Publications by authors named "Matija Kozak"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reduced-dose intravenous thrombolysis for acute intermediate high-risk pulmonary embolism: Rationale and design of the PEITHO-3 trial.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France.

Intermediate high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is characterised by right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and elevated circulating cardiac troponin levels despite apparent haemodynamic stability at presentation. In these patients, full-dose systemic thrombolysis reduced the risk of haemodynamic decompensation or death but increased the risk of life-threatening bleeding. Reduced-dose thrombolysis may be capable of improving safety while maintaining reperfusion efficacy. The Pulmonary Embolism International Trial (PEITHO)-3 study (EudraCT 2018-000816-96) is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre, multinational trial with long-term follow-up. We will compare the efficacy and safety of a reduced-dose alteplase regimen with standard heparin anticoagulation. Patients with intermediate high-risk PE will also fulfil at least one clinical criterion of severity: systolic blood pressure ≤ 110 mmHg, respiratory rate >20 breaths/min, or history of heart failure. The primary efficacy outcome is the composite of all-cause death, haemodynamic decompensation or PE recurrence within 30 days of randomisation. Key secondary outcomes, to be included in hierarchical analysis, are fatal or GUSTO severe or life-threatening bleeding; net clinical benefit (primary efficacy outcome plus severe or life-threatening bleeding); and all-cause death, all within 30 days. All outcomes will be adjudicated by an independent committee. Further outcomes include PE-related death, haemodynamic decompensation, or stroke within 30 days; dyspnoea, functional limitation or RV dysfunction at 6 months and 2 years; and utilisation of healthcare resources within 30 days and 2 years. The study is planned to enrol 650 patients. The results are expected to have a major impact on risk-adjusted treatment of acute PE and inform guideline recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1653-4699DOI Listing
September 2021

Early switch to oral anticoagulation in patients with acute intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PEITHO-2): a multinational, multicentre, single-arm, phase 4 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Sep 4;8(9):e627-e636. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Internal and Subintensive Medicine Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona, Ancona, Italy.

Background: Current guidelines recommend a risk-adjusted treatment strategy for the management of acute pulmonary embolism. This is a particular patient category for whom optimal treatment (anticoagulant treatment, reperfusion strategies, and duration of hospitalisation) is currently unknown. We investigated whether treatment of acute intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism with parenteral anticoagulation for a short period of 72 h, followed by a switch to a direct oral anticoagulant (dabigatran), is effective and safe.

Methods: We did a multinational, multicentre, single-arm, phase 4 trial at 42 hospitals in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Romania, Slovenia, and Spain. Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with symptomatic intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism, with or without deep-vein thrombosis, were enrolled. Patients received parenteral low-molecular-weight or unfractionated heparin for 72 h after diagnosis of pulmonary embolism before switching to oral dabigatran 150 mg twice per day following a standard clinical assessment. The primary outcome was recurrent symptomatic venous thromboembolism or pulmonary embolism-related death within 6 months. The primary and safety outcomes were assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The study was terminated early, as advised by the data safety and monitoring board, following sample size adaptation after the predefined interim analysis on Dec 18, 2018. This trial is registered with the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT 2015-001830-12) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02596555).

Findings: Between Jan 1, 2016, and July 31, 2019, 1418 patients with pulmonary embolism were screened, of whom 402 were enrolled and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (median age was 69·5 years [IQR 60·0-78·0); 192 [48%] were women and 210 [52%] were men). Median follow-up was 217 days (IQR 210-224) and 370 (92%) patients adhered to the protocol. The primary outcome occurred in seven (2% [upper bound of right-sided 95% CI 3]; p<0·0001 for rejecting the null hypothesis) patients, with all events occurring in those with intermediate-high-risk pulmonary embolism (seven [3%; upper bound of right-sided 95% CI 5] of 283). At 6 months, 11 (3% [95% CI 1-5]) of 402 patients had at least one major bleeding event and 16 (4% [2-6]) had at least one clinically relevant non-major bleeding event; the only fatal haemorrhage occurred in one (<1%) patient before the switch to dabigatran.

Interpretation: A strategy of early switch from heparin to dabigatran following standard clinical assessment was effective and safe in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. Our results can help to refine guideline recommendations for the initial treatment of acute intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism, optimising the use of resources and avoiding extended hospitalisation.

Funding: German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, University Medical Center Mainz, and Boehringer Ingelheim.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(21)00203-9DOI Listing
September 2021

Milestones in thromboangiitis obliterans. A position paper of the VAS-European Independent Foundation in Angiology/Vascular Medicine.

