Publications by authors named "Mathieu Pernice"

49 Publications

Action Spectra and Excitation Emission Matrices reveal the broad range of usable photosynthetic active radiation for Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg 2021 Jun 4;1862(9):148461. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

University of Technology Sydney, Climate Change Cluster, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbabio.2021.148461DOI Listing
June 2021

Seagrasses in an era of ocean warming: a review.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Napoli, 80121, Italy.

Seagrasses are valuable sources of food and habitat for marine life and are one of Earth's most efficient carbon sinks. However, they are facing a global decline due to ocean warming and eutrophication. In the last decade, with the advent of new technology and molecular advances, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of studies focusing on the effects of ocean warming on seagrasses. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the future of seagrasses in an era of ocean warming. We have gathered information from published studies to identify potential commonalities in the effects of warming and the responses of seagrasses across four distinct levels: molecular, biochemical/physiological, morphological/population, and ecosystem/planetary. To date, we know that although warming strongly affects seagrasses at all four levels, seagrass responses diverge amongst species, populations, and over depths. Furthermore, warming alters seagrass distribution causing massive die-offs in some seagrass populations, whilst also causing tropicalization and migration of temperate species. In this review, we evaluate the combined effects of ocean warming with other environmental stressors and emphasize the need for multiple-stressor studies to provide a deeper understanding of seagrass resilience. We conclude by discussing the most significant knowledge gaps and future directions for seagrass research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12736DOI Listing
May 2021

Subcellular view of host-microbiome nutrient exchange in sponges: insights into the ecological success of an early metazoan-microbe symbiosis.

Microbiome 2021 02 14;9(1):44. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Freshwater and Marine Ecology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Sponges are increasingly recognised as key ecosystem engineers in many aquatic habitats. They play an important role in nutrient cycling due to their unrivalled capacity for processing both dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM) and the exceptional metabolic repertoire of their diverse and abundant microbial communities. Functional studies determining the role of host and microbiome in organic nutrient uptake and exchange, however, are limited. Therefore, we coupled pulse-chase isotopic tracer techniques with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to visualise the uptake and translocation of C- and N-labelled dissolved and particulate organic food at subcellular level in the high microbial abundance sponge Plakortis angulospiculatus and the low microbial abundance sponge Halisarca caerulea.

Results: The two sponge species showed significant enrichment of DOM- and POM-derived C and N into their tissue over time. Microbial symbionts were actively involved in the assimilation of DOM, but host filtering cells (choanocytes) appeared to be the primary site of DOM and POM uptake in both sponge species overall, via pinocytosis and phagocytosis, respectively. Translocation of carbon and nitrogen from choanocytes to microbial symbionts occurred over time, irrespective of microbial abundance, reflecting recycling of host waste products by the microbiome.

Conclusions: Here, we provide empirical evidence indicating that the prokaryotic communities of a high and a low microbial abundance sponge obtain nutritional benefits from their host-associated lifestyle. The metabolic interaction between the highly efficient filter-feeding host and its microbial symbionts likely provides a competitive advantage to the sponge holobiont in the oligotrophic environments in which they thrive, by retaining and recycling limiting nutrients. Sponges present a unique model to link nutritional symbiotic interactions to holobiont function, and, via cascading effects, ecosystem functioning, in one of the earliest metazoan-microbe symbioses. Video abstract.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00984-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7883440PMC
February 2021

Methyl Jasmonate and Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin Individually Boost Triterpenoid Biosynthesis in UVM4.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Feb 5;14(2). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia.

The commercialisation of valuable plant triterpenoids faces major challenges, including low abundance in natural hosts and costly downstream purification procedures. Endeavours to produce these compounds at industrial scale using microbial systems are gaining attention. Here, we report on a strategy to enrich the biomass of the biotechnologically-relevant strain UVM4 with valuable triterpenes, such as squalene and ()-2,3-epoxysqualene. UVM4 was subjected to the elicitor compounds methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl-β-cyclodextrine (MβCD) to increase triterpene yields. MeJA treatment triggered oxidative stress, arrested growth, and altered the photosynthetic activity of the cells, while increasing squalene, ()-2,3-epoxysqualene, and cycloartenol contents. Applying MβCD to cultures of lead to the sequestration of the two main sterols (ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol) into the growth medium and the intracellular accumulation of the intermediate cycloartenol, without compromising cell growth. When MβCD was applied in combination with MeJA, it counteracted the negative effects of MeJA on cell growth and physiology, but no synergistic effect on triterpene yield was observed. Together, our findings provide strategies for the triterpene enrichment of microalgal biomass and medium.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph14020125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915139PMC
February 2021

Heat stress destabilizes symbiotic nutrient cycling in corals.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 02;118(5)

Red Sea Research Center, Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia.

