Publications by authors named "Matias Trillini"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Preventing microalbuminuria with benazepril, valsartan, and benazepril-valsartan combination therapy in diabetic patients with high-normal albuminuria: A prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint (PROBE) study.

PLoS Med 2021 07 14;18(7):e1003691. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Renal Medicine, Clinical Research Center for Rare Diseases, "Aldo e Cele Daccò": Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Ranica, Bergamo, Italy.

Background: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) prevent microalbuminuria in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients. We assessed whether combined therapy with the 2 medications may prevent microalbuminuria better than ACE inhibitor or ARB monotherapy.

Methods And Findings: VARIETY was a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint (PROBE) trial evaluating whether, at similar blood pressure (BP) control, combined therapy with benazepril (10 mg/day) and valsartan (160 mg/day) would prevent microalbuminuria more effectively than benazepril (20 mg/day) or valsartan (320 mg/day) monotherapy in 612 type 2 diabetic patients with high-normal albuminuria included between July 2007 and April 2013 by the Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS and 8 diabetology or nephrology units in Italy. Time to progression to microalbuminuria was the primary outcome. Analyses were intention to treat. Baseline characteristics were similar among groups. During a median [interquartile range, IQR] follow-up of 66 [42 to 83] months, 53 patients (27.0%) on combination therapy, 57 (28.1%) on benazepril, and 64 (31.8%) on valsartan reached microalbuminuria. Using an accelerated failure time model, the estimated acceleration factors were 1.410 (95% CI: 0.806 to 2.467, P = 0.229) for benazepril compared to combination therapy, 0.799 (95% CI: 0.422 to 1.514, P = 0.492) for benazepril compared to valsartan, and 1.665 (95% CI: 1.007 to 2.746, P = 0.047) for valsartan compared to combination therapy. Between-group differences in estimated acceleration factors were nonsignificant after adjustment for predefined confounders. BP control was similar across groups. All treatments were safe and tolerated well, with a slight excess of hyperkalemia and hypotension in the combination therapy group. The main study limitation was the lower than expected albuminuria at inclusion.

Conclusions: Risk/benefit profile of study treatments was similar. Dual renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade is not recommended as compared to benazepril or valsartan monotherapy for prevention of microalbuminuria in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients.

Trial Registration: EudraCT 2006-005954-62; NCT00503152.
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July 2021

Ramipril and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis: The ARCADIA Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 04 29;16(4):575-587. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Unit of Nephrology and Dialysis, Azienda Ospedaliera Santa Croce e Carle, Cuneo, Italy.

Background And Objectives: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. We evaluated the cardioprotective effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: In this phase 3, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point, parallel, multicenter trial, we recruited patients on maintenance hemodialysis with hypertension and/or left ventricular hypertrophy from 28 Italian centers. Between July 2009 and February 2014, 140 participants were randomized to ramipril (1.25-10 mg/d) and 129 participants were allocated to non-RAS inhibition therapy, both titrated up to the maximally tolerated dose to achieve predefined target BP values. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Secondary end points included the single components of the primary end point, new-onset or recurrence of atrial fibrillation, hospitalizations for symptomatic fluid overload, thrombosis or stenosis of the arteriovenous fistula, and changes in cardiac mass index. All outcomes were evaluated up to 42 months after randomization.

Results: At comparable BP control, 23 participants on ramipril (16%) and 24 on non-RAS inhibitor therapy (19%) reached the primary composite end point (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.52 to 1.64; =0.80). Ramipril reduced cardiac mass index at 1 year of follow-up (between-group difference in change from baseline: -16.3 g/m; 95% confidence interval, -29.4 to -3.1), but did not significantly affect the other secondary outcomes. Hypotensive episodes were more frequent in participants allocated to ramipril than controls (41% versus 12%). Twenty participants on ramipril and nine controls developed cancer, including six gastrointestinal malignancies on ramipril (four were fatal), compared with none in controls.

Conclusions: Ramipril did not reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

Clinical Trial Registry Name And Registration Number: ARCADIA, NCT00985322 and European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials Database number 2008-003529-17.
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April 2021

Early detection of diabetic kidney disease by urinary proteomics and subsequent intervention with spironolactone to delay progression (PRIORITY): a prospective observational study and embedded randomised placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2020 04 2;8(4):301-312. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Mosaiques Diagnostics, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Microalbuminuria is an early sign of kidney disease in people with diabetes and indicates increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We tested whether a urinary proteomic risk classifier (CKD273) score was associated with development of microalbuminuria and whether progression to microalbuminuria could be prevented with the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone.