Int Angiol 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Portiuncula University Hospital, Soalta University Health Care Group, National University of Ireland Galway (NUIG), Galway, Ireland.

Background: Unfortunately, even today Thromboangiitis Obliterans has disease features that remain misunderstood or underappreciated. The epidemiology, etiology and pathophysiology of the disease are still unclear. Biomarkers and disease activity markers are lacking, thus clinical assessment is difficult. We are still struggling to establish unique diagnostic, staging and treatment criteria. This is an academic-collaborative effort to describe the pathophysiology, the clinical manifestations, the diagnostic approach, and the challenges of management of patients with TAO.

Methods: A systematic search for relevant studies dating from 1900 to the end of 2020 was performed on the PubMed, SCOPUS, and Science Direct databases.

Results: Given the intriguing nature of presentation of TAO, its management, to some extent is not only different in different regions of the world but also varies within the same region. Following this project, we discovered ambiguity, overlap and lack of clear-cut criteria for management of TAO.

Conclusions And Relevance: An international group of experts however came to one conclusion. They all agree that management of TAO is in need of a call for action for a renewed global look with multi-center studies, to update the geographical distribution of the disease and to establish a unique set of diagnostic criteria and a consensus-based guideline for best treatment based on current evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0392-9590.21.04712-XDOI Listing
July 2021

Post-acute pre-discharge echocardiography in the long-term prognostic assessment of pulmonary thrombembolism.

Sci Rep 2021 01 28;11(1):2450. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Vascular Diseases, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

The aim of our study was to asses the long-term prognostic impact of post-acute, pre-discharge echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in patients with low- and intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE). Consecutive patients with acute PE underwent post-acute, pre-discharge echocardiographic assessment of RV dysfunction (defined by: RV dilation, tricuspid anulus peak systolic excursion, or tricuspid regurgitation systolic velocity). A Cox multivariate survival mode was constructed to determine the prognostic impact of post-acute, pred-discharge RV dysfunction on all-cause mortality. 615 patients were included: 330 (54%) women, mean age 64 ± 18 years, 265 (43.1%) with post-acute, predischarge RV dysfunction. During follow-up (median 1068 days), 88 (14.3%) patients died. On Cox multivariate analyis, pre-discharge post-acute tricuspid regurgitation systolic velocity emerged as the only independent echocardiographic predictor of mortality (HR 1.73 for every 1 m/s increase; 95% confidence interval 1.033-2.897; p = 0.037). RV dysfunction persists in almost one half of PE patients in the post-acute phase on pre-discharge echocardiography; however, only tricuspid regurgitation systolic velocity independently predicts long-term prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82038-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844017PMC
January 2021

Guidance for the Management of Patients with Vascular Disease or Cardiovascular Risk Factors and COVID-19: Position Paper from VAS-European Independent Foundation in Angiology/Vascular Medicine.

Thromb Haemost 2020 Dec 13;120(12):1597-1628. Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Departement of Surgery, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia.

COVID-19 is also manifested with hypercoagulability, pulmonary intravascular coagulation, microangiopathy, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) or arterial thrombosis. Predisposing risk factors to severe COVID-19 are male sex, underlying cardiovascular disease, or cardiovascular risk factors including noncontrolled diabetes mellitus or arterial hypertension, obesity, and advanced age. The VAS-European Independent Foundation in Angiology/Vascular Medicine draws attention to patients with vascular disease (VD) and presents an integral strategy for the management of patients with VD or cardiovascular risk factors (VD-CVR) and COVID-19. VAS recommends (1) a COVID-19-oriented primary health care network for patients with VD-CVR for identification of patients with VD-CVR in the community and patients' education for disease symptoms, use of eHealth technology, adherence to the antithrombotic and vascular regulating treatments, and (2) close medical follow-up for efficacious control of VD progression and prompt application of physical and social distancing measures in case of new epidemic waves. For patients with VD-CVR who receive home treatment for COVID-19, VAS recommends assessment for (1) disease worsening risk and prioritized hospitalization of those at high risk and (2) VTE risk assessment and thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban, betrixaban, or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for those at high risk. For hospitalized patients with VD-CVR and COVID-19, VAS recommends (1) routine thromboprophylaxis with weight-adjusted intermediate doses of LMWH (unless contraindication); (2) LMWH as the drug of choice over unfractionated heparin or direct oral anticoagulants for the treatment of VTE or hypercoagulability; (3) careful evaluation of the risk for disease worsening and prompt application of targeted antiviral or convalescence treatments; (4) monitoring of D-dimer for optimization of the antithrombotic treatment; and (5) evaluation of the risk of VTE before hospital discharge using the IMPROVE-D-dimer score and prolonged post-discharge thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban, betrixaban, or LMWH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1715798DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869052PMC
December 2020

The influence of May-Thurner syndrome on post-thrombotic syndrome in young women.