Recurrent mass bleaching events are pushing coral reefs worldwide to the brink of ecological collapse. While the symptoms and consequences of this breakdown of the coral-algal symbiosis have been extensively characterized, our understanding of the underlying causes remains incomplete. Here, we investigated the nutrient fluxes and the physiological as well as molecular responses of the widespread coral to heat stress prior to the onset of bleaching to identify processes involved in the breakdown of the coral-algal symbiosis. We show that altered nutrient cycling during heat stress is a primary driver of the functional breakdown of the symbiosis. Heat stress increased the metabolic energy demand of the coral host, which was compensated by the catabolic degradation of amino acids. The resulting shift from net uptake to release of ammonium by the coral holobiont subsequently promoted the growth of algal symbionts and retention of photosynthates. Together, these processes form a feedback loop that will gradually lead to the decoupling of carbon translocation from the symbiont to the host. Energy limitation and altered symbiotic nutrient cycling are thus key factors in the early heat stress response, directly contributing to the breakdown of the coral-algal symbiosis. Interpreting the stability of the coral holobiont in light of its metabolic interactions provides a missing link in our understanding of the environmental drivers of bleaching and may ultimately help uncover fundamental processes underpinning the functioning of endosymbioses in general.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2022653118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865147PMC
February 2021

Overexpression of Key Sterol Pathway Enzymes in Two Model Marine Diatoms Alters Sterol Profiles in .

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2020 Dec 21;13(12). Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.

Sterols are a class of triterpenoid molecules with diverse functional roles in eukaryotic cells, including intracellular signaling and regulation of cell membrane fluidity. Diatoms are a dominant eukaryotic phytoplankton group that produce a wide diversity of sterol compounds. The enzymes 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase () and squalene epoxidase (SQE) have been reported to be rate-limiting steps in sterol biosynthesis in other model eukaryotes; however, the extent to which these enzymes regulate triterpenoid production in diatoms is not known. To probe the role of these two metabolic nodes in the regulation of sterol metabolic flux in diatoms, we independently over-expressed two versions of the native and a conventional, heterologous SQE gene in the diatoms and . Overexpression of these key enzymes resulted in significant differential accumulation of downstream sterol pathway intermediates in . HMGR-mVenus overexpression resulted in the accumulation of squalene, cycloartenol, and obtusifoliol, while cycloartenol and obtusifoliol accumulated in response to heterologous NoSQE-mVenus overexpression. In addition, accumulation of the end-point sterol 24-methylenecholesta-5,24(24')-dien-3β-ol was observed in all overexpression lines, and campesterol increased three-fold in lines expressing NoSQE-mVenus. Minor differences in end-point sterol composition were also found in , but no accumulation of sterol pathway intermediates was observed. Despite the successful manipulation of pathway intermediates and individual sterols in , total sterol levels did not change significantly in transformed lines, suggesting the existence of tight pathway regulation to maintain total sterol content.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph13120481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7766473PMC
December 2020

Divergent expression of hypoxia response systems under deoxygenation in reef-forming corals aligns with bleaching susceptibility.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jan 16;27(2):312-326. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.

Exposure of marine life to low oxygen is accelerating worldwide via climate change and localized pollution. Mass coral bleaching and mortality have recently occurred where reefs have experienced chronic low oxygen events. However, the mechanistic basis of tolerance to oxygen levels inadequate to sustain normal functioning (i.e. hypoxia) and whether it contributes to bleaching susceptibility, remain unknown. We therefore experimentally exposed colonies of the environmentally resilient Acropora tenuis, a common reef-building coral from the Great Barrier Reef, to deoxygenation-reoxygenation stress that was aligned to their natural night-day light cycle. Specifically, the treatment involved removing the 'night-time O buffer' to challenge the inherent hypoxia thresholds. RNA-Seq analysis revealed that coral possess a complete and active hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-mediated hypoxia response system (HRS) homologous to other metazoans. As expected, A. tenuis exhibited bleaching resistance and showed a strong inducibility of HIF target genes in response to deoxygenation stress. We applied this same approach in parallel to a colony of Acropora selago, known to be environmnetally susceptible, which conversely exhibited a bleaching phenotype response. This phenotypic divergence of A. selago was accompanied by contrasting gene expression profiles indicative of varied effectiveness of their HIF-HRS. Based on our RNA-Seq analysis, we propose (a) that the HIF-HRS is central for corals to manage deoxygenation stress and (b) that key genes of this system (and the wider gene network) may contribute to variation in coral bleaching susceptibility. Our analysis suggests that heat shock protein (hsp) 70 and 90 are important for low oxygen stress tolerance and further highlights how hsp90 expression might also affect the inducibility of coral HIF-HRS in overcoming a metabolic crisis under deoxygenation stress. We propose that differences in coral HIF-HRS could be central in regulating sensitivity to other climate change stressors-notably thermal stress-that commonly drive bleaching.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15436DOI Listing
January 2021

Stress Memory in Seagrasses: First Insight Into the Effects of Thermal Priming and the Role of Epigenetic Modifications.

Front Plant Sci 2020 28;11:494. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Naples, Italy.

