Publications by authors named "Mathilde Nizon"

61 Publications

Using deep-neural-network-driven facial recognition to identify distinct Kabuki syndrome 1 and 2 gestalt.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 Nov 22. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Montpellier University, Département de Génétique Médicale, Maladies Rares et Médecine Personnalisée, Génétique clinique, CHU Montpellier, Centre de référence anomalies du développement SOOR, INSERM U1183, Montpellier, France.

Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in two major genes, KMT2D and KDM6A, that are responsible for Kabuki syndrome 1 (KS1, OMIM147920) and Kabuki syndrome 2 (KS2, OMIM300867), respectively. We lack a description of clinical signs to distinguish KS1 and KS2. We used facial morphology analysis to detect any facial morphological differences between the two KS types. We used a facial-recognition algorithm to explore any facial morphologic differences between the two types of KS. We compared several image series of KS1 and KS2 individuals, then compared images of those of Caucasian origin only (12 individuals for each gene) because this was the main ethnicity in this series. We also collected 32 images from the literature to amass a large series. We externally validated results obtained by the algorithm with evaluations by trained clinical geneticists using the same set of pictures. Use of the algorithm revealed a statistically significant difference between each group for our series of images, demonstrating a different facial morphotype between KS1 and KS2 individuals (mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.85 [p = 0.027] between KS1 and KS2). The algorithm was better at discriminating between the two types of KS with images from our series than those from the literature (p = 0.0007). Clinical geneticists trained to distinguished KS1 and KS2 significantly recognised a unique facial morphotype, which validated algorithm findings (p = 1.6e-11). Our deep-neural-network-driven facial-recognition algorithm can reveal specific composite gestalt images for KS1 and KS2 individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00994-8DOI Listing
November 2021

Accelerated genome sequencing with controlled costs for infants in intensive care units: a feasibility study in a French hospital network.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 Nov 15. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Service de Génétique Clinique, CHU Robert Debré, Paris, France.

Obtaining a rapid etiological diagnosis for infants with early-onset rare diseases remains a major challenge. These diseases often have a severe presentation and unknown prognosis, and the genetic causes are very heterogeneous. In a French hospital network, we assessed the feasibility of performing accelerated trio-genome sequencing (GS) with limited additional costs by integrating urgent requests into the routine workflow. In addition to evaluating our capacity for such an approach, this prospective multicentre pilot study was designed to identify pitfalls encountered during its implementation. Over 14 months, we included newborns and infants hospitalized in neonatal or paediatric intensive care units with probable genetic disease and in urgent need for etiological diagnosis to guide medical care. The duration of each step and the pitfalls were recorded. We analysed any deviation from the planned schedule and identified obstacles. Trio-GS was performed for 37 individuals, leading to a molecular diagnosis in 18/37 (49%), and 21/37 (57%) after reanalysis. Corrective measures and protocol adaptations resulted in a median duration of 42 days from blood sampling to report. Accelerated trio-GS is undeniably valuable for individuals in an urgent care context. Such a circuit should coexist with a rapid or ultra-rapid circuit, which, although more expensive, can be used in particularly urgent cases. The drop in GS costs should result in its generalized use for diagnostic purposes and lead to a reduction of the costs of rapid GS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00998-4DOI Listing
November 2021

MYT1L-associated neurodevelopmental disorder: description of 40 new cases and literature review of clinical and molecular aspects.

Hum Genet 2021 Nov 8. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Department of Genetics, IHU Necker-Enfants Malades, University Paris Descartes, Paris, France.

Pathogenic variants of the myelin transcription factor-1 like (MYT1L) gene include heterozygous missense, truncating variants and 2p25.3 microdeletions and cause a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder (OMIM#616,521). Despite enrichment in de novo mutations in several developmental disorders and autism studies, the data on clinical characteristics and genotype-phenotype correlations are scarce, with only 22 patients with single nucleotide pathogenic variants reported. We aimed to further characterize this disorder at both the clinical and molecular levels by gathering a large series of patients with MYT1L-associated neurodevelopmental disorder. We collected genetic information on 40 unreported patients with likely pathogenic/pathogenic MYT1L variants and performed a comprehensive review of published data (total = 62 patients). We confirm that the main phenotypic features of the MYT1L-related disorder are developmental delay with language delay (95%), intellectual disability (ID, 70%), overweight or obesity (58%), behavioral disorders (98%) and epilepsy (23%). We highlight novel clinical characteristics, such as learning disabilities without ID (30%) and feeding difficulties during infancy (18%). We further describe the varied dysmorphic features (67%) and present the changes in weight over time of 27 patients. We show that patients harboring highly clustered missense variants in the 2-3-ZNF domains are not clinically distinguishable from patients with truncating variants. We provide an updated overview of clinical and genetic data of the MYT1L-associated neurodevelopmental disorder, hence improving diagnosis and clinical management of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-021-02383-zDOI Listing
November 2021

