. Cancer and cancer treatment has a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) both during active disease and in the long term, and improvement of HRQOL is a crucial objective of cancer therapy in older patients and no curative intent. Baseline HRQOL has in other lymphoma populations been shown to be predictive of outcome. Here, we explored HRQOL, and its association with survival, by the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire, before, during and after chemotherapy in a patient cohort with MCL, treated within the NLG-MCL4 trial, designed to evaluate the addition of lenalidomide (LEN) to rituximab-bendamustine (R-B) as first-line treatment. Fifty-one patients were enrolled, median age was 71 years (range 62-84), 37 were men (73%). Pre-treatment HRQOL was similar to scores from the reference population with healthy individuals. During treatment, HRQOL deteriorated, but reverted to the same level as the reference population after treatment. There was a correlation between physical function (p = 0.001) and role function (p = 0.006) at baseline and WHO performance status, but not with other clinical or genetic prognostic factors. None of the baseline factors were predictive for treatment related to HRQOL in this cohort. Pre-treatment physical (p = 0.011) and role function (p = 0.032) were independent factors associated with overall survival, and physical function (p = 0.002) was also associated with progression free survival. These findings may possibly be used to design support during treatment and improve rehabilitation. Further investigations are needed for assessment of long-term HRQOL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2940DOI Listing
October 2021

HIGH-RISK SUBTYPES OF CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA ARE DETECTABLE AS EARLY AS 16 YEARS PRIOR TO DIAGNOSIS.

Blood 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is preceded by monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL), a CLL precursor state with a prevalence of up to 12% in aged individuals. However, the duration of MBL and the mechanisms of its evolution to CLL remain largely unknown. In this study, we sequenced the B-cell receptor immunoglobulin heavy chain (BcR IGH) gene repertoire of 124 CLL patients and 118 matched controls in blood samples taken up to 22 years prior to diagnosis. Significant skewing in the BcR IGH gene repertoire was detected in the majority of patients, even before the occurrence of lymphocytosis and irrespective of the clonotypic IGH variable gene somatic hypermutation status. Furthermore, in 14 CLL patients we identified dominant clonotypes belonging to major stereotyped subsets associated with poor prognosis up to 16 years before diagnosis. In 22 patients with longitudinal samples, the skewing of the BcR IGH gene repertoire increased significantly over time to diagnosis or remained stable at high levels. For 14/16 patients with available samples at diagnosis, the CLL clonotype was already present in the pre-diagnostic samples. Overall, our data indicate that the pre-clinical phase of CLL could be longer than previously thought, even in adverse-prognostic cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021012890DOI Listing
October 2021

Advances in immune therapies in hematological malignancies.

J Intern Med 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Oncology, Skane University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Immunotherapy in cancer takes advantage of the exquisite specificity, potency, and flexibility of the immune system to eliminate alien tumor cells. It involves strategies to activate the entire immune defense, by unlocking mechanisms developed by tumor cells to escape from surrounding immune cells, as well as engineered antibody and cellular therapies. What is important to note is that these are therapeutics with curative potential. The earliest example of immune therapy is allogeneic stem cell transplantation, introduced in 1957, which is still an important modality in hematology, most notably in myeloid malignancies. In this review, we discuss developmental trends of immunotherapy in hematological malignancies, focusing on some of the strategies that we believe will have the most impact on future clinical practice in this field. In particular, we delineate novel developments for therapies that have already been introduced into the clinic, such as immune checkpoint inhibition and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of emerging strategies based on T-cell receptors and adoptive transfer of allogeneic natural killer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joim.13395DOI Listing
October 2021