While thermal priming and the relative role of epigenetic modifications have been widely studied in terrestrial plants, their roles remain unexplored in seagrasses so far. Here, we experimentally compared the ability of two different functional types of seagrass species, dominant in the Southern hemisphere, climax species and pioneer species , to acquire thermal-stress memory to better survive successive stressful thermal events. To this end, a two-heatwave experimental design was conducted in a mesocosm setup. Findings across levels of biological organization including the molecular (gene expression), physiological (photosynthetic performances and pigments content) and organismal (growth) levels provided the first evidence of thermal priming in seagrasses. Non-preheated plants suffered a significant reduction in photosynthetic capacity, leaf growth and chlorophyll content, while preheated plants were able to cope better with the recurrent stressful event. Gene expression results demonstrated significant regulation of methylation-related genes in response to thermal stress, suggesting that epigenetic modifications could play a central role in seagrass thermal stress memory. In addition, we revealed some interspecific differences in thermal responses between the two different functional types of seagrass species. These results provide the first insights into thermal priming and relative epigenetic modifications in seagrasses paving the way for more comprehensive forecasting and management of thermal stress in these marine foundation species in an era of rapid environmental change.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199800PMC
April 2020

Emerging Technologies in Algal Biotechnology: Toward the Establishment of a Sustainable, Algae-Based Bioeconomy.

Front Plant Sci 2020 17;11:279. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Climate Change Cluster (C3), University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, Australia.

Mankind has recognized the value of land plants as renewable sources of food, medicine, and materials for millennia. Throughout human history, agricultural methods were continuously modified and improved to meet the changing needs of civilization. Today, our rapidly growing population requires further innovation to address the practical limitations and serious environmental concerns associated with current industrial and agricultural practices. Microalgae are a diverse group of unicellular photosynthetic organisms that are emerging as next-generation resources with the potential to address urgent industrial and agricultural demands. The extensive biological diversity of algae can be leveraged to produce a wealth of valuable bioproducts, either naturally or via genetic manipulation. Microalgae additionally possess a set of intrinsic advantages, such as low production costs, no requirement for arable land, and the capacity to grow rapidly in both large-scale outdoor systems and scalable, fully contained photobioreactors. Here, we review technical advancements, novel fields of application, and products in the field of algal biotechnology to illustrate how algae could present high-tech, low-cost, and environmentally friendly solutions to many current and future needs of our society. We discuss how emerging technologies such as synthetic biology, high-throughput phenomics, and the application of internet of things (IoT) automation to algal manufacturing technology can advance the understanding of algal biology and, ultimately, drive the establishment of an algal-based bioeconomy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7090149PMC
March 2020

Perspectives for Glyco-Engineering of Recombinant Biopharmaceuticals from Microalgae.

Cells 2020 03 5;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway Campus, Ultimo NSW 2007, Sydney, Australia.

Microalgae exhibit great potential for recombinant therapeutic protein production, due to lower production costs, immunity to human pathogens, and advanced genetic toolkits. However, a fundamental aspect to consider for recombinant biopharmaceutical production is the presence of correct post-translational modifications. Multiple recent studies focusing on glycosylation in microalgae have revealed unique species-specific patterns absent in humans. Glycosylation is particularly important for protein function and is directly responsible for recombinant biopharmaceutical immunogenicity. Therefore, it is necessary to fully characterise this key feature in microalgae before these organisms can be established as industrially relevant microbial biofactories. Here, we review the work done to date on production of recombinant biopharmaceuticals in microalgae, experimental and computational evidence for - and -glycosylation in diverse microalgal groups, established approaches for glyco-engineering, and perspectives for their application in microalgal systems. The insights from this review may be applied to future glyco-engineering attempts to humanize recombinant therapeutic proteins and to potentially obtain cheaper, fully functional biopharmaceuticals from microalgae.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9030633DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140410PMC
March 2020

Single-cell visualization indicates direct role of sponge host in uptake of dissolved organic matter.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 12 4;286(1916):20192153. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

School of Biological Sciences, Coral Reef Ecosystems Laboratory, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Marine sponges are set to become more abundant in many near-future oligotrophic environments, where they play crucial roles in nutrient cycling. Of high importance is their mass turnover of dissolved organic matter (DOM), a heterogeneous mixture that constitutes the largest fraction of organic matter in the ocean and is recycled primarily by bacterial mediation. Little is known, however, about the mechanism that enables sponges to incorporate large quantities of DOM in their nutrition, unlike most other invertebrates. Here, we examine the cellular capacity for direct processing of DOM, and the fate of the processed matter, inside a dinoflagellate-hosting bioeroding sponge that is prominent on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Integrating transmission electron microscopy with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry, we track N- and C-enriched DOM over time at the individual cell level of an intact sponge holobiont. We show initial high enrichment in the filter-feeding cells of the sponge, providing visual evidence of their capacity to process DOM through pinocytosis without mediation of resident bacteria. Subsequent enrichment of the endosymbiotic dinoflagellates also suggests sharing of host nitrogenous wastes. Our results shed light on the physiological mechanism behind the ecologically important ability of sponges to cycle DOM via the recently described sponge loop.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.2153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6939258PMC
December 2019

Down to the bone: the role of overlooked endolithic microbiomes in reef coral health.

ISME J 2020 02 5;14(2):325-334. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Red Sea Research Center, Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering Division (BESE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.