Methods: In this multicentre, prospective, observational study with embedded randomised controlled trial (PRIORITY), we recruited people with type 2 diabetes, normal urinary albumin excretion, and preserved renal function from 15 specialist centres in ten European countries. All participants (observational cohort) were tested with the CKD273 classifier and classified as high risk (CKD273 classifier score >0·154) or low risk (≤0·154). Participants who were classified as high risk were entered into a randomised controlled trial and randomly assigned (1:1), by use of an interactive web-response system, to receive spironolactone 25 mg once daily or matched placebo (trial cohort). The primary endpoint was development of confirmed microalbuminuria in all individuals with available data (observational cohort). Secondary endpoints included reduction in incidence of microalbuminuria with spironolactone (trial cohort, intention-to-treat population) and association between CKD273 risk score and measures of impaired renal function based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; observational cohort). Adverse events (particularly gynaecomastia and hyperkalaemia) and serious adverse events were recorded for the intention-to-treat population (trial cohort). This study is registered with the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT 20120-004523-4) and (NCT02040441) and is completed.

Findings: Between March 25, 2014, and Sept 30, 2018, we enrolled and followed-up 1775 participants (observational cohort), 1559 (88%) of 1775 participants had a low-risk urinary proteomic pattern and 216 (12%) had a high-risk pattern, of whom 209 were included in the trial cohort and assigned to spironolactone (n=102) or placebo (n=107). The overall median follow-up time was 2·51 years (IQR 2·0-3·0). Progression to microalbuminuria was seen in 61 (28%) of 216 high-risk participants and 139 (9%) of 1559 low-risk participants (hazard ratio [HR] 2·48, 95% CI 1·80-3·42; p<0·0001, after adjustment for baseline variables of age, sex, HbA, systolic blood pressure, retinopathy, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio [UACR], and eGFR). Development of impaired renal function (eGFR <60 mL/min per 1·73 m) was seen in 48 (26%) of 184 high-risk participants and 119 (8%) of 1423 low-risk participants (HR 3·50; 95% CI 2·50-4·90, after adjustment for baseline variables). A 30% decrease in eGFR from baseline (post-hoc endpoint) was seen in 42 (19%) of 216 high-risk participants and 62 (4%) of 1559 low-risk participants (HR 5·15, 95% CI 3·41-7·76; p<0·0001, after adjustment for basline eGFR and UACR). In the intention-to-treat trial cohort, development of microalbuminuria was seen in 35 (33%) of 107 in the placebo group and 26 (25%) of 102 in the spironolactone group (HR 0·81, 95% CI 0·49-1·34; p=0·41). In the safety analysis (intention-to-treat trial cohort), events of plasma potassium concentrations of more than 5·5 mmol/L were seen in 13 (13%) of 102 participants in the spironolactone group and four (4%) of 107 participants in the placebo group, and gynaecomastia was seen in three (3%) participants in the spironolactone group and none in the placebo group. One patient died in the placebo group due to a cardiac event (considered possibly related to study drug) and one patient died in the spironolactone group due to cancer, deemed unrelated to study drug.

Interpretation: In people with type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria, a high-risk score from the urinary proteomic classifier CKD273 was associated with an increased risk of progression to microalbuminuria over a median of 2·5 years, independent of clinical characteristics. However, spironolactone did not prevent progression to microalbuminuria in high-risk patients.

Funding: European Union Seventh Framework Programme.
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April 2020

Effects of Sevelamer Carbonate in Patients With CKD and Proteinuria: The ANSWER Randomized Trial.

Am J Kidney Dis 2019 09 23;74(3):338-350. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Division of Nephrology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, UT.

Rationale & Objective: Hyperphosphatemia is associated with increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and reduced antiproteinuric effects of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers. We investigated whether the phosphate binder sevelamer carbonate may enhance the antiproteinuric effect of RAS inhibitors in patients with CKD.

Study Design: Phase 2, randomized, controlled, open-label, crossover trial.

Setting & Participants: Between November 2013 and December 2014, we enrolled 53 patients with CKD with estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs)>15mL/min/1.73m and residual proteinuria with protein excretion≥0.5g/24h despite maximal tolerated ramipril and/or irbesartan therapy from 2 nephrology units in Italy.

Intervention: After stratification by serum phosphate level, ≤4 or>4mg/dL, patients were randomly assigned to 3 months of sevelamer (1,600mg thrice daily) treatment followed by 3 months without sevelamer separated by a 1-month washout period or 3 months without sevelamer followed by 3 months with sevelamer, also separated by a 1-month washout period.

Outcomes: The primary outcome was 24-hour proteinuria (n=49patients). Secondary outcomes included measured GFR (using iohexol plasma clearance), office blood pressure (BP), serum lipid levels, levels of inflammation and bone metabolism biomarkers, urinary electrolyte levels, and arterial stiffness.

Results: Changes in proteinuria during the 3-month treatment with (from 1.36 [IQR, 0.77-2.51] to 1.36 [IQR, 0.77-2.60] g/24h) or without (from 1.36 [IQR, 0.99-2.38] to 1.48 [IQR, 0.81-2.77] g/24h) sevelamer were similar (P=0.1). Sevelamer reduced urinary phosphate excretion without affecting serum phosphate levels. Sevelamer reduced C-reactive protein (CRP), glycated hemoglobin, and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels without affecting levels of office BP, measured GFR, fibroblast growth factor 23, klotho, intact parathyroid hormone, serum vitamin D, or other urinary electrolytes. Results were similar in the low- and high-phosphate groups. Sevelamer was well tolerated. Adverse events were comparable between treatment periods. One case of transient hypophosphatemia was observed during treatment with sevelamer.