Establishing the phenotypic spectrum of ZTTK syndrome by analysis of 52 individuals with variants in SON.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Human Genetics, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Zhu-Tokita-Takenouchi-Kim (ZTTK) syndrome, an intellectual disability syndrome first described in 2016, is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function variants in SON. Its encoded protein promotes pre-mRNA splicing of many genes essential for development. Whereas individual phenotypic traits have previously been linked to erroneous splicing of SON target genes, the phenotypic spectrum and the pathogenicity of missense variants have not been further evaluated. We present the phenotypic abnormalities in 52 individuals, including 17 individuals who have not been reported before. In total, loss-of-function variants were detected in 49 individuals (de novo in 47, inheritance unknown in 2), and in 3, a missense variant was observed (2 de novo, 1 inheritance unknown). Phenotypic abnormalities, systematically collected and analyzed in Human Phenotype Ontology, were found in all organ systems. Significant inter-individual phenotypic variability was observed, even in individuals with the same recurrent variant (n = 13). SON haploinsufficiency was previously shown to lead to downregulation of downstream genes, contributing to specific phenotypic features. Similar functional analysis for one missense variant, however, suggests a different mechanism than for heterozygous loss-of-function. Although small in numbers and while pathogenicity of these variants is not certain, these data allow for speculation whether de novo missense variants cause ZTTK syndrome via another mechanism, or a separate overlapping syndrome. In conclusion, heterozygous loss-of-function variants in SON define a recognizable syndrome, ZTTK, associated with a broad, severe phenotypic spectrum, characterized by a large inter-individual variability. These observations provide essential information for affected individuals, parents, and healthcare professionals to ensure appropriate clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00960-4DOI Listing
September 2021

Genotype-phenotype correlations in SCN8A-related disorders reveal prognostic and therapeutic implications.

Brain 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

National Centre for Rare Epilepsy-Related Disorders, Oslo University Hospital, 0001 Oslo, Norway.

We report detailed functional analyses and genotype-phenotype correlations in 392 individuals carrying disease-causing variants in SCN8A, encoding the voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.6, with the aim of describing clinical phenotypes related to functional effects. Six different clinical subgroups could be identified: 1) Benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE) (n = 15, normal cognition, treatable seizures), 2) intermediate epilepsy (n = 33, mild ID, partially pharmaco-responsive), 3) developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE, n = 177, severe ID, majority pharmaco-resistant), 4) generalized epilepsy (n = 20, mild to moderate ID, frequently with absence seizures), 5) unclassifiable epilepsy (n = 127), and 6) neurodevelopmental disorder without epilepsy (n = 20, mild to moderate ID). Groups 1-3 presented with focal or multifocal seizures (median age of onset: four months) and focal epileptiform discharges, whereas the onset of seizures in group 4 was later (median: 42 months) with generalized epileptiform discharges. We performed functional studies expressing missense variants in ND7/23 neuroblastoma cells and primary neuronal cultures using recombinant tetrodotoxin-insensitive human NaV1.6 channels and whole-cell patch-clamping. Two variants causing DEE showed a strong gain-of-function (GOF, hyperpolarising shift of steady-state activation, strongly increased neuronal firing rate), and one variant causing BFIE or intermediate epilepsy showed a mild GOF (defective fast inactivation, less increased firing). In contrast, all three variants causing generalized epilepsy induced a loss-of-function (LOF, reduced current amplitudes, depolarising shift of steady-state activation, reduced neuronal firing). Including previous studies, functional effects were known for 170 individuals. All 136 individuals carrying a functionally tested GOF variant had either focal (97, groups 1-3), or unclassifiable epilepsy (39), whereas 34 with a LOF variant had either generalized (14), no (11) or unclassifiable (6) epilepsy; only three had DEE. Computational modeling in the GOF group revealed a significant correlation between the severity of the electrophysiological and clinical phenotypes. GOF variant carriers responded significantly better to sodium channel blockers (SCBs) than to other anti-seizure medications, and the same applied for all individuals of groups 1-3. In conclusion, our data reveal clear genotype-phenotype correlations between age at seizure onset, type of epilepsy and gain- or loss-of-function effects of SCN8A variants. Generalized epilepsy with absence seizures is the main epilepsy phenotype of LOF variant carriers and the extent of the electrophysiological dysfunction of the GOF variants is a main determinant of the severity of the clinical phenotype in focal epilepsies. Our pharmacological data indicate that SCBs present a treatment option in SCN8A-related focal epilepsy with onset in the first year of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awab321DOI Listing
August 2021

Integrative approach to interpret DYRK1A variants, leading to a frequent neurodevelopmental disorder.

Genet Med 2021 11 3;23(11):2150-2159. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245 and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Genetics and Reference Center for Developmental Disorders, F 76000, Normandy Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Rouen, France.

Purpose: DYRK1A syndrome is among the most frequent monogenic forms of intellectual disability (ID). We refined the molecular and clinical description of this disorder and developed tools to improve interpretation of missense variants, which remains a major challenge in human genetics.

Methods: We reported clinical and molecular data for 50 individuals with ID harboring DYRK1A variants and developed (1) a specific DYRK1A clinical score; (2) amino acid conservation data generated from 100 DYRK1A sequences across different taxa; (3) in vitro overexpression assays to study level, cellular localization, and kinase activity of DYRK1A mutant proteins; and (4) a specific blood DNA methylation signature.

Results: This integrative approach was successful to reclassify several variants as pathogenic. However, we questioned the involvement of some others, such as p.Thr588Asn, still reported as likely pathogenic, and showed it does not cause an obvious phenotype in mice.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated the need for caution when interpreting variants in DYRK1A, even those occurring de novo. The tools developed will be useful to interpret accurately the variants identified in the future in this gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01263-1DOI Listing
November 2021

Severe Phenotype in Patients with Large Deletions of .