Impact of comorbidity in elderly patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma: an international retrospective analysis of 891 patients.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive neoplasms with poor outcomes, commonly affecting elderly patients with comorbidities. This study aims to describe outcomes of elderly PTCL patients in a large international cohort. Patients aged ≥ 70 years with PTCL diagnosed from January 1, 2010 - December 31, 2015 in the Swedish Lymphoma Registry (SLR) and California Cancer Registry (CCR) were identified. Data on comorbidity were retrospectively collected according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and clinical outcomes were extracted. 891 patients were included (SLR, n = 173, CCR, n = 718). Median age was 77 (SLR) and 78 (CCR) years. Included subtypes were AITL, n = 226; ALCL, n = 122; EATL, n = 31; Hepatosplenic TCL, n = 7; NK/T-cell lymphoma, n = 62; and PTCL NOS, n = 443. CCI data was available in 775 patients (87 %), and CCI scores were divided into the groups CCI = 0 (39 %), CCI = 1 (22 %) and CCI > 1 (39 %). Median age did not differ between the CCI groups (p = 0.72). Patients with a CCI > 1 had a worse median overall survival (OS) (4.4 months) compared to patients with CCI = 0 (11.9 months) and CCI = 1 (8.4 months), p < 0.001. Comorbidity and advancing age in as little as 5-year increments are important adverse factors in this group. The majority of patients died of lymphoma within a year from diagnosis, underscoring the importance of developing new treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004269DOI Listing
September 2021

American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, Center of International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Clinical Practice Recommendations for Transplantation and Cellular Therapies in Mantle Cell Lymphoma.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 09;27(9):720-728

Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Autologous (auto-) and allogeneic (allo-) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are accepted treatment modalities in contemporary treatment algorithms for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy recently received approval for MCL; however, its exact place and sequence in relation to HCT remain unclear. The American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, Center of International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, and the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation jointly convened an expert panel to formulate consensus recommendations for role, timing, and sequencing of auto-HCT, allo-HCT, and CAR T cell therapy for patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory (R/R) MCL. The RAND-modified Delphi method was used to generate consensus statements. Seventeen consensus statements were generated, with a few key statements as follows: in the first line setting, auto-HCT consolidation represents standard of care in eligible patients, whereas there is no clear role of allo-HCT or CAR T cell therapy outside of clinical trials. In the R/R setting, the preferential option is CAR T cell therapy, especially in patients with MCL failing or intolerant to at least one Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, while allo-HCT is recommended if CAR T cell therapy fails or is infeasible. Several recommendations were based on expert opinion, where the panel developed consensus statements for important real-world clinical scenarios to guide clinical practice. In the absence of contemporary evidence-based data, the panel found RAND-modified Delphi methodology effective in providing a formal framework for developing consensus recommendations for the timing and sequence of cellular therapies for MCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447221PMC
September 2021

ASTCT, CIBMTR, and EBMT clinical practice recommendations for transplant and cellular therapies in mantle cell lymphoma.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Autologous (auto-) or allogeneic (allo-) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are accepted treatment modalities for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Recently, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy received approval for MCL; however, its exact place and sequence in relation to HCT is unclear. The ASTCT, CIBMTR, and the EBMT, jointly convened an expert panel to formulate consensus recommendations for role, timing, and sequencing of auto-, allo-HCT, and CAR T-cell therapy for patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory (R/R) MCL. The RAND-modified Delphi method was used to generate consensus statements. Seventeen consensus statements were generated; in the first-line setting auto-HCT consolidation represents standard-of-care in eligible patients, whereas there is no clear role of allo-HCT or CAR T-cell therapy, outside of a clinical trial. In the R/R setting, the preferential option is CAR T-cell therapy especially in MCL failing or intolerant to at least one Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, while allo-HCT is recommended if CAR T-cell therapy has failed or is not feasible. In the absence of contemporary evidence-based data, the panel found RAND-modified Delphi methodology effective in providing a formal framework for developing consensus recommendations for the timing and sequence of cellular therapies for MCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01288-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Serum proteome modulations upon treatment provides biological insight on response to treatment in relapsed mantle cell lymphoma.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 Jul 28:e1524. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Immunotechnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: The possibility to monitor patient's serum proteome during treatment can provide deepened understanding of the biology associated with response to specific drugs. Non-invasive serum sampling provides an opportunity for sustainable repetitive sampling of patients, which allows for more frequent evaluation of the biological response and enhanced flexibility in treatment selection in contrast to tissue biopsies.

Aim: To pin-point biologically relevant changes in pre- and on-treatment serum proteome samples in relapsed mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients, leading to insight into mechanisms behind response to treatment in sub-groups of patients.