Limitations: Short treatment duration, lower pretreatment proteinuria than expected.

Conclusions: 3-month sevelamer treatment did not reduce proteinuria in patients with CKD on maximal RAS blockade. Amelioration of inflammation and dyslipidemia with sevelamer treatment raises the possibility that it may confer benefit in patients with CKD beyond reduction of proteinuria.

Funding: Sanofi (Milan, Italy).

Trial Registration: Registered at with study number NCT01968759.
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September 2019

Octreotide-LAR in later-stage autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ALADIN 2): A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.

PLoS Med 2019 04 5;16(4):e1002777. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Bergamo, Italy.

Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent genetically determined renal disease. In affected patients, renal function may progressively decline up to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and approximately 10% of those with ESRD are affected by ADPKD. The somatostatin analog octreotide long-acting release (octreotide-LAR) slows renal function deterioration in patients in early stages of the disease. We evaluated the renoprotective effect of octreotide-LAR in ADPKD patients at high risk of ESRD because of later-stage ADPKD.

Methods And Findings: We did an internally funded, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial to assess octreotide-LAR in adults with ADPKD with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 15-40 ml/min/1.73 m2. Participants were randomized to receive 2 intramuscular injections of 20 mg octreotide-LAR (n = 51) or 0.9% sodium chloride solution (placebo; n = 49) every 28 days for 3 years. Central randomization was 1:1 using a computerized list stratified by center and presence or absence of diabetes or proteinuria. Co-primary short- and long-term outcomes were 1-year total kidney volume (TKV) (computed tomography scan) growth and 3-year GFR (iohexol plasma clearance) decline. Analyses were by modified intention-to-treat. Patients were recruited from 4 Italian nephrology units between October 11, 2011, and March 20, 2014, and followed up to April 14, 2017. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Compared to placebo, octreotide-LAR reduced median (95% CI) TKV growth from baseline by 96.8 (10.8 to 182.7) ml at 1 year (p = 0.027) and 422.6 (150.3 to 695.0) ml at 3 years (p = 0.002). Reduction in the median (95% CI) rate of GFR decline (0.56 [-0.63 to 1.75] ml/min/1.73 m2 per year) was not significant (p = 0.295). TKV analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and baseline TKV. Over a median (IQR) 36 (24 to 37) months of follow-up, 9 patients on octreotide-LAR and 21 patients on placebo progressed to a doubling of serum creatinine or ESRD (composite endpoint) (hazard ratio [HR] [95% CI] adjusted for age, sex, baseline serum creatinine, and baseline TKV: 0.307 [0.127 to 0.742], p = 0.009). One composite endpoint was prevented for every 4 treated patients. Among 63 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4, 3 on octreotide-LAR and 8 on placebo progressed to ESRD (adjusted HR [95% CI]: 0.121 [0.017 to 0.866], p = 0.036). Three patients on placebo had a serious renal cyst rupture/infection and 1 patient had a serious urinary tract infection/obstruction, versus 1 patient on octreotide-LAR with a serious renal cyst infection. The main study limitation was the small sample size.

Conclusions: In this study we observed that in later-stage ADPKD, octreotide-LAR slowed kidney growth and delayed progression to ESRD, in particular in CKD stage 4.

Trial Registration: NCT01377246; EudraCT: 2011-000138-12.
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April 2019

Effects of valsartan, benazepril and their combination in overt nephropathy of type 2 diabetes: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2019 05 22;21(5):1177-1190. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Renal Medicine, Clinical Research Centre for Rare Diseases "Aldo e Cele Daccò": Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Ranica (Bergamo), Italy.

Aims: To evaluate whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) combination therapy is more nephroprotective than ACE inhibitor or ARB monotherapy in people with type 2 diabetes and overt nephropathy.

Materials And Methods: In this prospective, randomized, open, blind-endpoint phase III trial sponsored by the Italian Drug Agency, 103 consenting patients with type 2 diabetes, aged >40 years, with serum creatinine levels 159 to 309 μmol/L, spot morning urinary albumin-creatinine ratio > 1000 mg/g (or > 500 mg/g in those on ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy at inclusion) were stratified by centre and randomized to 4.5-year treatment with valsartan 320 mg/d (n = 36), benazepril 20 mg/d (n = 34) or halved doses of both medications (n = 33). The primary endpoint was end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Modified intention-to-treat analyses were performed.