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 13;13(12). Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Lille University, Inserm, CHU Lille, U1172 - LilNCog - Lille Neuroscience & Cognition, F-59000 Lille, France.

Complete deletion of the gene is identified in 5-10% of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Several studies have previously described particularly severe forms of the disease in NF1 patients with deletion of the locus, but comprehensive descriptions of large cohorts are still missing to fully characterize this contiguous gene syndrome. -deleted patients were enrolled and phenotypically characterized with a standardized questionnaire between 2005 and 2020 from a large French NF1 cohort. Statistical analyses for main NF1-associated symptoms were performed an NF1 reference population. A deletion of the gene was detected in 4% (139/3479) of molecularly confirmed NF1 index cases. The median age of the group at clinical investigations was 21 years old. A comprehensive clinical assessment showed that 93% (116/126) of -deleted patients fulfilled the NIH criteria for NF1. More than half had café-au-lait spots, skinfold freckling, Lisch nodules, neurofibromas, neurological abnormalities, and cognitive impairment or learning disabilities. Comparison with previously described "classic" NF1 cohorts showed a significantly higher proportion of symptomatic spinal neurofibromas, dysmorphism, learning disabilities, malignancies, and skeletal and cardiovascular abnormalities in the -deleted group. We described the largest -deleted cohort to date and clarified the more severe phenotype observed in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13122963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8231977PMC
June 2021

Clinical delineation of SETBP1 haploinsufficiency disorder.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 Aug 19;29(8):1198-1205. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

SETBP1 haploinsufficiency disorder (MIM#616078) is caused by haploinsufficiency of SETBP1 on chromosome 18q12.3, but there has not yet been any systematic evaluation of the major features of this monogenic syndrome, assessing penetrance and expressivity. We describe the first comprehensive study to delineate the associated clinical phenotype, with findings from 34 individuals, including 24 novel cases, all of whom have a SETBP1 loss-of-function variant or single (coding) gene deletion, confirmed by molecular diagnostics. The most commonly reported clinical features included mild motor developmental delay, speech impairment, intellectual disability, hypotonia, vision impairment, attention/concentration deficits, and hyperactivity. Although there is a mild overlap in certain facial features, the disorder does not lead to a distinctive recognizable facial gestalt. As well as providing insight into the clinical spectrum of SETBP1 haploinsufficiency disorder, this reports puts forward care recommendations for patient management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00888-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385049PMC
August 2021

Phenotypic spectrum and genomics of undiagnosed arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.

J Med Genet 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, APHP-Bicêtre Hospital, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Background: Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is characterised by congenital joint contractures in two or more body areas. AMC exhibits wide phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Our goals were to improve the genetic diagnosis rates of AMC, to evaluate the added value of whole exome sequencing (WES) compared with targeted exome sequencing (TES) and to identify new genes in 315 unrelated undiagnosed AMC families.

Methods: Several genomic approaches were used including genetic mapping of disease loci in multiplex or consanguineous families, TES then WES. Sanger sequencing was performed to identify or validate variants.

Results: We achieved disease gene identification in 52.7% of AMC index patients including nine recently identified genes (, , , , , , , and ). Moreover, we identified pathogenic variants in and expanding the phenotypes associated with these genes. The most frequent cause of AMC was a primary involvement of skeletal muscle (40%) followed by brain (22%). The most frequent mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive (66.3% of patients). In sporadic patients born to non-consanguineous parents (n=60), de novo dominant autosomal or X linked variants were observed in 30 of them (50%).

Conclusion: New genes recently identified in AMC represent 21% of causing genes in our cohort. A high proportion of de novo variants were observed indicating that this mechanism plays a prominent part in this developmental disease. Our data showed the added value of WES when compared with TES due to the larger clinical spectrum of some disease genes than initially described and the identification of novel genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107595DOI Listing
April 2021

Patients with -related intellectual disability without distinctive features of Zimmermann-Laband/Temple-Baraitser syndrome.

J Med Genet 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

APHP.Sorbonne Université, Département de Génétique, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié Salpêtrière et Hôpital Trousseau, Paris, Île-de-France, France.

De novo missense variants in encoding Kv10.1 are responsible for two clinically recognisable phenotypes: Temple-Baraitser syndrome (TBS) and Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS). The clinical overlap between these two syndromes suggests that they belong to a spectrum of -related encephalopathies. Affected patients have severe intellectual disability (ID) with or without epilepsy, hypertrichosis and distinctive features such as gingival hyperplasia and nail hypoplasia/aplasia (present in 20/23 reported cases).We report a series of seven patients with ID and de novo pathogenic variants identified by whole-exome sequencing or an epilepsy gene panel in whom the diagnosis of TBS/ZLS had not been first considered. Four of these variants, p.(Thr294Met), p.(Ala492Asp), p.(Thr493Asn) and p.(Gly496Arg), were located in the transmembrane domains S3 and S6 of Kv10.1 and one, p.(Arg693Gln), in its C-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding homology domain (CNBHD). Clinical reappraisal by the referring clinical geneticists confirmed the absence of the distinctive gingival and nail features of TBS/ZLS.Our study expands the phenotypical spectrum of -related encephalopathies to individuals with an attenuated extraneurological phenotype preventing a clinical diagnosis of TBS or ZLS. This subtype may be related to recurrent substitutions of the Gly496, suggesting a genotype-phenotype correlation and, possibly, to variants in the CNBHD domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107511DOI Listing
April 2021

Robust Detection of Somatic Mosaicism and Repeat Interruptions by Long-Read Targeted Sequencing in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 5;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Centre de Recherche en Myologie, Inserm, Institut de Myologie, Sorbonne Université, F-75013 Paris, France.