Vasa 2019 Aug 8;48(5):393-398. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Vascular Diseases, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Slovenia.

The mechanism for post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), the most important long-term sequelae of deep venous thrombosis, is not entirely known. It is probably caused by venous hypertension due to venous insufficiency and venous obstruction. Venous hypertension could also be a consequence of the May-Thurner syndrome (MTS), i.e. the obstruction of the common iliac vein. The aim of the present study was to explore if women with untreated MTS and a history of proximal DVT develop PTS more frequently. A cohort of 68 female patients with a history of proximal left-sided DVT in the past were evaluated. According to Villalta score, they were segregated in two groups - with and without PTS (Villalta score ≥ 5 or < 5 points, respectively). For the diagnosis of MTS, magnetic resonance venography was performed. Out of 68 patients, 25 developed PTS (36.8 %). Recurrent DVT, older age, pre-existent chronic venous insufficiency, and shorter compression stockings wearing time were statistically related to PTS. Deep and superficial valve incompetence was also significantly related to PTS, while incomplete thrombus removal showed only a trend towards PTS development. On the other hand, MTS turned out not to be linked to PTS. Our study suggests that women with MTS might not develop PTS more often, which puts aggressive treatment of MTS under question. More clinical trials are warranted to further examine this yet not fully explained field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0301-1526/a000776DOI Listing
August 2019

Incomplete echocardiographic recovery at 6 months predicts long-term sequelae after intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. A post-hoc analysis of the Pulmonary Embolism Thrombolysis (PEITHO) trial.

Clin Res Cardiol 2019 Jul 18;108(7):772-778. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.

Introduction: Symptoms and functional limitation are frequently reported by survivors of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). However, current guidelines provide no specific recommendations on which patients should be followed after acute PE, when follow-up should be performed, and which tests it should include. Definition and classification of late PE sequelae are evolving, and their predictors remain to be determined.

Methods: In a post hoc analysis of the Pulmonary Embolism Thrombolysis (PEITHO) trial, we focused on 219 survivors of acute intermediate-risk PE with clinical and echocardiographic follow-up 6 months after randomisation as well as over the long term (median, 3 years after acute PE). The primary outcome was a composite of (1) confirmed chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) or (2) 'post-PE impairment' (PPEI), defined by echocardiographic findings indicating an intermediate or high probability of pulmonary hypertension along with New York Heart Association functional class II-IV.

Results: Confirmed CTEPH or PPEI occurred in 29 (13.2%) patients, (6 with CTEPH and 23 with PPEI). A history of chronic heart failure at baseline and incomplete or absent recovery of echocardiographic parameters at 6 months predicted CTEPH or PPEI at long-term follow-up.

Conclusions: CTEPH or PPEI occurs in almost one out of seven patients after acute intermediate-risk PE. Six-month echocardiographic follow-up may be useful for timely detection of late sequelae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-018-1405-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6584226PMC
July 2019

Dabigatran after Short Heparin Anticoagulation for Acute Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism: Rationale and Design of the Single-Arm PEITHO-2 Study.

Thromb Haemost 2017 12 6;117(12):2425-2434. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) may, depending on the method and cut-off values used for definition, account for up to 60% of all patients with PE and have an 8% or higher risk of short-term adverse outcome. Although four non-vitamin K-dependent direct oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been approved for the treatment of venous thromboembolism, their safety and efficacy as well as the optimal anticoagulation regimen using these drugs have not been systematically investigated in intermediate-risk PE. Moreover, it remains unknown how many patients with intermediate-high-risk and intermediate-low-risk PE were included in most of the phase III NOAC trials. The ongoing Pulmonary Embolism International Thrombolysis 2 (PEITHO-2) study is a prospective, multicentre, multinational, single-arm trial investigating whether treatment of acute intermediate-risk PE with parenteral heparin anticoagulation over the first 72 hours, followed by the direct oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran over 6 months, is effective and safe. The primary efficacy outcome is recurrent symptomatic venous thromboembolism or death related to PE within the first 6 months. The primary safety outcome is major bleeding as defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Secondary outcomes include all-cause mortality, the overall duration of hospital stay (index event and repeated hospitalizations) and the temporal pattern of recovery of right ventricular function over the 6-month follow-up period. By applying and evaluating a contemporary risk-tailored treatment strategy for acute PE, PEITHO-2 will implement the recommendations of current guidelines and contribute to their further evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH17-06-0434DOI Listing
December 2017

Impact of Thrombolytic Therapy on the Long-Term Outcome of Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2017 Mar;69(12):1536-1544

Pulmonology and Intensive Care Service, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France; Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; INSERM UMR S 970, Paris, France (INNOVTE, France).