Results: Recruitment took place between June 2007 and February 2013 at 10 centres in Italy and one in Slovenia. A total of 77 participants completed the study and 26 were prematurely withdrawn. During a median (interquartile range) of 41 (18-54) months, 12 participants on benazepril (35.3%) and nine on combination therapy (27.3%) progressed to ESRD, versus five on valsartan (13.9%). Differences between benazepril (hazard ratio [HR] 3.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-10.30; P = 0.018) or combination therapy (HR 3.28, 95% CI 1.07-10.0; P = 0.038) and valsartan were significant, even after adjustment for age, gender and baseline serum creatinine, systolic blood pressure and 24-hour proteinuria (HR 5.16, 95% CI 1.50-17.75, P = 0.009 and HR 4.75, 95% CI 1.01-22.39, P = 0.049, respectively). Adverse events were distributed similarly among the groups.

Conclusions: In people with type 2 diabetes with nephropathy, valsartan (320 mg/d) safely postponed ESRD more effectively than benazepril (20 mg/d) or than halved doses of both medications.
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May 2019

Safety of Iohexol Administration to Measure Glomerular Filtration Rate in Different Patient Populations: A 25-Year Experience.

Nephron 2018 17;140(1):1-8. Epub 2018 May 17.

IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy.

Background/aim: In clinical research setting, accurate and precise measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential to overcome the limitations of GFR estimation with equations, which are often unreliable. In recent decades, a method for measuring GFR by plasma clearance of iohexol, a non-ionic radiocontrast agent, was developed. To evaluate the safety of the procedure, we aimed to review all immediate adverse reactions that could be related to iohexol administration in our group's 25 years worth of experience.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all GFR investigations in 2,891 patients, between 1992 and 2016, as part of 37 clinical trials coordinated by our group. Subjects with disparate renal diseases, kidney transplant recipients, and living donors - all with different renal function categories - were included in the surveyed clinical trials.

Results: During 15,147 GFR measurements, only one treatment-related event of moderate intensity was identified. Flushing, urticaria, and itching were observed in a diabetic patient a few minutes after iohexol administration during the first GFR measurement. The event recovered without sequelae after intravenous injection of methylprednisolone sodium succinate. The patient was not hospitalized and the event was categorized as non-serious. Eight additional non-serious events observed closely following iohexol injection were considered as not related to treatment. Thus, independent of disease conditions and GFR categories, the overall rate of treatment-related events was 0.0066%.

Conclusion: Iohexol administration for GFR measurement is a safe procedure, even in repeated investigations in the same subject, that should be adopted in clinical research and, when needed, also in clinical practice.
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September 2019

Blood Pressure and Metabolic Effects of Acetyl-l-Carnitine in Type 2 Diabetes: DIABASI Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Endocr Soc 2018 May 22;2(5):420-436. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Context: Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC), a mitochondrial carrier involved in lipid oxidation and glucose metabolism, decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP), and ameliorated insulin sensitivity in hypertensive nondiabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

Objective: To assess the effects of ALC on SBP and glycemic and lipid control in patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and dyslipidemia on background statin therapy.

Design: After 4-week run-in period and stratification according to previous statin therapy, patients were randomized to 6-month, double-blind treatment with ALC or placebo added-on simvastatin.

Setting: Five diabetology units and one clinical research center in Italy.

Patients: Two hundred twenty-nine patients with hypertension and dyslipidemic T2D >40 years with stable background antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, and statin therapy and serum creatinine <1.5 mg/dL.

Interventions: Oral ALC 1000 mg or placebo twice daily on top of stable simvastatin therapy.

Outcome And Measures: Primary outcome was SBP. Secondary outcomes included lipid and glycemic profiles. Total-body glucose disposal rate and glomerular filtration rate were measured in subgroups by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and iohexol plasma clearance, respectively.

Results: SBP did not significantly change after 6-month treatment with ALC compared with placebo (-2.09 mm Hg -3.57 mm Hg, = 0.9539). Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein(a), as well as blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index, glucose disposal rate, and glomerular filtration rate did not significantly differ between treatments. Adverse events were comparable between groups.

Conclusions: Six-month oral ALC supplementation did not affect blood pressure, lipid and glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and kidney function in hypertensive normoalbuminuric and microalbuminuric T2D patients on background statin therapy.
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May 2018

Moderate salt restriction with or without paricalcitol in type 2 diabetes and losartan-resistant macroalbuminuria (PROCEED): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2018 01 2;6(1):27-40. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Centro Anna Maria Astori, Science and Technology Park Kilometro Rosso, Bergamo, Italy; Department of Medicine, Unit of Nephrology and Dialysis, Azienda Socio-Sanitaria Territoriale Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy.

Background: Macroalbuminuria predicts renal and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the albuminuria-lowering effects of salt restriction, paricalcitol therapy, or both, in this population.

Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, we recruited adult patients with type 2 diabetes from six diabetology outpatient clinics in northern Italy, with 24 h albuminuria of more than 300 mg despite 100 mg per day losartan therapy, blood pressure of less than 140/90 mm Hg, serum creatinine concentration of less than 2 mg/dL, stable renal function on stable renin-angiotensin system inhibitor therapy with a fixed dose of losartan, parathyroid hormone concentration of 20 pg/mL to <110 pg/mL, serum calcium concentration of less than 9·5 mg/dL, and serum phosphate concentration of less than 5 mg/dL, who had been more than 80% compliant with placebo treatment during a 1 month placebo run-in. We allocated patients 1:1 with computer-generated randomisation to an open-label 3 month high-sodium (>200 mEq [4·8 g] per day) or low-sodium (<100 mEq [2·4 g] per day) diet and, within each diet group, to a 1 month double-blind treatment period of oral paricalcitol (2 μg per day) or placebo, followed by 1 month of placebo washout and then a further 1 month double-blind treatment period of paricalcitol or placebo in which patients crossed over to the opposite treatment period. The primary outcome was 24 h albuminuria (median of three consecutive measurements). Analyses were modified intention-to-treat (including all randomly allocated patients who took at least one dose of study drug and had an efficacy measurement after the first treatment period). Patients and investigators were masked to paricalcitol and placebo assignment. Those assessing outcomes were masked to both study drug and diet assignment. This study is registered with, number NCT01393808, and the European Union Clinical Trials Register, number 2011-001713-14.

Findings: Between Dec 13, 2011, and Feb 17, 2015, we randomly allocated 57 (50%) patients to a low-sodium diet (28 [49%] to paricalcitol then placebo and 29 [51%] to placebo then paricalcitol) and 58 (50%) to a high-sodium diet (29 [50%] to paricalcitol then placebo and 29 [50%] to placebo then paricalcitol). In the low-sodium group (30 mEq of daily sodium intake reduction, equivalent to approximately 1·7-1·8 g per day), 24 h albuminuria was reduced by 36·6% (95% CI 28·5-44·9) from 724 mg (441-1233) at baseline to 481 mg (289-837) at month 3 (p<0·0001), but no significant change occurred in the high-sodium group (from 730 mg [416-1227] to 801 mg [441-1365]; 2·9% [-16·8 to 16·4] increase; p=0·50). Changes between diet groups differed by 32·4% (17·2-48·8; p<0·0001) and correlated with changes in natriuresis (r=0·43; p<0·0001). On the high-sodium diet, paricalcitol reduced the salt-induced albuminuria increase by 17·8% (3·9-32·3) over the month of treatment compared with placebo (p=0·02), whereas on the low-sodium diet, paricalcitol did not have a significant effect versus placebo (increase of 4·1% [-9·3 to 21·6]; p=0·59). During placebo treatment, albuminuria decreased with the low-sodium diet (p=0·0002) and did not significantly change with the high-sodium diet, but changes were significantly different between diet groups (p=0·0004). Treatment was well tolerated and no patients withdrew from the study because of treatment-related effects. 67 adverse events occurred in 52 (45%) patients during paricalcitol treatment and 44 events occurred in 36 (31%) patients during placebo treatment. During paricalcitol therapy, 14 cases of hypercalciuria, six cases of hypercalcaemia, and five cases of hyperphosphataemia were reported in one patient each, all of which were possibly treatment related. One case of hypercalciuria was reported in one patient during the placebo treatment period. One stroke and one coronary event occurred during paricalcitol therapy. No patients died during the study.

Interpretation: In patients with macroalbuminuria and type 2 diabetes, moderate salt restriction enhances the antialbuminuric effect of losartan, an effect that could be nephroprotective and cardioprotective in the long term. The finding that paricalcitol prevents a sodium-induced increase in albuminuria provides support for trials to test the long-term risk-benefit profile of paricalcitol add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes and macroalbuminuria refractory to dietary salt restriction, including patients refractory to even moderate salt restriction.

Funding: AbbVie.
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January 2018

Conversion from Brand-Name Neoral to the Generic Ciqorin in Stable Renal Transplant Recipients.

Nephron 2017 10;135(3):173-180. Epub 2016 Dec 10.

Clinical Research Center for Rare Diseases Aldo and Cele Daccò, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy.

Background/aims: Transplant physicians and patients are often reluctant to change to generic versions of immunosuppressive drugs with a narrow therapeutic index, such as ciclosporin (CsA). Thus, in routine follow-up for kidney transplant patients receiving CsA maintenance immunosuppressive therapy in our center, we evaluated the exchangeability of the brand name, Neoral, and the recently approved CsA generic formulation, Ciqorin.

Methods: We assessed the complete 12-h CsA pharmacokinetic profile and direct measurement of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) of 10 patients receiving stable doses of Neoral (138 ± 43 mg/day), at least 6 months after kidney transplantation (Neoral 1). The same evaluations were repeated 10 days after conversion to Ciqorin on a milligram-to-milligram basis and 10 days after reinstituting Neoral (Neoral 2).