Reef-building corals harbour an astonishing diversity of microorganisms, including endosymbiotic microalgae, bacteria, archaea, and fungi. The metabolic interactions within this symbiotic consortium are fundamental to the ecological success of corals and the unique productivity of coral reef ecosystems. Over the last two decades, scientific efforts have been primarily channelled into dissecting the symbioses occurring in coral tissues. Although easily accessible, this compartment is only 2-3 mm thick, whereas the underlying calcium carbonate skeleton occupies the vast internal volume of corals. Far from being devoid of life, the skeleton harbours a wide array of algae, endolithic fungi, heterotrophic bacteria, and other boring eukaryotes, often forming distinct bands visible to the bare eye. Some of the critical functions of these endolithic microorganisms in coral health, such as nutrient cycling and metabolite transfer, which could enable the survival of corals during thermal stress, have long been demonstrated. In addition, some of these microorganisms can dissolve calcium carbonate, weakening the coral skeleton and therefore may play a major role in reef erosion. Yet, experimental data are wanting due to methodological limitations. Recent technological and conceptual advances now allow us to tease apart the complex physical, ecological, and chemical interactions at the heart of coral endolithic microbial communities. These new capabilities have resulted in an excellent body of research and provide an exciting outlook to further address the functional microbial ecology of the "overlooked" coral skeleton.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41396-019-0548-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6976677PMC
February 2020

Vibrio cholerae residing in food vacuoles expelled by protozoa are more infectious in vivo.

Nat Microbiol 2019 12 30;4(12):2466-2474. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

The ithree Institute, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Vibrio cholerae interacts with many organisms in the environment, including heterotrophic protists (protozoa). Several species of protozoa have been reported to release undigested bacteria in expelled food vacuoles (EFVs) when feeding on some pathogens. While the production of EFVs has been reported, their biological role as a vector for the transmission of pathogens remains unknown. Here we report that ciliated protozoa release EFVs containing V. cholerae. The EFVs are stable, the cells inside them are protected from multiple stresses, and large numbers of cells escape when incubated at 37 °C or in the presence of nutrients. We show that OmpU, a major outer membrane protein positively regulated by ToxR, has a role in the production of EFVs. Notably, cells released from EFVs have growth and colonization advantages over planktonic cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that EFVs facilitate V. cholerae survival in the environment, enhancing their infectious potential and may contribute to the dissemination of epidemic V. cholerae strains. These results improve our understanding of the mechanisms of persistence and the modes of transmission of V. cholerae and may further apply to other opportunistic pathogens that have been shown to be released by protists in EFVs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-019-0563-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071789PMC
December 2019

Transcriptome profiling analysis of the seagrass, Zostera muelleri under copper stress.

Mar Pollut Bull 2019 Dec 26;149:110556. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

University of Technology Sydney (UTS), Climate Change Cluster (C3), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia.

Copper (Cu) in an essential trace metal but it can also contaminate coastal waters at high concentrations mainly from agricultural run-off and mining activities which are detrimental to marine organisms including seagrasses. The molecular mechanisms driving Cu toxicity in seagrasses are not clearly understood yet. Here, we investigated the molecular responses of the Australian seagrass, Z. muelleri at the whole transcriptomic level after 7 days of exposure to 250 μg Cu L and 500 μg Cu L. The leaf-specific whole transcriptome results showed a concentration-dependent disturbance in chloroplast function, regulatory stress responses and defense mechanisms. This study provided new insights into the responses of seagrasses to trace metal stress and reports possible candidate genes which can be considered as biomarkers to improve conservation and management of seagrass meadows.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110556DOI Listing
December 2019

Bleaching forces coral's heterotrophy on diazotrophs and Synechococcus.

ISME J 2019 11 27;13(11):2882-2886. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Laboratoire d'Excellence CORAIL, ENTROPIE (UMR9220), IRD, 98848, Nouméa cedex, New Caledonia.

Coral reefs are threatened by global warming, which disrupts the symbiosis between corals and their photosynthetic symbionts (Symbiodiniaceae), leading to mass coral bleaching. Planktonic diazotrophs or dinitrogen (N)-fixing prokaryotes are abundant in coral lagoon waters and could be an alternative nutrient source for corals. Here we incubated untreated and bleached coral colonies of Stylophora pistillata with a N-pre-labelled natural plankton assemblage containing diazotrophs. N assimilation rates in Symbiodiniaceae cells and tissues of bleached corals were 5- and 30-fold higher, respectively, than those measured in untreated corals, demonstrating that corals incorporate more nitrogen derived from planktonic diazotrophs under bleaching conditions. Bleached corals also preferentially fed on Synechococcus, nitrogen-rich picophytoplanktonic cells, instead of Prochlorococcus and picoeukaryotes, which have a lower cellular nitrogen content. By providing an alternative source of bioavailable nitrogen, both the incorporation of nitrogen derived from planktonic diazotrophs and the ingestion of Synechococcus may have profound consequences for coral bleaching recovery, especially for the many coral reef ecosystems characterized by high abundance and activity of planktonic diazotrophs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41396-019-0456-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6794269PMC
November 2019

Effect of reduced irradiance on C uptake, gene expression and protein activity of the seagrass Zostera muelleri.

Mar Environ Res 2019 Aug 6;149:80-89. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

University of Technology Sydney, Climate Change Cluster, Ultimo, NSW, 2007, Australia.