Methods: Pre- and on-treatment serum samples from relapsed MCL patients treated with a triple combination therapy of rituximab, ibrutinib and lenalidomide were available for the study, together with detailed clinicopathological information. A microarray technology targeting 158 serum proteins using 371 antibody-fragments was used to compare the serum proteome at the two time-points.

Results: Proteins modulated by the treatment were shown to be associated to a MCL sub-group with ATM/TP53 alterations, which emphasizes the importance of treatment stratification. Absolute values of serum protein levels in on-treatment samples were highly variable and showed no correlation to outcome. To circumvent the challenge of variability in absolute serum protein levels, the velocity of change of individual serum proteins was used to identify proteins associated with clinical response. Increased values of TGF-β1, CD40 and complement component 4 comparing pre- and on-treatment samples were associated with remaining minimal residual disease (MRD) and increased BTK was associated with short progression-free survival (PFS).

Conclusion: We show that the genetic sub-type of MCL affects the biological response to treatment in serum and that the change in defined serum proteins reveals the biology associated with clinical response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cnr2.1524DOI Listing
July 2021

Expression patterns and prognostic potential of circular RNAs in mantle cell lymphoma: a study of younger patients from the MCL2 and MCL3 clinical trials.

Leukemia 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Hematology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by marked differences in outcome, emphasizing the need for strong prognostic biomarkers. Here, we explore expression patterns and prognostic relevance of circular RNAs (circRNAs), a group of endogenous non-coding RNA molecules, in MCL. We profiled the circRNA expression landscape using RNA-sequencing and explored the prognostic potential of 40 abundant circRNAs in samples from the Nordic MCL2 and MCL3 clinical trials, using NanoString nCounter Technology. We report a circRNA-based signature (circSCORE) developed in the training cohort MCL2 that is highly predictive of time to progression (TTP) and lymphoma-specific survival (LSS). The dismal outcome observed in the large proportion of patients assigned to the circSCORE high-risk group was confirmed in the independent validation cohort MCL3, both in terms of TTP (HR 3.0; P = 0.0004) and LSS (HR 3.6; P = 0.001). In Cox multiple regression analysis incorporating MIPI, Ki67 index, blastoid morphology and presence of TP53 mutations, circSCORE retained prognostic significance for TTP (HR 3.2; P = 0.01) and LSS (HR 4.6; P = 0.01). In conclusion, circRNAs are promising prognostic biomarkers in MCL and circSCORE improves identification of high-risk disease among younger patients treated with cytarabine-containing chemoimmunotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01311-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Targeted genomic investigations in a population-based cohort of mantle cell lymphoma reveal novel clinically relevant targets.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 11 3;62(11):2637-2647. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Division of Oncology and Pathology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm that follows a heterogeneous clinical course. Recurrent mutations have been described, but their applicability in the clinical setting is currently limited. The main reasons are challenges in the sequencing of DNA retrieved from formalin-fixed tissue commonly used for tissue collection in clinical biobanks. In this study, we sequenced 77 samples from a population-based MCL cohort to investigate the utility of targeted sequencing in guiding personalized treatment approaches. Tumors were genetically variable, and a similar genetic landscape as previous studies using non-formalin fixed samples was identified, with recurrent mutations including and . Novel alterations that can be considered actionable and/or indicative of treatment response were also identified. Our approach shows the potential benefits of using target sequencing of formalin fixed samples to facilitate treatment selection and individualized clinical decisions in MCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1933480DOI Listing
November 2021

Unmarried or less-educated patients with mantle cell lymphoma are less likely to undergo a transplant, leading to lower survival.

Blood Adv 2021 03;5(6):1638-1647

Clinical Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

It is unknown how many mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients undergo consolidation with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT), and the reasons governing the decision, are also unknown. The prognostic impact of omitting AHCT is also understudied. We identified all MCL patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2014, aged 18 to 65 years, in the Swedish Lymphoma Register. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression models were used to compare the likelihood of AHCT within 18 months of diagnosis. All-cause mortality was compared between patients treated with/without AHCT using hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs estimated from Cox regression models. Probabilities of being in each of the following states: alive without AHCT, alive with AHCT, dead before AHCT, and dead after AHCT, were estimated over time from an illness-death model. Among 369 patients, 148 (40%) were not treated with AHCT within 18 months. Compared with married patients, never married and divorced patients had lower likelihood of undergoing AHCT, as had patients with lower educational level, and comorbid patients. Receiving AHCT was associated with reduced all-cause mortality (HR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.40-0.85). Transplantation-related mortality was low (2%). MCL patients not receiving an AHCT had an increased mortality rate, and furthermore, an undue concern about performing an AHCT in certain societal groups was seen. Improvements in supportive functions potentially increasing the likelihood of tolerating an AHCT and introduction of more tolerable treatments for these groups are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993102PMC
March 2021

How should we use ibrutinib in patients with mantle cell lymphoma?