Results: The mean CsA area under the concentration-time curve increased slightly after switching from Neoral to Ciqorin (p = 0.03), but did not change significantly after Neoral was reintroduced (Neoral 1: 2,234 ± 783, Ciqorin: 2,452 ± 767, Neoral 2: 2,472 ± 784 ng × h/mL). There were no appreciable differences between the 2 CsA formulations in trough levels, maximum concentrations, or time to reach maximum concentrations. In all patients, renal function remained stable throughout the monitoring period (mGFR, Neoral 1: 52.0 ± 16.2; Ciqorin: 55.0 ± 19.0; Neoral 2: 55.8 ± 18.9 mL/min/1.73 m2), as did urinary and hematochemical parameters.

Conclusions: In stable kidney transplant recipients, switching from Neoral to Ciqorin resulted in similar pharmacokinetic parameters and did not change renal allograft function, reassuring physicians and patients regarding the exchangeability of reference and generic CsA formulations.
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March 2017

Renal and Systemic Effects of Calorie Restriction in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes With Abdominal Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Diabetes 2017 Jan 15;66(1):75-86. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia University Medical School, Brescia, Italy.

In individuals with type 2 diabetes with abdominal obesity, hyperfiltration is a risk factor for accelerated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline and nephropathy. In this academic, single-center, parallel-group, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point trial, consenting patients with type 2 diabetes aged >18 years, with waist circumference >94 (males) or >80 (females) cm, serum creatinine <1.2 mg/dL, and normoalbuminuria were randomized (1:1) with permuted blocks to 6 months of a 25% calorie restricted (CR) or standard diet (SD). Primary outcome was measured GFR (iohexol plasma clearance). Analyses were by modified intention to treat. At 6 months, GFR significantly decreased in 34 patients on CR and did not change appreciably in 36 on SD. Changes were significantly different between the groups. GFR and body weight reduction were correlated. GFR reduction was larger in hyperfiltering (GFR >120 mL/min) than nonhyperfiltering patients and was associated with BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, heart rate, HbA, blood glucose, LDL-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, C-reactive protein, angiotensin II, and albuminuria reduction and with increased glucose disposal rate (measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps). Protein and sodium intake and concomitant treatments were similar between the groups. CR was tolerated well. In patients with type 2 diabetes with abdominal obesity, CR ameliorates glomerular hyperfiltration, insulin sensitivity, and other cardiovascular risk factors, effects that might translate into long-term nephro- and cardioprotection.
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January 2017

Effect of Sirolimus on Disease Progression in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease and CKD Stages 3b-4.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2016 05 22;11(5):785-94. Epub 2016 Feb 22.

Clinical Research Center for Rare Diseases "Aldo e Cele Daccò," IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri," Bergamo, Italy; Units of Nephrology and Dialysis, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

Background And Objectives: The effect of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors has never been tested in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and severe renal insufficiency.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: In this academic, prospective, randomized, open label, blinded end point, parallel group trial ( no. NCT01223755), 41 adults with ADPKD, CKD stage 3b or 4, and proteinuria ≤0.5 g/24 h were randomized between September of 2010 and March of 2012 to sirolimus (3 mg/d; serum target levels of 5-10 ng/ml) added on to conventional therapy (n=21) or conventional treatment alone (n=20). Primary outcome was GFR (iohexol plasma clearance) change at 1 and 3 years versus baseline.

Results: At the 1-year preplanned interim analysis, GFR fell from 26.7±5.8 to 21.3±6.3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (P<0.001) and from 29.6±5.6 to 24.9±6.2 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (P<0.001) in the sirolimus and conventional treatment groups, respectively. Albuminuria (73.8±81.8 versus 154.9±152.9 μg/min; P=0.02) and proteinuria (0.3±0.2 versus 06±0.4 g/24 h; P<0.01) increased with sirolimus. Seven patients on sirolimus versus one control had de novo proteinuria (P=0.04), ten versus three patients doubled proteinuria (P=0.02), 18 versus 11 patients had peripheral edema (P=0.04), and 14 versus six patients had upper respiratory tract infections (P=0.03). Three patients on sirolimus had angioedema, 14 patients had aphthous stomatitis, and seven patients had acne (P<0.01 for both versus controls). Two patients progressed to ESRD, and two patients withdrew because of worsening of proteinuria. These events were not observed in controls. Thus, the independent data and safety monitoring board recommend early trial termination for safety reasons. At 1 year, total kidney volume (assessed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging) increased by 9.0% from 2857.7±1447.3 to 3094.6±1519.5 ml on sirolimus and 4.3% from 3123.4±1695.3 to 3222.6±1651.4 ml on conventional therapy (P=0.12). On follow-up, 37% and 7% of serum sirolimus levels fell below or exceeded the therapeutic range, respectively.

Conclusions: Finding that sirolimus was unsafe and ineffective in patients with ADPKD and renal insufficiency suggests that mTOR inhibitor therapy may be contraindicated in this context.
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May 2016

Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

Lancet 2015 Dec 11;386(10010):2287-323. Epub 2015 Sep 11.

Background: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution.

Methods: Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol.

Findings: All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa.

Interpretation: Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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December 2015

Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition.