Photosynthesis in the seagrass Zostera muelleri remains poorly understood. We investigated the effect of reduced irradiance on the incorporation of C, gene expression of photosynthetic, photorespiratory and intermediates recycling genes as well as the enzymatic content and activity of Rubisco and PEPC within Z. muelleri. Following 48 h of reduced irradiance, we found that i) there was a ∼7 fold reduction in C incorporation in above ground tissue, ii) a significant down regulation of photosynthetic, photorespiratory and intermediates recycling genes and iii) no significant difference in enzyme activity and content. We propose that Z. muelleri is able to alter its physiology in order to reduce the amount of C lost through photorespiration to compensate for the reduced carbon assimilation as a result of reduced irradiance. In addition, the first estimated rate constant (K) and maximum rates of carboxylation (V) of Rubisco is reported for the first time for Z. muelleri.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2019.06.004DOI Listing
August 2019

Excess copper promotes photoinhibition and modulates the expression of antioxidant-related genes in Zostera muelleri.

Aquat Toxicol 2019 Feb 5;207:91-100. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for plants and as such is vital to many metabolic processes. Nevertheless, when present at elevated concentrations, Cu can exert toxic effects on plants by disrupting protein functions and promoting oxidative stress. Due to their proximity to the urbanised estuaries, seagrasses are vulnerable to chemical contamination via industrial runoff, waste discharges and leachates. Zostera muelleri is a common seagrass species that forms habitats in the intertidal areas along the temperate coast of Australia. Previous studies have shown the detrimental effects of Cu exposure on photosynthetic efficiency of Z. muelleri. The present study focuses on the impacts of sublethal Cu exposure on the physiological and molecular responses. By means of a single addition, plants were exposed to 250 and 500 μg Cu L (corresponding to 3.9 and 7.8 μM, respectively) as well as uncontaminated artificial seawater (control) for 7 days. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, measured as the effective quantum yield (ϕPSII), the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were assessed daily, while Cu accumulation in leaf tissue, total reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of genes involved in antioxidant activities and trace metal binding were determined after 1, 3 and 7 days of exposure. Z. muelleri accumulated Cu in the leaf tissue in a concentration-dependent manner and the bioaccumulation was saturated by day 3. Cu exposure resulted in an acute suppression of ϕPSII and Fv/Fm. These two parameters also showed a concentration- and time-dependent decline. NPQ increased sharply during the first few days before subsequently decreasing towards the end of the experiment. Cu accumulation induced oxidative stress in Z. muelleri as an elevated level of ROS was detected on day 7. Lower Cu concentration promoted an up-regulation of genes encoding Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-sod), ascorbate peroxidase (apx), catalase (cat) and glutathione peroxidase (gpx), whereas no significant change was detected with higher Cu concentration. Exposure to Cu at any concentration failed to induce regulation in the expression level of genes encoding metallothionein type 2 (mt2), metallothionein type 3 (mt3) and cytochrome c oxidase copper chaperone (cox17). It is concluded that chlorophyll fluorescence parameters provide timely probe of the status of photosynthetic machinery under Cu stress. In addition, when exposed to a moderate level of Cu, Z. muelleri mitigates any induced oxidative stress by up-regulating transcripts coding for antioxidant enzymes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.12.005DOI Listing
February 2019

Quantifying Inorganic Nitrogen Assimilation by Using Bulk and Single-Cell Mass Spectrometry: A Comparative Study.

Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:2847. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Microorganisms drive most of the major biogeochemical cycles in the ocean, but the rates at which individual species assimilate and transform key elements is generally poorly quantified. One of these important elements is nitrogen, with its availability limiting primary production across a large proportion of the ocean. Nitrogen uptake by marine microbes is typically quantified using bulk-scale approaches, such as Elemental Analyzer-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS), which averages uptake over entire communities, masking microbial heterogeneity. However, more recent techniques, such as secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), allow for elucidation of assimilation rates at the scale at which they occur: the single-cell level. Here, we combine and compare the application of bulk (EA-IRMS) and single-cell approaches (NanoSIMS and Time-of-Flight-SIMS) for quantifying the assimilation of inorganic nitrogen by the ubiquitous marine primary producer . We aimed to contrast the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and showcase their complementarity. Our results show that the average assimilation of N by differed based on the technique used: values derived from EA-IRMS were consistently higher than those derived from SIMS, likely due to a combination of previously reported systematic depletion as well as differences in sample preparation. However, single-cell approaches offered additional layers of information, whereby NanoSIMS allowed for the quantification of the metabolic heterogeneity among individual cells and ToF-SIMS enabled identification of nitrogen assimilation into peptides. We suggest that this coupling of stable isotope-based approaches has great potential to elucidate the metabolic capacity and heterogeneity of microbial cells in natural environments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277480PMC
November 2018

Corrigendum: Using Aiptasia as a Model to Study Metabolic Interactions in Cnidarian- Symbioses.

Front Physiol 2018 15;9:449. Epub 2018 May 15.

Red Sea Research Center, Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering (BESE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.

[This corrects the article on p. 214 in vol. 9, PMID: 29615919.].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5962919PMC
May 2018

Seagrass rhizosphere microenvironment alters plant-associated microbial community composition.

Environ Microbiol 2018 08 21;20(8):2854-2864. Epub 2018 May 21.