Background: The long-term effect of thrombolytic treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) is unknown.

Objectives: This study investigated the long-term prognosis of patients with intermediate-risk PE and the effect of thrombolytic treatment on the persistence of symptoms or the development of late complications.

Methods: The PEITHO (Pulmonary Embolism Thrombolysis) trial was a randomized (1:1) comparison of thrombolysis with tenecteplase versus placebo in normotensive patients with acute PE, right ventricular (RV) dysfunction on imaging, and a positive cardiac troponin test result. Both treatment arms received standard anticoagulation. Long-term follow-up was included in the third protocol amendment; 28 sites randomizing 709 of the 1,006 patients participated.

Results: Long-term (median 37.8 months) survival was assessed in 353 of 359 (98.3%) patients in the thrombolysis arm and in 343 of 350 (98.0%) in the placebo arm. Overall mortality rates were 20.3% and 18.0%, respectively (p = 0.43). Between day 30 and long-term follow-up, 65 deaths occurred in the thrombolysis arm and 53 occurred in the placebo arm. At follow-up examination of survivors, persistent dyspnea (mostly mild) or functional limitation was reported by 36.0% versus 30.1% of the patients (p = 0.23). Echocardiography (performed in 144 and 146 patients randomized to thrombolysis and placebo, respectively) did not reveal significant differences in residual pulmonary hypertension or RV dysfunction. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) was confirmed in 4 (2.1%) versus 6 (3.2%) cases (p = 0.79).

Conclusions: Approximately 33% of patients report some degree of persistent functional limitation after intermediate-risk PE, but CTEPH is infrequent. Thrombolytic treatment did not affect long-term mortality rates, and it did not appear to reduce residual dyspnea or RV dysfunction in these patients. (Pulmonary Embolism Thrombolysis study [PEITHO]; NCT00639743).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2016.12.039DOI Listing
March 2017

May-Thurner syndrome: old acquaintance, new perspective : Case report.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2017 May 20;129(9-10):362-365. Epub 2017 Mar 20.

Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Anatomy, University of Ljubljana, Korytkova 2, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) results from a frequent anatomic variant in which compression of the left common iliac vein between the body of the fifth lumbar vertebra and the pulsating right common iliac artery can cause deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the left lower limb. While anticoagulation remains the mainstay treatment of acute DVT, catheter-directed thrombolysis combined with stenting provides a safe and effective method for relieving acute symptoms and preventing postthrombotic syndrome in patients with MTS. In this article the diagnostic and treatment methods are presented in the case report of a 65-year-old woman with MTS who suffered iliofemoral DVT. Knowledge of anatomy is crucial for understanding and recognizing MTS as well as for treating MTS with endovascular procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00508-017-1188-9DOI Listing
May 2017

Survival and event-free survival of patients with peripheral arterial disease undergoing prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Int Angiol 2017 Jun 22;36(3):216-227. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

Institute of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are at very high risk for cardiovascular events. How do patients with PAD differ from age- and sex-matched controls in survival, major ischemic events and revascularization procedures when both groups were managed according to the European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention?

Methods: Patients with PAD (N.=742) and 713 age and sex-matched control subjects without PAD, both groups aged 65±9 years at inclusion, were managed for 5 years according to the European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention and evaluated yearly for occurrence of death, non-fatal major ischemic events and revascularization procedures (minor events).

Results: In the PAD group, the 5-year survival was 84.7% (CI 82.1-87.3%) vs. 93.3% (CI 91.5-95.2%) in the control group, P<0.001. In the PAD group the proportion of cardiovascular deaths did not differ significantly from non-cardiovascular deaths (6.9 vs. 8.4%, P=0.14), while in the control group cardiovascular deaths were less frequent (2.4 vs. 4.3%, P=0.05). The groups differed in 5-year major event-free survival: 76.7% (CI 73.7-79.8%) in PAD vs. 89.9% (CI 87.7 -92.2%) in controls, P<0.001, and in event-free survival: 56.2% (CI 52.7-59.9%) in PAD vs. 82.4% (CI 79.9-85.3%) in controls, P<0.001.