Lancet 2015 Nov 28;386(10009):2145-91. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Background: The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development.

Methods: We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time.

Findings: Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6-6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0-65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0-71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9-5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5-59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7-64·8), total DALYs fell by 3·6% (0·3-7·4), and age-standardised DALY rates per 100 000 people fell by 26·7% (24·6-29·1). For communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, global DALY numbers, crude rates, and age-standardised rates have all declined between 1990 and 2013, whereas for non-communicable diseases, global DALYs have been increasing, DALY rates have remained nearly constant, and age-standardised DALY rates declined during the same period. From 2005 to 2013, the number of DALYs increased for most specific non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in addition to dengue, food-borne trematodes, and leishmaniasis; DALYs decreased for nearly all other causes. By 2013, the five leading causes of DALYs were ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, cerebrovascular disease, low back and neck pain, and road injuries. Sociodemographic status explained more than 50% of the variance between countries and over time for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; maternal disorders; neonatal disorders; nutritional deficiencies; other communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases; musculoskeletal disorders; and other non-communicable diseases. However, sociodemographic status explained less than 10% of the variance in DALY rates for cardiovascular diseases; chronic respiratory diseases; cirrhosis; diabetes, urogenital, blood, and endocrine diseases; unintentional injuries; and self-harm and interpersonal violence. Predictably, increased sociodemographic status was associated with a shift in burden from YLLs to YLDs, driven by declines in YLLs and increases in YLDs from musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, and mental and substance use disorders. In most country-specific estimates, the increase in life expectancy was greater than that in HALE. Leading causes of DALYs are highly variable across countries.

Interpretation: Global health is improving. Population growth and ageing have driven up numbers of DALYs, but crude rates have remained relatively constant, showing that progress in health does not mean fewer demands on health systems. The notion of an epidemiological transition--in which increasing sociodemographic status brings structured change in disease burden--is useful, but there is tremendous variation in burden of disease that is not associated with sociodemographic status. This further underscores the need for country-specific assessments of DALYs and HALE to appropriately inform health policy decisions and attendant actions.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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November 2015

The Global Burden of Cancer 2013.

JAMA Oncol 2015 Jul;1(4):505-27

Faculty of Chinese Medicine, Southern University College, Johor, Malaysia.

Importance: Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies.

Objective: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 28 cancers in 188 countries by sex from 1990 to 2013.

Evidence Review: The general methodology of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study was used. Cancer registries were the source for cancer incidence data as well as mortality incidence (MI) ratios. Sources for cause of death data include vital registration system data, verbal autopsy studies, and other sources. The MI ratios were used to transform incidence data to mortality estimates and cause of death estimates to incidence estimates. Cancer prevalence was estimated using MI ratios as surrogates for survival data; YLDs were calculated by multiplying prevalence estimates with disability weights, which were derived from population-based surveys; YLLs were computed by multiplying the number of estimated cancer deaths at each age with a reference life expectancy; and DALYs were calculated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs.

Findings: In 2013 there were 14.9 million incident cancer cases, 8.2 million deaths, and 196.3 million DALYs. Prostate cancer was the leading cause for cancer incidence (1.4 million) for men and breast cancer for women (1.8 million). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer was the leading cause for cancer death in men and women, with 1.6 million deaths. For men, TBL cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (24.9 million). For women, breast cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (13.1 million). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) per 100 000 and age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) per 100 000 for both sexes in 2013 were higher in developing vs developed countries for stomach cancer (ASIR, 17 vs 14; ASDR, 15 vs 11), liver cancer (ASIR, 15 vs 7; ASDR, 16 vs 7), esophageal cancer (ASIR, 9 vs 4; ASDR, 9 vs 4), cervical cancer (ASIR, 8 vs 5; ASDR, 4 vs 2), lip and oral cavity cancer (ASIR, 7 vs 6; ASDR, 2 vs 2), and nasopharyngeal cancer (ASIR, 1.5 vs 0.4; ASDR, 1.2 vs 0.3). Between 1990 and 2013, ASIRs for all cancers combined (except nonmelanoma skin cancer and Kaposi sarcoma) increased by more than 10% in 113 countries and decreased by more than 10% in 12 of 188 countries.

Conclusions And Relevance: Cancer poses a major threat to public health worldwide, and incidence rates have increased in most countries since 1990. The trend is a particular threat to developing nations with health systems that are ill-equipped to deal with complex and expensive cancer treatments. The annual update on the Global Burden of Cancer will provide all stakeholders with timely estimates to guide policy efforts in cancer prevention, screening, treatment, and palliation.
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July 2015

Paricalcitol for secondary hyperparathyroidism in renal transplantation.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2015 May 5;26(5):1205-14. Epub 2014 Sep 5.

IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri," Clinical Research Center for Rare Diseases "Aldo & Cele Daccò," Bergamo, Italy; and.