Climate Change Cluster, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney (UTS), Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The seagrass rhizosphere harbors dynamic microenvironments, where plant-driven gradients of O and dissolved organic carbon form microhabitats that select for distinct microbial communities. To examine how seagrass-mediated alterations of rhizosphere geochemistry affect microbial communities at the microscale level, we applied 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of artificial sediments surrounding the meristematic tissues of the seagrass Zostera muelleri together with microsensor measurements of the chemical conditions at the basal leaf meristem (BLM). Radial O loss (ROL) from the BLM led to ∼ 300 µm thick oxic microzones, wherein pronounced decreases in H S and pH occurred. Significantly higher relative abundances of sulphate-reducing bacteria were observed around the meristematic tissues compared to the bulk sediment, especially around the root apical meristems (RAM; ∼ 57% of sequences). Within oxic microniches, elevated abundances of sulphide-oxidizing bacteria were observed compared to the bulk sediment and around the RAM. However, sulphide oxidisers within the oxic microzone did not enhance sediment detoxification, as rates of H S re-oxidation here were similar to those observed in a pre-sterilized root/rhizome environment. Our results provide novel insights into how chemical and microbiological processes in the seagrass rhizosphere modulate plant-microbe interactions potentially affecting seagrass health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.14245DOI Listing
August 2018

Using Aiptasia as a Model to Study Metabolic Interactions in Cnidarian- Symbioses.

Front Physiol 2018 16;9:214. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Red Sea Research Center, Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering (BESE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.

The symbiosis between cnidarian hosts and microalgae of the genus provides the foundation of coral reefs in oligotrophic waters. Understanding the nutrient-exchange between these partners is key to identifying the fundamental mechanisms behind this symbiosis, yet has proven difficult given the endosymbiotic nature of this relationship. In this study, we investigated the respective contribution of host and symbiont to carbon and nitrogen assimilation in the coral model anemone Aiptaisa. For this, we combined traditional measurements with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) and stable isotope labeling to investigate patterns of nutrient uptake and translocation both at the organismal scale and at the cellular scale. Our results show that the rate of carbon and nitrogen assimilation in Aiptasia depends on the identity of the host and the symbiont. NanoSIMS analysis confirmed that both host and symbiont incorporated carbon and nitrogen into their cells, implying a rapid uptake and cycling of nutrients in this symbiotic relationship. Gross carbon fixation was highest in Aiptasia associated with their native communities. However, differences in fixation rates were only reflected in the δC enrichment of the cnidarian host, whereas the algal symbiont showed stable enrichment levels regardless of host identity. Thereby, our results point toward a "selfish" character of the cnidarian- association in which both partners directly compete for available resources. Consequently, this symbiosis may be inherently instable and highly susceptible to environmental change. While questions remain regarding the underlying cellular controls of nutrient exchange and the nature of metabolites involved, the approach outlined in this study constitutes a powerful toolset to address these questions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5864895PMC
March 2018

SeagrassDB: An open-source transcriptomics landscape for phylogenetically profiled seagrasses and aquatic plants.

Sci Rep 2018 02 9;8(1):2749. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

Climate Change Cluster (C3), University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123 Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia.

Seagrasses and aquatic plants are important clades of higher plants, significant for carbon sequestration and marine ecological restoration. They are valuable in the sense that they allow us to understand how plants have developed traits to adapt to high salinity and photosynthetically challenged environments. Here, we present a large-scale phylogenetically profiled transcriptomics repository covering seagrasses and aquatic plants. SeagrassDB encompasses a total of 1,052,262 unigenes with a minimum and maximum contig length of 8,831 bp and 16,705 bp respectively. SeagrassDB provides access to 34,455 transcription factors, 470,568 PFAM domains, 382,528 prosite models and 482,121 InterPro domains across 9 species. SeagrassDB allows for the comparative gene mining using BLAST-based approaches and subsequent unigenes sequence retrieval with associated features such as expression (FPKM values), gene ontologies, functional assignments, family level classification, Interpro domains, KEGG orthology (KO), transcription factors and prosite information. SeagrassDB is available to the scientific community for exploring the functional genic landscape of seagrass and aquatic plants at: http://115.146.91.129/index.php .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18782-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5807536PMC
February 2018

Single-cell measurement of ammonium and bicarbonate uptake within a photosymbiotic bioeroding sponge.

ISME J 2018 05 31;12(5):1308-1318. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

School of Biological Sciences, Coral Reef Ecosystems Laboratory, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Some of the most aggressive coral-excavating sponges host intracellular dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium, which are hypothesized to provide the sponges with autotrophic energy that powers bioerosion. Investigations of the contribution of Symbiodinium to host metabolism and particularly inorganic nutrient recycling are complicated, however, by the presence of alternative prokaryotic candidates for this role. Here, novel methods are used to study nutrient assimilation and transfer within and between the outer-layer cells of the Indopacific bioeroding sponge Cliona orientalis. Combining stable isotope labelling, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), we visualize and measure metabolic activity at the individual cell level, tracking the fate of N-ammonium and C-bicarbonate within the intact holobiont. We found strong uptake of both inorganic sources (especially C-bicarbonate) by Symbiodinium cells. Labelled organic nutrients were translocated from Symbiodinium to the Symbiodinium-hosting sponge cells within 6 h, and occasionally to other sponge cells within 3 days. By contrast, prokaryotic symbionts were not observed to participate in inorganic nutrient assimilation in the outer layers of the sponge. Our findings strongly support the metabolic interaction between the sponge and dinoflagellates, shedding light on the ecological advantages and adaptive capacity of photosymbiotic bioeroding sponges in oligotrophic marine habitats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41396-017-0044-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5932049PMC
May 2018

A new mechanistic understanding of light-limitation in the seagrass Zostera muelleri.