Authors:
Mats Jerkeman

Br J Haematol 2021 05 10;193(3):445-446. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Oncology, Skane University Hospital and Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17364DOI Listing
May 2021

Infiltration of CD163-, PD-L1- and FoxP3-positive cells adversely affects outcome in patients with mantle cell lymphoma independent of established risk factors.

Br J Haematol 2021 05 8;193(3):520-531. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and Experimental Oncology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

We characterised patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) with poor prognosis based on differences in immune infiltration. Different expressions of the tumour cell markers Cyclin D1 and sex-determining region Y-box transcription factor 11 (SOX11), and the immune markers cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), CD4, CD8, CD25, forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3), T-box transcription factor TBX21 (T-bet), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and CD163 were investigated for all-cause mortality in 282 patients with MCL and time-to-progression (TTP) in 106 clinical trial patients. With increasing age, a significantly lower infiltration of CD3 T lymphocytes was seen. T-cell infiltration was independent of cellular tumour antigen p53 (p53) expression, Ki-67, morphology and frequency of tumour cells. The all-cause mortality was higher in patients with PD-L1-expression above cut-off [hazard ratio (HR) 1·97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·18-3·25, adjusted for sex and MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI)] and a higher frequency of CD163 cells (continuously, HR 1·51, 95% CI 1·03-2·23, adjusting for age, sex, morphology, Ki-67 and p53). In patients treated within the Nordic Lymphoma Group MCL2/3 trials, TTP was shorter in patients with a higher frequency of FoxP3 cells (HR 3·22, 95% CI 1·40-7·43) and CD163 cells (HR 6·09, 95% CI 1·84-20·21), independent of sex and MIPI. When combined a higher frequency of CD163 macrophages and PD-L1 cells or high CD163 macrophages and FoxP3 regulatory T cells indicated worse outcome independent of established risk factors. The T-cell infiltrate was in turn independent of molecular characteristics of the malignant cells and decreased with age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17366DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical Characteristics and Histopathological Patterns of Hodgkin Lymphoma and Treatment Outcomes at a Tertiary Cancer Center in Ethiopia.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 02;7:277-288

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Purpose: In developing countries, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) affects the young population. In Ethiopia, nearly 70% of the population are < 35 years of age. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate the age distribution, histopathologic patterns, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of HL in Ethiopia.

Materials And Methods: Data from clinical records of 133 consecutive patients with HL between 2014 and 2019 were reviewed and collected. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of HL cases were collected and used for subtype classification.

Results: A total of 68.4% (91) of the patients were male; male-to-female ratio was 2.2:1. The median age was 22 years. The age distribution was 57.1% (76), 30.8% (41), and 2.3% (3) for the age groups (10-29), (30-59), and (60-69) years, respectively. Thirteen percent (12) were associated with HIV. The majority of the cases, 50.4% (67), were of the mixed-cellularity (MCCHL) subtypes and 30% (40) nodular-sclerosis (NSCCHL). Most HIV-associated cases (60%, 6) were of the MCHL subtype. The 4-year overall survival (OS) was 83.1%. The 4-year OS of early-stage patients was 100% and advanced-stage patients with low-risk (International Prognostic Score [IPS] ≤ 2) and high-risk (IPS ≥ 3) were 94.1% and 62.9%, respectively. All patients who received combined-therapy survived, whereas those who received doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine only showed a 4-year OS rate of 77.9%.