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most complex and variable trinucleotide repeat disorder caused by an unstable CTG repeat expansion, reaching up to 4000 CTG in the most severe cases. The genetic and clinical variability of DM1 depend on the sex and age of the transmitting parent, but also on the CTG repeat number, presence of repeat interruptions and/or on the degree of somatic instability. Currently, it is difficult to simultaneously and accurately determine these contributing factors in DM1 patients due to the limitations of gold standard methods used in molecular diagnostics and research laboratories. Our study showed the efficiency of the latest PacBio long-read sequencing technology to sequence large CTG trinucleotides, detect multiple and single repeat interruptions and estimate the levels of somatic mosaicism in DM1 patients carrying complex CTG repeat expansions inaccessible to most methods. Using this innovative approach, we revealed the existence of de novo CCG interruptions associated with CTG stabilization/contraction across generations in a new DM1 family. We also demonstrated that our method is suitable to sequence the DM1 locus and measure somatic mosaicism in DM1 families carrying more than 1000 pure CTG repeats. Better characterization of expanded alleles in DM1 patients can significantly improve prognosis and genetic counseling, not only in DM1 but also for other tandem DNA repeat disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962047PMC
March 2021

First French study relative to preconception genetic testing: 1500 general population participants' opinion.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 03 12;16(1):130. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Service de Génétique Médicale, CHU Nantes, 9 quai Moncousu, 44093, Nantes Cedex 1, France.

Background: Until very recently, preconception genetic testing was only conducted in particular communities, ethnic groups or families for which an increased risk of genetic disease was identified. To detect in general population a risk for a couple to have a child affected by a rare, recessive or X-linked, genetic disease, carrier screening is proposed in several countries. We aimed to determine the current public opinion relative to this approach in France, using either a printed or web-based questionnaire.

Results: Among the 1568 participants, 91% are favorable to preconception genetic tests and 57% declare to be willing to have the screening if the latter is available. A medical prescription by a family doctor or a gynecologist would be the best way to propose the test for 73%, with a reimbursement from the social security insurance. However, 19% declare not to be willing to use the test because of their ethic or moral convictions, and the fear that the outcome would question the pregnancy. Otherwise, most participants consider that the test is a medical progress despite the risk of an increased medicalization of the pregnancy.

Conclusion: This first study in France highlights a global favorable opinion for the preconception genetic carrier testing under a medical prescription and a reimbursement by social security insurance. Our results emphasize as well the complex concerns underpinned by the use of this screening strategy. Therefore, the ethical issues related to these tests include the risk of eugenic drift mentioned by more than half of the participants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-01754-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955630PMC
March 2021

Disruption of RFX family transcription factors causes autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, intellectual disability, and dysregulated behavior.

Genet Med 2021 06 3;23(6):1028-1040. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Division of Medical Genetics, Nemours/A.I. DuPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE, USA.

Purpose: We describe a novel neurobehavioral phenotype of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) associated with de novo or inherited deleterious variants in members of the RFX family of genes. RFX genes are evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that act as master regulators of central nervous system development and ciliogenesis.

Methods: We assembled a cohort of 38 individuals (from 33 unrelated families) with de novo variants in RFX3, RFX4, and RFX7. We describe their common clinical phenotypes and present bioinformatic analyses of expression patterns and downstream targets of these genes as they relate to other neurodevelopmental risk genes.

Results: These individuals share neurobehavioral features including ASD, intellectual disability, and/or ADHD; other frequent features include hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli and sleep problems. RFX3, RFX4, and RFX7 are strongly expressed in developing and adult human brain, and X-box binding motifs as well as RFX ChIP-seq peaks are enriched in the cis-regulatory regions of known ASD risk genes.

Conclusion: These results establish a likely role of deleterious variation in RFX3, RFX4, and RFX7 in cases of monogenic intellectual disability, ADHD and ASD, and position these genes as potentially critical transcriptional regulators of neurobiological pathways associated with neurodevelopmental disease pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01114-zDOI Listing
June 2021

14q32.11 microdeletion including CALM1, TTC7B, PSMC1, and RPS6KA5: A new potential cause of developmental and language delay in three unrelated patients.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 05 25;185(5):1519-1524. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, USA.

Three unrelated patients with similar microdeletions of chromosome 14q32.11 with shared phenotypes including language and developmental delay, and four overlapping genes -CALM1, TTC7B, PSMC1, and RPS6KA5 have been presented. All four genes are expressed in the brain and have haploinsufficiency scores, which reflect low tolerance to loss of function variation. An insight on the genes in the overlapping region, which may influence the resulting phenotype has been provided. Given the three patients' similar phenotypes and lack of normal variation in this region, it was suggested that this microdeletion may be associated with developmental and language delay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62117DOI Listing
May 2021

Loss-of-function variants in ARHGEF9 are associated with an X-linked intellectual disability dominant disorder.