Mar Environ Res 2018 Mar 24;134:55-67. Epub 2017 Dec 24.

Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, Australia.

In this study we investigated the effect of light-limitation (∼20 μmol photons m s) on the southern hemisphere seagrass, Zostera muelleri. RNA sequencing, chlorophyll fluorometry and HPLC techniques were used to investigate how the leaf-specific transcriptome drives changes in photosynthesis and photo-pigments in Z. muelleri over 6 days. 1593 (7.51%) genes were differentially expressed on day 2 and 1481 (6.98%) genes were differentially expressed on day 6 of the experiment. Differential gene expression correlated with significant decreases in rETR, I, an increase in Yi (initial photosynthetic quantum yield of photosystem II), and significant changes in pigment composition. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism was observed along with evidence that abscisic acid may serve a role in the low-light response of this seagrass. This study provides a novel understanding of how Z. muelleri responds to light-limitation in the marine water column and provides potential molecular markers for future conservation monitoring efforts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2017.12.012DOI Listing
March 2018

Low oxygen affects photophysiology and the level of expression of two-carbon metabolism genes in the seagrass Zostera muelleri.

Photosynth Res 2018 May 4;136(2):147-160. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, 2007, Australia.

Seagrasses are a diverse group of angiosperms that evolved to live in shallow coastal waters, an environment regularly subjected to changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide and irradiance. Zostera muelleri is the dominant species in south-eastern Australia, and is critical for healthy coastal ecosystems. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the pathways of carbon fixation in Z. muelleri and their regulation in response to environmental changes. In this study, the response of Z. muelleri exposed to control and very low oxygen conditions was investigated by using (i) oxygen microsensors combined with a custom-made flow chamber to measure changes in photosynthesis and respiration, and (ii) reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR to measure changes in expression levels of key genes involved in C metabolism. We found that very low levels of oxygen (i) altered the photophysiology of Z. muelleri, a characteristic of C mechanism of carbon assimilation, and (ii) decreased the expression levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and carbonic anhydrase. These molecular-physiological results suggest that regulation of the photophysiology of Z. muelleri might involve a close integration between the C and C, or other CO concentrating mechanisms metabolic pathways. Overall, this study highlights that the photophysiological response of Z. muelleri to changing oxygen in water is capable of rapid acclimation and the dynamic modulation of pathways should be considered when assessing seagrass primary production.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-017-0452-1DOI Listing
May 2018

Development of an Efficient Protein Extraction Method Compatible with LC-MS/MS for Proteome Mapping in Two Australian Seagrasses and .

Front Plant Sci 2017 15;8:1416. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Climate Change Cluster (C3), Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney (UTS)Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The availability of the first complete genome sequence of the marine flowering plant (commonly known as seagrass) in early 2016, is expected to significantly raise the impact of seagrass proteomics. Seagrasses are marine ecosystem engineers that are currently declining worldwide at an alarming rate due to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Seagrasses (especially species of the genus ) are compromised for proteomic studies primarily due to the lack of efficient protein extraction methods because of their recalcitrant cell wall which is rich in complex polysaccharides and a high abundance of secondary metabolites in their cells. In the present study, three protein extraction methods that are commonly used in plant proteomics i.e., phenol (P); trichloroacetic acid/acetone/SDS/phenol (TASP); and borax/polyvinyl-polypyrrolidone/phenol (BPP) extraction, were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively based on two dimensional isoelectric focusing (2D-IEF) maps and LC-MS/MS analysis using the two most abundant Australian seagrass species, namely and . All three tested methods produced high quality protein extracts with excellent 2D-IEF maps in . However, the BPP method produces better results in compared to TASP and P. Therefore, we further modified the BPP method (M-BPP) by homogenizing the tissue in a modified protein extraction buffer containing both ionic and non-ionic detergents (0.5% SDS; 1.5% Triton X-100), 2% PVPP and protease inhibitors. Further, the extracted proteins were solubilized in 0.5% of zwitterionic detergent (C7BzO) instead of 4% CHAPS. This slight modification to the BPP method resulted in a higher protein yield, and good quality 2-DE maps with a higher number of protein spots in both the tested seagrasses. Further, the M-BPP method was successfully utilized in western-blot analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC-a key enzyme for carbon metabolism). This optimized protein extraction method will be a significant stride toward seagrass proteome mining and identifying the protein biomarkers to stress response of seagrasses under the scenario of global climate change and anthropogenic perturbations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5559503PMC
August 2017

Subcellular tracking reveals the location of dimethylsulfoniopropionate in microalgae and visualises its uptake by marine bacteria.

Elife 2017 04 4;6. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia.