Conclusion: HL affects the youngest and most productive population in Ethiopia. The treatment outcome is favorable in both HIV-associated and non-HIV-associated HL. However, the study population was likely a highly selected group as the majority of the Ethiopian population do not have access to specialized care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/GO.20.00391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081535PMC
February 2021

Detecting deviations from the efficacy and safety results of single-arm trials using real-world data: The case of a CAR-T cell therapy in B-cell lymphoma.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2021 04 20;30(4):514-519. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Hematology, Clinical Cancer Research Center, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark.

Purpose: Personalized therapies are leading to an increasing number of marketing authorizations based on single-arm trials, which increases the demand for better post-authorization monitoring strategies. The aim of the present study was to estimate the power over time as data accrue in population-based registries for detecting deviations from the expected efficacy/safety of chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy approved for relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma (RR-LBCL).

Methods: The number of real-world RR-LBCL patients was projected over time in a general population of 5, 15, and 25 million citizens using lymphoma registry data. For each scenario, we computed the power over time for detecting significant deviations in efficacy (1-year overall survival [1yOS]) when comparing to historical controls (SCHOLAR-1 study; 1yOS, 28%) and RR-LBCL patients treated with CAR-T cell therapy in a single-arm trial (ZUMA-1; 1yOS, 59%) as well as deviations in selected adverse events (grade ≥3 aphasia) from the ZUMA-1 trial. We assumed a 10% absolute deviation in 1yOS (efficacy) and a relative increase of 50% in grade ≥3 aphasia (safety).

Results: Assuming a general population of 5, 15, and 25 million, the accrual time needed to achieve 80% power for detecting a significant increase over the 1yOS reported in SCHOLAR-1 was 9, 4, and 3 years, respectively, while 80% power for detecting a significant decrease in 1yOS compared to ZUMA-1 required 10.5, 4.5, and 3 years of data accrual, respectively. However, corresponding estimates for aphasia were >20, 8, and 5 years, respectively.

Conclusions: Projections of the statistical power for detecting important deviations in efficacy/safety from that reported in pivotal clinical trials(s) provide critical information about the expected performance of post-authorization monitoring programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pds.5195DOI Listing
April 2021

Incidence of relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) including CNS relapse in a population-based cohort of 4243 patients in Sweden.

Blood Cancer J 2021 01 7;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

We performed a national population-based study of all patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in Sweden in 2007-2014 to assess treatment intent and risk of relapsed/refractory disease, including central nervous system (CNS) relapse, in the presence of competing risks. Overall, 84% of patients started treatment with curative intent (anthracycline-based) (n = 3550, median age 69 years), whereas 14% did not (n = 594, median age 84 years) (for 2% the intent was uncertain). Patients treated with curative intent had a 5-year OS of 65.3% (95% CI: 63.7-66.9). The median OS among non-curatively treated patients was 2.9 months. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapsed/refractory disease in curative patients was 23.1% (95% CI: 21.7-24.6, n = 847). The 2-year cumulative incidence of CNS relapse was 3.0% (95% CI: 2.5-3.6, n = 118) overall, and 8.0% (95% CI: 6.0-10.6, n = 48) among patients with high CNS-IPI (4-6), when considering other relapse locations and death as competing events. The incidence of relapsed/refractory DLBCL overall and in the CNS was lower than in previous reports, still one in seven patients was not considered fit enough to start standard immunochemotherapy at diagnosis. These results are important for quantification of groups of DLBCL patients with poor prognosis requiring completely different types of interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00403-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791057PMC
January 2021

Detailed Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients Who Relapsed After the Nordic Mantle Cell Lymphoma Trials: MCL2 and MCL3.

Hemasphere 2021 Jan 21;5(1):e510. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Haematology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an incurable disease with a highly variable clinical course. The prognosis after relapse is generally poor, and no standard of care exists. We investigated the postrelapse outcomes of 149 patients who were initially treated in the Nordic Lymphoma Group trials, MCL2 or MCL3, both representing intensive cytarabine-containing frontline regimens including autologous stem cell transplant. Patients with progression of disease before 24 months (POD24, n = 51, 34%) displayed a median overall survival of 6.6 months compared with 46 months for patients with later POD (n = 98, 66%; < 0.001). MCL international prognostic index, cell proliferation marker, blastoid morphology, and mutations showed independent prognostic value irrespective of POD24, and in a combined, exploratory risk score, patients with 0, 1, 2-3, or 4-5 high-risk markers, respectively, displayed a 5-year overall survival of 62%, 39%, 31%, and 0%. By a comparison of median progression-free survival of the different salvage therapies in the relapse setting, bendamustine-rituximab was superior to all other combination chemotherapy regimens; however, it was also associated with longer responses to last line of therapy. Collectively, we confirm the prognostic impact of POD24 and highlight the relevance of other biomarkers, and we emphasize the importance of novel therapies for patients with high-risk features at first POD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755521PMC
January 2021

Immune-related protein signature in serum stratify relapsed mantle cell lymphoma patients based on risk.