Hum Mutat 2021 May 14;42(5):498-505. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Service de Génétique Médicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes, Nantes, France.

ARHGEF9 defects lead to an X-linked intellectual disability disorder related to inhibitory synaptic dysfunction. This condition is more frequent in males, with a few affected females reported. Up to now, sequence variants and gross deletions have been identified in males, while only chromosomal aberrations have been reported in affected females who showed a skewed pattern of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), suggesting an X-linked recessive (XLR) disorder. We report three novel loss-of-function (LoF) variants in ARHGEF9: A de novo synonymous variant affecting splicing (NM_015185.2: c.1056G>A, p.(Lys352=)) in one female; a nonsense variant in another female (c.865C>T, p.(Arg289*)), that is, also present as a somatically mosaic variant in her father, and a de novo nonsense variant in a boy (c.899G>A; p.(Trp300*)). Both females showed a random XCI. Thus, we suggest that missense variants are responsible for an XLR disorder affecting males and that LoF variants, mainly occurring de novo, may be responsible for an X-linked dominant disorder affecting males and females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24188DOI Listing
May 2021

Heterozygous Variants in KDM4B Lead to Global Developmental Delay and Neuroanatomical Defects.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 12 23;107(6):1170-1177. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Division of Genetics and Genomics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA; The Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

KDM4B is a lysine-specific demethylase with a preferential activity on H3K9 tri/di-methylation (H3K9me3/2)-modified histones. H3K9 tri/di-demethylation is an important epigenetic mechanism responsible for silencing of gene expression in animal development and cancer. However, the role of KDM4B on human development is still poorly characterized. Through international data sharing, we gathered a cohort of nine individuals with mono-allelic de novo or inherited variants in KDM4B. All individuals presented with dysmorphic features and global developmental delay (GDD) with language and motor skills most affected. Three individuals had a history of seizures, and four had anomalies on brain imaging ranging from agenesis of the corpus callosum with hydrocephalus to cystic formations, abnormal hippocampi, and polymicrogyria. In mice, lysine demethylase 4B is expressed during brain development with high levels in the hippocampus, a region important for learning and memory. To understand how KDM4B variants can lead to GDD in humans, we assessed the effect of KDM4B disruption on brain anatomy and behavior through an in vivo heterozygous mouse model (Kdm4b), focusing on neuroanatomical changes. In mutant mice, the total brain volume was significantly reduced with decreased size of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and ventriculomegaly. This report demonstrates that variants in KDM4B are associated with GDD/ intellectual disability and neuroanatomical defects. Our findings suggest that KDM4B variation leads to a chromatinopathy, broadening the spectrum of this group of Mendelian disorders caused by alterations in epigenetic machinery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820620PMC
December 2020

Prevalence of Immunological Defects in a Cohort of 97 Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome Patients.

J Clin Immunol 2020 08 27;40(6):851-860. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Departamento de Nefrología, Hospital Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Although recurrent infections in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) are common, and probably multifactorial, immunological abnormalities have not been extensively described with only isolated cases or small case series of immune deficiency and dysregulation having been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate primary immunodeficiency (PID) and immune dysregulation in an international cohort of patients with RSTS. All published cases of RSTS were identified. The corresponding authors and researchers involved in the diagnosis of inborn errors of immunity or genetic syndromes were contacted to obtain up-to-date clinical and immunological information. Ninety-seven RSTS patients were identified. For 45 patients, we retrieved data from the published reports while for 52 patients, a clinical update was provided. Recurrent or severe infections, autoimmune/autoinflammatory complications, and lymphoproliferation were observed in 72.1%, 12.3%, and 8.2% of patients. Syndromic immunodeficiency was diagnosed in 46.4% of individuals. Despite the broad heterogeneity of immunodeficiency disorders, antibody defects were observed in 11.3% of subjects. In particular, these patients presented hypogammaglobulinemia associated with low B cell counts and reduction of switched memory B cell numbers. Immunoglobulin replacement therapy, antibiotic prophylaxis, and immunosuppressive treatment were employed in 16.4%, 8.2%, and 9.8% of patients, respectively. Manifestations of immune dysfunctions, affecting mostly B cells, are more common than previously recognized in patients with RSTS. Full immunological assessment is warranted in these patients, who may require detailed investigation and specific supportive treatment. Graphical Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00808-4DOI Listing
August 2020

Prenatal exome sequencing in 65 fetuses with abnormality of the corpus callosum: contribution to further diagnostic delineation.

Genet Med 2020 11 22;22(11):1887-1891. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Service de Génétique Clinique, CHU de Dijon, Dijon, France.

Purpose: Abnormality of the corpus callosum (AbnCC) is etiologically a heterogeneous condition and the prognosis in prenatally diagnosed cases is difficult to predict. The purpose of our research was to establish the diagnostic yield using chromosomal microarray (CMA) and exome sequencing (ES) in cases with prenatally diagnosed isolated (iAbnCC) and nonisolated AbnCC (niAbnCC).

Methods: CMA and prenatal trio ES (pES) were done on 65 fetuses with iAbnCC and niAbnCC. Only pathogenic gene variants known to be associated with AbnCC and/or intellectual disability were considered.