Secondary hyperparathyroidism contributes to post-transplant CKD mineral and bone disorder. Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, decreased serum parathyroid hormone levels and proteinuria in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. This single-center, prospective, randomized, crossover, open-label study compared the effect of 6-month treatment with paricalcitol (1 μg/d for 3 months and then uptitrated to 2 µg/d if tolerated) or nonparicalcitol therapy on serum parathyroid hormone levels (primary outcome), mineral metabolism, and proteinuria in 43 consenting recipients of renal transplants with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Participants were randomized 1:1 according to a computer-generated sequence. Compared with baseline, median (interquartile range) serum parathyroid hormone levels significantly declined on paricalcitol from 115.6 (94.8-152.0) to 63.3 (52.0-79.7) pg/ml (P<0.001) but not on nonparicalcitol therapy. At 6 months, levels significantly differed between treatments (P<0.001 by analysis of covariance). Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin decreased on paricalcitol therapy only and significantly differed between treatments at 6 months (P<0.001 for all comparisons). At 6 months, urinary deoxypyridinoline-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour proteinuria level decreased only on paricalcitol (P<0.05). L3 and L4 vertebral mineral bone density, assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorption, significantly improved with paricalcitol at 6 months (P<0.05 for both densities). Paricalcitol was well tolerated. Overall, 6-month paricalcitol supplementation reduced parathyroid hormone levels and proteinuria, attenuated bone remodeling and mineral loss, and reduced eGFR in renal transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Long-term studies are needed to monitor directly measured GFR, ensure that the bone remodeling and mineral effects are sustained, and determine if the reduction in proteinuria improves renal and cardiovascular outcomes.
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May 2015

Multicentre prospective validation of a urinary peptidome-based classifier for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014 Aug 2;29(8):1563-70. Epub 2014 Mar 2.

Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major late complications of diabetes. Treatment aimed at slowing down the progression of DN is available but methods for early and definitive detection of DN progression are currently lacking. The 'Proteomic prediction and Renin angiotensin aldosterone system Inhibition prevention Of early diabetic nephRopathy In TYpe 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria trial' (PRIORITY) aims to evaluate the early detection of DN in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) using a urinary proteome-based classifier (CKD273).

Methods: In this ancillary study of the recently initiated PRIORITY trial we aimed to validate for the first time the CKD273 classifier in a multicentre (9 different institutions providing samples from 165 T2D patients) prospective setting. In addition we also investigated the influence of sample containers, age and gender on the CKD273 classifier.

Results: We observed a high consistency of the CKD273 classification scores across the different centres with areas under the curves ranging from 0.95 to 1.00. The classifier was independent of age (range tested 16-89 years) and gender. Furthermore, the use of different urine storage containers did not affect the classification scores. Analysis of the distribution of the individual peptides of the classifier over the nine different centres showed that fragments of blood-derived and extracellular matrix proteins were the most consistently found.

Conclusion: We provide for the first time validation of this urinary proteome-based classifier in a multicentre prospective setting and show the suitability of the CKD273 classifier to be used in the PRIORITY trial.
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August 2014

Chronic kidney disease and risk of mortality, cardiovascular events or end-stage renal disease in older patients with hypertension.

Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2012 Oct;10(10):1213-6

Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Clinical Research Center for Rare Diseases Aldo e Cele Daccò, Villa Camozzi, Ranica, Italy.

Older individuals with a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease are at higher risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) events and end-stage renal disease. In such patients, the glomerular filtration rate may be estimated with different formulas, including the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations. The recently published post-hoc analysis of the long-term CV and renal outcomes of the ALLHAT trial that enrolled older patients with hypertension and high CV risk, but very low risk of renal disease progression, clearly highlights the interpretative pitfalls associated with this approach. Until future studies better establish the boundaries of 'normal' glomerular filtration rate in older people, physicians should not underestimate the importance of proteinuria and accurate glomerular filtration rate measurement in choosing the most appropriate antihypertensive combination in daily clinical practice, particularly in patients at high risk of progression to end-stage renal disease.
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October 2012

Infective endocarditis mimics ANCA associated glomerulonephritis.

Caspian J Intern Med 2012 ;3(3):496-9

Department of Nephrology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Sub-acute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) rarely presents with features of a small vessel vasculitis. Patients with SBE can also develop multiple serological abnormalities including ANCA. In this report, we present a case of infective endocarditis mimicked ANCA associated glomerulonephritis.

Case Presentation: A 57-year old male with a clinical picture of rapidly progressive renal failure (RPGN) and positive seology for PR3-ANCA (C-ANCA) was referred to our hospital. The renal histology findings were compatible with focal and segmental glomerular necrosis. After receiving corticosteroid therapy, the patient became febrile and his general condition worsened. Cardiac ultrasound echocardiographic study disclosed multiple large vegetations on the aortic valve. After appropriate antibiotic therapy and valvular surgery, the patient's condition improved and his serum creatinine reached 1.7 mg/d.

Conclusion: Misdiagnosis of SBE as ANCA-associated vasculitis and an inappropriate immunosuppressive therapy can have catastrophic consequences.
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September 2013