Phytoplankton-bacteria interactions drive the surface ocean sulfur cycle and local climatic processes through the production and exchange of a key compound: dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Despite their large-scale implications, these interactions remain unquantified at the cellular-scale. Here we use secondary-ion mass spectrometry to provide the first visualization of DMSP at sub-cellular levels, tracking the fate of a stable sulfur isotope (S) from its incorporation by microalgae as inorganic sulfate to its biosynthesis and exudation as DMSP, and finally its uptake and degradation by bacteria. Our results identify for the first time the storage locations of DMSP in microalgae, with high enrichments present in vacuoles, cytoplasm and chloroplasts. In addition, we quantify DMSP incorporation at the single-cell level, with DMSP-degrading bacteria containing seven times more S than the control strain. This study provides an unprecedented methodology to label, retain, and image small diffusible molecules, which can be transposable to other symbiotic systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5380433PMC
April 2017

Microscale Measurements of Light and Photosynthesis during Coral Bleaching: Evidence for the Optical Feedback Loop?

Front Microbiol 2017 24;8:59. Epub 2017 Jan 24.

Marine Biological Section, Department of Biology, University of CopenhagenHelsingør, Denmark; Climate Change Cluster, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, SydneyNSW, Australia.

Climate change-related coral bleaching, i.e., the visible loss of zooxanthellae from the coral host, is increasing in frequency and extent and presents a major threat to coral reefs globally. Coral bleaching has been proposed to involve accelerating light stress of their microalgal endosymbionts via a positive feedback loop of photodamage, symbiont expulsion and excess light exposure. To test this hypothesis, we used light and O microsensors to characterize light exposure and photosynthesis of during a thermal stress experiment. We created tissue areas with different densities of cells in order to understand the optical properties and light microenvironment of corals during bleaching. Our results showed that in bleached corals, light exposure was up to fivefold enhanced relative to healthy corals, and the relationship between symbiont loss and light enhancement was well-described by a power-law function. Cell-specific rates of gross photosynthesis and light respiration were enhanced in bleached compared to healthy corals, while areal rates of net photosynthesis decreased. light exposure in sp. revealed the presence of low light microniches in bleached coral tissues, suggesting that light scattering in thick coral tissues can enable photoprotection of cryptic symbionts. Our study provides evidence for the acceleration of light exposure during coral bleaching but this optical feedback mechanism differs between coral hosts. Enhanced photosynthesis in relation to accelerating light exposure shows that coral microscale optics exerts a key role on coral photophysiology and the subsequent degree of radiative stress during coral bleaching.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5258690PMC
January 2017

Proteome Analysis Reveals Extensive Light Stress-Response Reprogramming in the Seagrass (Alismatales, Zosteraceae) Metabolism.

Front Plant Sci 2016 17;7:2023. Epub 2017 Jan 17.

Climate Change Cluster, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney (UTS) Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Seagrasses are marine ecosystem engineers that are currently declining in abundance at an alarming rate due to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances in ecological niches. Despite reports on the morphological and physiological adaptations of seagrasses to extreme environments, little is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying photo-acclimation, and/or tolerance in these marine plants. This study applies the two-dimensional isoelectric focusing (2D-IEF) proteomics approach to identify photo-acclimation/tolerance proteins in the marine seagrass . For this, was exposed for 10 days in laboratory mesocosms to saturating (control, 200 μmol photons m s), super-saturating (SSL, 600 μmol photons m s), and limited light (LL, 20 μmol photons m s) irradiance conditions. Using LC-MS/MS analysis, 93 and 40 protein spots were differentially regulated under SSL and LL conditions, respectively, when compared to the control. In contrast to the LL condition, robustly tolerated super-saturation light than control conditions, evidenced by their higher relative maximum electron transport rate and minimum saturating irradiance values. Proteomic analyses revealed up-regulation and/or appearances of proteins belonging to the Calvin-Benson and Krebs cycle, glycolysis, the glycine cleavage system of photorespiration, and the antioxidant system. These proteins, together with those from the inter-connected glutamate-proline-GABA pathway, shaped photosynthesis and growth under SSL conditions. In contrast, the LL condition negatively impacted the metabolic activities of by down-regulating key metabolic enzymes for photosynthesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids, which is consistent with the observation with lower photosynthetic performance under LL condition. This study provides novel insights into the underlying molecular photo-acclimation mechanisms in , in addition to identifying protein-based biomarkers that could be used as early indicators to detect acute/chronic light stress in seagrasses to monitor seagrass health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.02023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5239797PMC
January 2017

The emergence of molecular profiling and omics techniques in seagrass biology; furthering our understanding of seagrasses.

Funct Integr Genomics 2016 Sep 21;16(5):465-80. Epub 2016 Jul 21.

Plant Functional Biology and Climate Change Cluster (C3), University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Seagrass meadows are disappearing at alarming rates as a result of increasing coastal development and climate change. The emergence of omics and molecular profiling techniques in seagrass research is timely, providing a new opportunity to address such global issues. Whilst these applications have transformed terrestrial plant research, they have only emerged in seagrass research within the past decade; In this time frame we have observed a significant increase in the number of publications in this nascent field, and as of this year the first genome of a seagrass species has been sequenced. In this review, we focus on the development of omics and molecular profiling and the utilization of molecular markers in the field of seagrass biology. We highlight the advances, merits and pitfalls associated with such technology, and importantly we identify and address the knowledge gaps, which to this day prevent us from understanding seagrasses in a holistic manner. By utilizing the powers of omics and molecular profiling technologies in integrated strategies, we will gain a better understanding of how these unique plants function at the molecular level and how they respond to on-going disturbance and climate change events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-016-0501-4DOI Listing
September 2016