BMC Cancer 2020 Dec 7;20(1):1202. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Immunotechnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Response to modern treatment strategies, which combine cytotoxic compounds with immune stimulatory agents and targeted treatment is highly variable among MCL patients. Thus, providing prognostic and predictive markers for risk adapted therapy is warranted and molecular information that can help in patient stratification is a necessity. In relapsed MCL, biopsies are rarely available and molecular information from tumor tissue is often lacking. Today, the main tool to access risk is the MCL international prognostic index (MIPI), which does not include detailed biological information of relevance for different treatment options. To enable continuous monitoring of patients, non-invasive companion diagnostic tools are needed which can further reduce cost and patient distress and enable efficient measurements of biological markers.

Methods: We have assessed if serum-based protein profiling can identify immune related proteins that stratify relapsed MCL patients based on risk. Overall, 371 scFv targeting 158 proteins were assessed using an antibody microarray platform. We profiled patients (n = 44) who had been treated within the MCL6-Philemon trial combining targeted and immune-modulatory treatment.

Results: The downstream processing led to the identification of the relapsed immune signature (RIS) consisting of 11 proteins with potential to stratify patients with long and short overall survival (OS). Moreover, in this population, MIPI alone failed to separate high, intermediate and low risk patients, but a combined index based on MIPI together with RIS, MIPI, showed improved performance and significantly stratified all three risk groups based on OS.

Conclusions: Our results show that addition of biological parameters to previous prognostic indices improves patient stratification among patients treated with BTK inhibitor triplet combination, particularly, in the identification of an extreme high risk group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07678-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720632PMC
December 2020

Association between anthropometry and lifestyle factors and risk of B-cell lymphoma: An exposome-wide analysis.

Int J Cancer 2021 05 12;148(9):2115-2128. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Oncology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

To better understand the role of individual and lifestyle factors in human disease, an exposome-wide association study was performed to investigate within a single-study anthropometry measures and lifestyle factors previously associated with B-cell lymphoma (BCL). Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study, 2402 incident BCL cases were diagnosed from 475 426 participants that were followed-up on average 14 years. Standard and penalized Cox regression models as well as principal component analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate 84 exposures in relation to BCL risk. Standard and penalized Cox regression models showed a positive association between anthropometric measures and BCL and multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm (MM). The penalized Cox models additionally showed the association between several exposures from categories of physical activity, smoking status, medical history, socioeconomic position, diet and BCL and/or the subtypes. PCAs confirmed the individual associations but also showed additional observations. The PC5 including anthropometry, was positively associated with BCL, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and MM. There was a significant positive association between consumption of sugar and confectionary (PC11) and follicular lymphoma risk, and an inverse association between fish and shellfish and Vitamin D (PC15) and DLBCL risk. The PC1 including features of the Mediterranean diet and diet with lower inflammatory score showed an inverse association with BCL risk, while the PC7, including dairy, was positively associated with BCL and DLBCL risk. Physical activity (PC10) was positively associated with DLBCL risk among women. This study provided informative insights on the etiology of BCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8048490PMC
May 2021

p53 is associated with high-risk and pinpoints TP53 missense mutations in mantle cell lymphoma.