Results: pES results were available within a median of 21.5 days (9-53 days). A pathogenic single-nucleotide variant (SNV) was identified in 12 cases (18%) and a pathogenic CNV was identified in 3 cases (4.5%). Thus, the genetic etiology was determined in 23% of cases. In all diagnosed cases, the results provided sufficient information regarding the neurodevelopmental prognosis and helped the parents to make an informed decision regarding the outcome of the pregnancy.

Conclusion: Our results show the significant diagnostic and prognostic contribution of CMA and pES in cases with prenatally diagnosed AbnCC. Further prospective cohort studies with long-term follow-up of the born children will be needed to provide accurate prenatal counseling after a negative pES result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0872-8DOI Listing
November 2020

De Novo SOX6 Variants Cause a Neurodevelopmental Syndrome Associated with ADHD, Craniosynostosis, and Osteochondromas.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 06 21;106(6):830-845. Epub 2020 May 21.

Roberts Individualized Medical Genetics Center, Division of Human Genetics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

SOX6 belongs to a family of 20 SRY-related HMG-box-containing (SOX) genes that encode transcription factors controlling cell fate and differentiation in many developmental and adult processes. For SOX6, these processes include, but are not limited to, neurogenesis and skeletogenesis. Variants in half of the SOX genes have been shown to cause severe developmental and adult syndromes, referred to as SOXopathies. We here provide evidence that SOX6 variants also cause a SOXopathy. Using clinical and genetic data, we identify 19 individuals harboring various types of SOX6 alterations and exhibiting developmental delay and/or intellectual disability; the individuals are from 17 unrelated families. Additional, inconstant features include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, mild facial dysmorphism, craniosynostosis, and multiple osteochondromas. All variants are heterozygous. Fourteen are de novo, one is inherited from a mosaic father, and four offspring from two families have a paternally inherited variant. Intragenic microdeletions, balanced structural rearrangements, frameshifts, and nonsense variants are predicted to inactivate the SOX6 variant allele. Four missense variants occur in residues and protein regions highly conserved evolutionarily. These variants are not detected in the gnomAD control cohort, and the amino acid substitutions are predicted to be damaging. Two of these variants are located in the HMG domain and abolish SOX6 transcriptional activity in vitro. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations are found. Taken together, these findings concur that SOX6 haploinsufficiency leads to a neurodevelopmental SOXopathy that often includes ADHD and abnormal skeletal and other features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.04.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273536PMC
June 2020

Mutations in the Kinesin-2 Motor KIF3B Cause an Autosomal-Dominant Ciliopathy.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 06 7;106(6):893-904. Epub 2020 May 7.

CHU Nantes, Service de Génétique Médicale, 9 quai Moncousu, 44093 Nantes Cedex 1, France; Université de Nantes, CNRS, INSERM, l'institut du thorax, 44000 Nantes, France. Electronic address:

Kinesin-2 enables ciliary assembly and maintenance as an anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) motor. Molecular motor activity is driven by a heterotrimeric complex comprised of KIF3A and KIF3B or KIF3C plus one non-motor subunit, KIFAP3. Using exome sequencing, we identified heterozygous KIF3B variants in two unrelated families with hallmark ciliopathy phenotypes. In the first family, the proband presents with hepatic fibrosis, retinitis pigmentosa, and postaxial polydactyly; he harbors a de novo c.748G>C (p.Glu250Gln) variant affecting the kinesin motor domain encoded by KIF3B. The second family is a six-generation pedigree affected predominantly by retinitis pigmentosa. Affected individuals carry a heterozygous c.1568T>C (p.Leu523Pro) KIF3B variant segregating in an autosomal-dominant pattern. We observed a significant increase in primary cilia length in vitro in the context of either of the two mutations while variant KIF3B proteins retained stability indistinguishable from wild type. Furthermore, we tested the effects of KIF3B mutant mRNA expression in the developing zebrafish retina. In the presence of either missense variant, rhodopsin was sequestered to the photoreceptor rod inner segment layer with a concomitant increase in photoreceptor cilia length. Notably, impaired rhodopsin trafficking is also characteristic of recessive KIF3B models as exemplified by an early-onset, autosomal-recessive, progressive retinal degeneration in Bengal cats; we identified a c.1000G>A (p.Ala334Thr) KIF3B variant by genome-wide association study and whole-genome sequencing. Together, our genetic, cell-based, and in vivo modeling data delineate an autosomal-dominant syndromic retinal ciliopathy in humans and suggest that multiple KIF3B pathomechanisms can impair kinesin-driven ciliary transport in the photoreceptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.04.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273529PMC
June 2020

Evolutionary conserved NSL complex/BRD4 axis controls transcription activation via histone acetylation.

Nat Commun 2020 05 7;11(1):2243. Epub 2020 May 7.

Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Stuebeweg 51, 79108, Freiburg, Germany.

Cells rely on a diverse repertoire of genes for maintaining homeostasis, but the transcriptional networks underlying their expression remain poorly understood. The MOF acetyltransferase-containing Non-Specific Lethal (NSL) complex is a broad transcription regulator. It is essential in Drosophila, and haploinsufficiency of the human KANSL1 subunit results in the Koolen-de Vries syndrome. Here, we perform a genome-wide RNAi screen and identify the BET protein BRD4 as an evolutionary conserved co-factor of the NSL complex. Using Drosophila and mouse embryonic stem cells, we characterise a recruitment hierarchy, where NSL-deposited histone acetylation enables BRD4 recruitment for transcription of constitutively active genes. Transcriptome analyses in Koolen-de Vries patient-derived fibroblasts reveals perturbations with a cellular homeostasis signature that are evoked by the NSL complex/BRD4 axis. We propose that BRD4 represents a conserved bridge between the NSL complex and transcription activation, and provide a new perspective in the understanding of their functions in healthy and diseased states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16103-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206058PMC
May 2020

Further delineation of the female phenotype with KDM5C disease causing variants: 19 new individuals and review of the literature.