Conclusions: Patients with PAD had a higher risk of all-cause death, major and minor non-fatal cardiovascular events compared to control subjects. In our group, cardiovascular events were not the leading cause of death in patients with PAD (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00761969.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0392-9590.16.03731-7DOI Listing
June 2017

Fibrinolysis for patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism.

N Engl J Med 2014 Apr;370(15):1402-11

The authors' affiliations are listed in the Appendix.

Background: The role of fibrinolytic therapy in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism is controversial.

Methods: In a randomized, double-blind trial, we compared tenecteplase plus heparin with placebo plus heparin in normotensive patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. Eligible patients had right ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography or computed tomography, as well as myocardial injury as indicated by a positive test for cardiac troponin I or troponin T. The primary outcome was death or hemodynamic decompensation (or collapse) within 7 days after randomization. The main safety outcomes were major extracranial bleeding and ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke within 7 days after randomization.

Results: Of 1006 patients who underwent randomization, 1005 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Death or hemodynamic decompensation occurred in 13 of 506 patients (2.6%) in the tenecteplase group as compared with 28 of 499 (5.6%) in the placebo group (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.23 to 0.87; P=0.02). Between randomization and day 7, a total of 6 patients (1.2%) in the tenecteplase group and 9 (1.8%) in the placebo group died (P=0.42). Extracranial bleeding occurred in 32 patients (6.3%) in the tenecteplase group and 6 patients (1.2%) in the placebo group (P<0.001). Stroke occurred in 12 patients (2.4%) in the tenecteplase group and was hemorrhagic in 10 patients; 1 patient (0.2%) in the placebo group had a stroke, which was hemorrhagic (P=0.003). By day 30, a total of 12 patients (2.4%) in the tenecteplase group and 16 patients (3.2%) in the placebo group had died (P=0.42).

Conclusions: In patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism, fibrinolytic therapy prevented hemodynamic decompensation but increased the risk of major hemorrhage and stroke. (Funded by the Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique in France and others; PEITHO EudraCT number, 2006-005328-18; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00639743.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1302097DOI Listing
April 2014

Ventricular tachycardia induced by abuse of ephedrine in a young healthy woman.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2006 Sep;118(17-18):558-61

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Introduction: Ephedrine or ephedra herbal products have occasionally been used to enhance sports performance and energy or to aid weight loss. The most serious side effects are those on cardiovascular function, including acute myocardial infarction, severe hypertension, myocarditis and lethal cardiac arrhythmias.

Case Report: A 19-year-old woman was taking ephedrine to enhance her sports performance. After 10 days of this medication she developed hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia resistant to cardioversion and amiodarone treatment. She converted to sinus rhythm 60 hours later, presumably when the plasma ephedrine level had sufficiently decreased. In an electrophysiological study the ventricular tachycardia could be induced and successfully ablated. There were no recurrences during follow-up of more than a year. The use of ephedrine carries a risk of development of life-threatening arrhythmias.

Discussion: Ephedrine alone cannot be considered as the ultimate cause of tachycardia in our patient; however, it is highly probable that ephedrine triggered the tachycardic attack. The proarrhythmic effect most likely occurred because of underlying idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia. Although the patient could have developed her first attack of ventricular tachycardia at any time in her life, it is highly improbable that the attack following the ephedrine abuse was purely coincidental.

Conclusion: Our experience with the reported patient shows that ephedrine alone, or in combination with substances that increase its effects on the cardiovascular system, may also trigger paroxysms of non-ischemic ventricular tachycardia. The use of ephedrine carries a risk of development of life-threatening arrhythmias and should be discouraged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00508-006-0655-5DOI Listing
September 2006

Magnetic resonance imaging of arterial thrombi and its possible correlation to fibrinolytic treament.

Cell Mol Biol Lett 2002 ;7(1):82-6

University Medical Center Ljubljana, Department of Angiology, Slovenia.

For 13 patients with subacute and 4 patients with chronic occlusion, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of occlusive arterial thrombi in the superficial femoral artery were performed in vivo. The patients with subacute occlusion were treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis. The frequency of MR signal intensity and its distribution in thrombi were studied for 11 successfully and 2 unsuccessfully treated patients and patients with chronic occlusion. Intra-arterial thrombi were MRI inhomogenous in all of the patients, but the MR signals from lysable and chronic thrombi were significantly different than those from nonlysable ones. The MRI of occlusive arterial thrombi is probably usable to predict the therapeutic outcome of thrombolytic treatment.
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July 2002
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