Br J Haematol 2020 12 4;191(5):796-805. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Immunotechnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Survival for patients diagnosed with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has improved drastically in recent years. However, patients carrying mutations in tumour protein p53 (TP53) do not benefit from modern chemotherapy-based treatments and have poor prognosis. Thus, there is a clinical need to identify missense mutations through routine analysis to enable patient stratification. Sequencing is not widely implemented in clinical practice for MCL, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a feasible alternative to identify high-risk patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of p53 as a tool to identify patients with TP53 missense mutations and the prognostic impact of overexpression and mutations in a Swedish population-based cohort. In total, 317 cases were investigated using IHC and 255 cases were sequenced, enabling analysis of p53 and TP53 status among 137 cases divided over the two-cohort investigated. The accuracy of predicting missense mutations from protein expression was 82%, with sensitivity at 82% and specificity at 100% in paired samples. We further show the impact of p53 expression and TP53 mutations on survival (hazard ratio of 3·1 in univariate analysis for both), and the association to risk factors, such as high MCL International Prognostic Index, blastoid morphology and proliferation, in a population-based setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754513PMC
December 2020

National e-library for standardized chemotherapy regimens.

Acta Oncol 2020 Sep 13;59(9):1079-1083. Epub 2020 May 13.

Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Department of Design Sciences, Faculty of Engineering LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2020.1764097DOI Listing
September 2020

Patients with high-risk DLBCL benefit from dose-dense immunochemotherapy combined with early systemic CNS prophylaxis.

Blood Adv 2020 05;4(9):1906-1915

Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital and KG Jebsen Centre for B Cell Malignancies, Oslo, Norway.

Survival of patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is suboptimal, and the risk of central nervous system (CNS) progression is relatively high. We conducted a phase 2 trial in 139 patients aged 18 to 64 years who had primary DLBCL with an age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (aaIPI) score of 2 to 3 or site-specific risk factors for CNS recurrence. The goal was to assess whether a dose-dense immunochemotherapy with early systemic CNS prophylaxis improves the outcome and reduces the incidence of CNS events. Treatment consisted of 2 courses of high-dose methotrexate in combination with biweekly rituximab (R), cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP-14), followed by 4 courses of R-CHOP-14 with etoposide (R-CHOEP) and 1 course of high-dose cytarabine with R. In addition, liposomal cytarabine was administered intrathecally at courses 1, 3, and 5. Coprimary endpoints were failure-free survival and CNS progression rates. Thirty-six (26%) patients experienced treatment failure. Progression occurred in 23 (16%) patients, including three (2.2%) CNS events. At 5 years of median follow-up, failure-free survival, overall survival, and CNS progression rates were 74%, 83%, and 2.3%, respectively. Treatment reduced the risk of progression compared with our previous trial, in which systemic CNS prophylaxis was given after 6 courses of biweekly R-CHOEP (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.31-0.77; P = .002) and overcame the adverse impact of an aaIPI score of 3 on survival. In addition, outcome of the patients with BCL2/MYC double-hit lymphomas was comparable to the patients without the rearrangements. The results are encouraging, with a low toxic death rate, low number of CNS events, and favorable survival rates. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01325194.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218416PMC
May 2020

Outcome and determinants of failure to complete primary R-CHOP treatment for reasons other than non-response among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Am J Hematol 2020 07 3;95(7):740-748. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who fail to complete planned treatment with R-CHOP due to toxicity are sparsely described. We investigated the extent of failure to complete treatment (six cycles or more, or three cycles + RT for patients with stage I disease) with R-CHOP for reasons unrelated to non-response, the determinants of such failure and the outcome among these patients. Three thousand one hundred and forty nine adult DLBCL patients who started primary treatment with R-CHOP were identified through the Swedish lymphoma register 2007-2014. Of these, 147 (5%) stopped prematurely after 1-3 cycles of R-CHOP for reasons unrelated to non-response, 168 (5%) after 4-5 cycles and 2639 patients (84%) completed planned treatment. Additionally, 195 (6%) patients did not complete treatment due to non-response or death before treatment end. In a multivariable logistic regression model, age > 75 years, poor performance status, extranodal disease and Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥1 were significantly associated with failure to complete planned R-CHOP treatment for other reasons than non-response. Non-completion of treatment strongly correlated with survival. Five-year overall survival for patients who received 1-3 cycles was 26% (95% CI: 19%-33%), 49% (95% CI: 41%-57%) for 4-5 cycles and 76% (74%-77%) for patients who completed treatment. Failure to complete planned R-CHOP treatment is an important clinical issue associated with inferior survival. Old age and poor performance status most strongly predict such failure. These results indicate a need for improved treatment tailoring for patients with certain baseline demographics to improve tolerability and chance for treatment completion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25789DOI Listing
July 2020