Clin Genet 2020 07 29;98(1):43-55. Epub 2020 May 29.

INSERM UMR1231, Equipe Génétique des Anomalies du Développement, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France.

X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) is a genetically heterogeneous condition involving more than 100 genes. To date, 35 pathogenic variants have been reported in the lysine specific demethylase 5C (KDM5C) gene. KDM5C variants are one of the major causes of moderate to severe XLID. Affected males present with short stature, distinctive facial features, behavioral disorders, epilepsy, and spasticity. For most of these variants, related female carriers have been reported, but phenotypic descriptions were poor. Here, we present clinical and molecular features of 19 females carrying 10 novel heterozygous variants affecting KDM5C function, including five probands with de novo variants. Four heterozygous females were asymptomatic. All affected individuals presented with learning disabilities or ID (mostly moderate), and four also had a language impairment mainly affecting expression. Behavioral disturbances were frequent, and endocrine disorders were more frequent in females. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence of the role of KDM5C in ID in females highlighting the increasing implication of XLID genes in females, even in sporadic affected individuals. Disease expression of XLID in females should be taken into consideration for genetic counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13755DOI Listing
July 2020

Pathogenic DDX3X Mutations Impair RNA Metabolism and Neurogenesis during Fetal Cortical Development.

Neuron 2020 05 4;106(3):404-420.e8. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

APHP, Département de Génétique, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

De novo germline mutations in the RNA helicase DDX3X account for 1%-3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) cases in females and are associated with autism, brain malformations, and epilepsy. Yet, the developmental and molecular mechanisms by which DDX3X mutations impair brain function are unknown. Here, we use human and mouse genetics and cell biological and biochemical approaches to elucidate mechanisms by which pathogenic DDX3X variants disrupt brain development. We report the largest clinical cohort to date with DDX3X mutations (n = 107), demonstrating a striking correlation between recurrent dominant missense mutations, polymicrogyria, and the most severe clinical outcomes. We show that Ddx3x controls cortical development by regulating neuron generation. Severe DDX3X missense mutations profoundly disrupt RNA helicase activity, induce ectopic RNA-protein granules in neural progenitors and neurons, and impair translation. Together, these results uncover key mechanisms underlying DDX3X syndrome and highlight aberrant RNA metabolism in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2020.01.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331285PMC
May 2020

De novo TBR1 variants cause a neurocognitive phenotype with ID and autistic traits: report of 25 new individuals and review of the literature.

Eur J Hum Genet 2020 06 31;28(6):770-782. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Pediatrics, The Barbara Bush Children's Hospital, Maine Medical Center, Portland, OR, USA.

TBR1, a T-box transcription factor expressed in the cerebral cortex, regulates the expression of several candidate genes for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although TBR1 has been reported as a high-confidence risk gene for ASD and intellectual disability (ID) in functional and clinical reports since 2011, TBR1 has only recently been recorded as a human disease gene in the OMIM database. Currently, the neurodevelopmental disorders and structural brain anomalies associated with TBR1 variants are not well characterized. Through international data sharing, we collected data from 25 unreported individuals and compared them with data from the literature. We evaluated structural brain anomalies in seven individuals by analysis of MRI images, and compared these with anomalies observed in TBR1 mutant mice. The phenotype included ID in all individuals, associated to autistic traits in 76% of them. No recognizable facial phenotype could be identified. MRI analysis revealed a reduction of the anterior commissure and suggested new features including dysplastic hippocampus and subtle neocortical dysgenesis. This report supports the role of TBR1 in ID associated with autistic traits and suggests new structural brain malformations in humans. We hope this work will help geneticists to interpret TBR1 variants and diagnose ASD probands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-020-0571-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253452PMC
June 2020

RPL13 Variants Cause Spondyloepimetaphyseal Dysplasia with Severe Short Stature.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 11 17;105(5):1040-1047. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

INSERM U1149/ERL 8252, Inflammation Research Center, 75018 Paris, France; AP-HP, Service d'Hématologie Biologique, Hôpital R. Debré, Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75019 Paris, France.

Variants in genes encoding ribosomal proteins have thus far been associated with Diamond-Blackfan anemia, a rare inherited bone marrow failure, and isolated congenital asplenia. Here, we report one de novo missense variant and three de novo splice variants in RPL13, which encodes ribosomal protein RPL13 (also called eL13), in four unrelated individuals with a rare bone dysplasia causing severe short stature. The three splice variants (c.477+1G>T, c.477+1G>A, and c.477+2 T>C) result in partial intron retention, which leads to an 18-amino acid insertion. In contrast to observations from Diamond-Blackfan anemia, we detected no evidence of significant pre-rRNA processing disturbance in cells derived from two affected individuals. Consistently, we showed that the insertion-containing protein is stably expressed and incorporated into 60S subunits similar to the wild-type protein. Erythroid proliferation in culture and ribosome profile on sucrose gradient are modified, suggesting a change in translation dynamics. We also provide evidence that RPL13 is present at high levels in chondrocytes and osteoblasts in mouse growth plates. Taken together, we show that the identified RPL13 variants cause a human ribosomopathy defined by a rare skeletal dysplasia, and we highlight the role of this ribosomal protein in bone development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.09.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849359PMC
November 2019

Widening of the genetic and clinical spectrum of Lamb-Shaffer syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder due to SOX5 haploinsufficiency.