Healthy lifestyle and the risk of lymphoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

Int J Cancer 2020 09 30;147(6):1649-1656. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Radiation Sciences and Oncology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Limited evidence exists on the role of modifiable lifestyle factors on the risk of lymphoma. In this work, the associations between adherence to healthy lifestyles and risks of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) were evaluated in a large-scale European prospective cohort. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 2,999 incident lymphoma cases (132 HL and 2,746 NHL) were diagnosed among 453,808 participants after 15 years (median) of follow-up. The healthy lifestyle index (HLI) score combined information on smoking, alcohol intake, diet, physical activity and BMI, with large values of HLI expressing adherence to healthy behavior. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate lymphoma hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Sensitivity analyses were conducted by excluding, in turn, each lifestyle factor from the HLI score. The HLI was inversely associated with HL, with HR for a 1-standard deviation (SD) increment in the score equal to 0.78 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.94). Sensitivity analyses showed that the association was mainly driven by smoking and marginally by diet. NHL risk was not associated with the HLI, with HRs for a 1-SD increment equal to 0.99 (0.95, 1.03), with no evidence for heterogeneity in the association across NHL subtypes. In the EPIC study, adherence to healthy lifestyles was not associated with overall lymphoma or NHL risk, while an inverse association was observed for HL, although this was largely attributable to smoking. These findings suggest a limited role of lifestyle factors in the etiology of lymphoma subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32977DOI Listing
September 2020

Detection of HPV mRNA in Self-collected Vaginal Samples Among Urban Ethiopian Women.

Anticancer Res 2020 Mar;40(3):1513-1517

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background/aim: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in Ethiopia. The objective was to evaluate the participation rate of a free of charge vaginal self-sample (Aptima multitest swab, Hologic) for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in an Ethiopian cohort.

Patients And Methods: Specimens were collected from women employed by Ethiopian Airlines in Addis Abeba (N=5950). Samples were analysed for the presence of high-risk (HR) HPV mRNA by the Aptima HPV assay (Hologic) and HPV positive women were referred for cytology. Identification of HPV types among HPV positive samples was performed by Modified general primer-PCR and Luminex assay.

Results: Participation rate was 3.1% and the prevalence of HPV mRNA was 20.6% (37/180).

Conclusion: Primary HPV mRNA screening with vaginal self-sampling may be an acceptable approach in Ethiopia. One out of five women harbor HPV in their vaginal self-sample in agreement with other similar studies from the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14096DOI Listing
March 2020

Mantle Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue: A European Mantle Cell Lymphoma Network Study.

Hemasphere 2020 Feb 16;4(1):e302. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Division of Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

While classical nodal mantle cell lymphoma (cMCL) is often associated with involvement of multiple extranodal sites, isolated extranodal disease (ED) at the time of diagnosis is a rare event; data on the outcome of these forms are lacking. On behalf of the European MCL Network, we conducted a retrospective analysis on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of MCL presenting with isolated or predominant ED (MALT MCL). We collected data on 127 patients with MALT MCL diagnosed from 1998 to 2015: 78 patients (61%) were male with a median age of 65 years. The involved sites include: upper airways + Waldeyer ring (40; 32%), gastrointestinal tract (32; 25%), ocular adnexa (17; 13%), oral cavity and salivary glands (17; 13%) and others (13; 1%); 7 patients showed multiple extranodal sites. The median follow-up was 80 months (range: 6-182), 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 45% (95% CI: 35-54) and 5-year overall survival (OS) was 71% (95% CI: 62-79). In an explorative setting, we compared MALT MCL with a group of 128 cMCL patients: MALT MCL patients showed a significantly longer PFS and OS compared with nodal cMCL; with a median PFS of 4.5 years vs 2.8 years (p = 0.001) and median OS of 9.8 years vs 6.9 years (p = 0.018), respectively. Patients with MALT MCL at diagnosis showed a more favorable prognosis and indolent course than classical nodal type. This clinical variant of MCL should be acknowledged to avoid possible over-treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000480PMC
February 2020
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