Genet Med 2020 03 3;22(3):524-537. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

CHU de Rennes, service de génétique clinique, Rennes, France.

Purpose: Lamb-Shaffer syndrome (LAMSHF) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in just over two dozen patients with heterozygous genetic alterations involving SOX5, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating cell fate and differentiation in neurogenesis and other discrete developmental processes. The genetic alterations described so far are mainly microdeletions. The present study was aimed at increasing our understanding of LAMSHF, its clinical and genetic spectrum, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved.

Methods: Clinical and genetic data were collected through GeneMatcher and clinical or genetic networks for 41 novel patients harboring various types ofSOX5 alterations. Functional consequences of selected substitutions were investigated.

Results: Microdeletions and truncating variants occurred throughout SOX5. In contrast, most missense variants clustered in the pivotal SOX-specific high-mobility-group domain. The latter variants prevented SOX5 from binding DNA and promoting transactivation in vitro, whereas missense variants located outside the high-mobility-group domain did not. Clinical manifestations and severity varied among patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were found, except that missense variants outside the high-mobility-group domain were generally better tolerated.

Conclusions: This study extends the clinical and genetic spectrum associated with LAMSHF and consolidates evidence that SOX5 haploinsufficiency leads to variable degrees of intellectual disability, language delay, and other clinical features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0657-0DOI Listing
March 2020

Correction: Variants in MED12L, encoding a subunit of the Mediator kinase module, are responsible for intellectual disability associated with transcriptional defect.

Genet Med 2019 11;21(11):2663

CHU Nantes, Service de Génétique Médicale, Nantes, France.

In the Acknowledgements section of the paper the authors neglected to mention that the study was supported by a grant from the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) UM1HG007301 (S.H., M.L.T.). In addition, the award of MD was associated with the authors Michelle L. Thompson and Susan Hiatt instead of PhD. The PDF and HTML versions of the Article have been modified accordingly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0590-2DOI Listing
November 2019

Variants in MED12L, encoding a subunit of the mediator kinase module, are responsible for intellectual disability associated with transcriptional defect.

Genet Med 2019 12 3;21(12):2713-2722. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

CHU Nantes, Service de Génétique Médicale, Nantes, France.

Purpose: Mediator is a multiprotein complex that allows the transfer of genetic information from DNA binding proteins to the RNA polymerase II during transcription initiation. MED12L is a subunit of the kinase module, which is one of the four subcomplexes of the mediator complex. Other subunits of the kinase module have been already implicated in intellectual disability, namely MED12, MED13L, MED13, and CDK19.

Methods: We describe an international cohort of seven affected individuals harboring variants involving MED12L identified by array CGH, exome or genome sequencing.

Results: All affected individuals presented with intellectual disability and/or developmental delay, including speech impairment. Other features included autism spectrum disorder, aggressive behavior, corpus callosum abnormality, and mild facial morphological features. Three individuals had a MED12L deletion or duplication. The other four individuals harbored single-nucleotide variants (one nonsense, one frameshift, and two splicing variants). Functional analysis confirmed a moderate and significant alteration of RNA synthesis in two individuals.

Conclusion: Overall data suggest that MED12L haploinsufficiency is responsible for intellectual disability and transcriptional defect. Our findings confirm that the integrity of this kinase module is a critical factor for neurological development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0557-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243155PMC
December 2019

11q24.2q24.3 microdeletion in two families presenting features of Jacobsen syndrome, without intellectual disability: Role of FLI1, ETS1, and SENCR long noncoding RNA.

Am J Med Genet A 2019 06 19;179(6):993-1000. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Service de Génétique Médicale, CHU Nantes, France.

This report presents two families with interstitial 11q24.2q24.3 deletion, associated with malformations, hematologic features, and typical facial dysmorphism, observed in Jacobsen syndrome (JS), except for intellectual disability (ID). The smallest 700 Kb deletion contains only two genes: FLI1 and ETS1, and a long noncoding RNA, SENCR, narrowing the minimal critical region for some features of JS. Consistent with recent literature, it adds supplemental data to confirm the crucial role of FLI1 and ETS1 in JS, namely FLI1 in thrombocytopenia and ETS1 in cardiopathy and immune deficiency. It also supports that combined ETS1 and FLI1 haploinsufficiency explains dysmorphic features, notably ears, and nose anomalies. Moreover, it raises the possibility that SENCR, a long noncoding RNA, could be responsible for limb defects, because of its early role in endothelial cell commitment and function. Considering ID and autism spectrum disorder, which are some of the main features of JS, a participation of ETS1, FLI1, or SENCR cannot be excluded. But, considering the normal neurodevelopment of our patients, their role would be either minor or with an important variability in penetrance. Furthermore, according to literature, ARHGAP32 and KIRREL3 seem to be the strongest candidate genes in the 11q24 region for other Jacobsen patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61113DOI Listing
June 2019
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