Publications by authors named "Mateusz Stasiak"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Influence of Long-Term Storage on the Caking Properties Determined in Punch Test and Fungal Contamination of Potato Starch and Wheat Flour.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jan 11;14(2). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland.

The presented results are an attempt to identify the changes taking place during a punch test experiment and the development of fungal impurities of powdered food materials over long-term storage at 75% RH. The potato starch and wheat flour market has a large share of the global production of bulk materials. The growing interest in powdered food materials requires additional production expenditure. This is associated with an increase in storage time of the discussed product and providing it with the appropriate conditions. The samples of potato starch and wheat flour were stored in perforated containers in a climatic chamber at 75% humidity and 21 °C for five months and then samples were measured by a punch test in a Lloyd LRX materials testing machine. The graphs obtained in the potato starch punch test differed significantly from wheat flour. The thickening of potato starch was observed in the form of layers, while potato starch was uniformly thickened throughout the experiment. The conditions of 75% humidity and 21 °C can be described as the beginning of the caking process. In potato starch, linear sections were observed, which changed the length of their storage time and, additionally, was correlated with the appearance of fungal contamination. These results may suggest the influence of fungi on the phenomenon of bulk material caking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14020331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827066PMC
January 2021

Influence of Fraction Particle Size of Pure Straw and Blends of Straw with Calcium Carbonate or Cassava Starch on Pelletising Process and Pellet.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Oct 16;13(20). Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Applied Mathematics, Institute of Information Technology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland.

The aim of this study was to investigate the pressure agglomeration process of wheat straw (WS) and the blends of WS with calcium carbonate (CC) or cassava straw (CS) with a ratio of 6% wt./wt. from seven separate fractions with sizes in the range of 0.21-2.81 mm. The agglomeration was performed at a moisture of 30% wb and a material temperature of 78 °C, with a dose of 0.1 g, in a die of diameter 8 mm and height 80 mm. The effects of the process were evaluated based on the compaction parameters and the pellets' density, tensile strength, and water absorption. The incorporation of additives into the WS improved the pellet process and quality. Refined results were achieved after adding CC, as compared to those achieved after adding CS, and the preferred particle size was in the range of 1.00-1.94 mm. This was because, under the given conditions, the back pressure in the die chamber significantly increased, allowing the achievement of a single pellet density of 800 kg·m. The pellets were resistant to compressive loads and cracked only at tensile strength of 6 MPa and a specific compression work of 6.5 mJ·mm. The addition of CC to the WS improved the strength of the adhesive and the cohesive bonds between the particles. The water absorption for the uncrushed pellets was considerably less than that for crushed pellets, which results in the safer storage of uncrushed pellets and excellent moisture absorption of crushed pellets. The addition of CC to the WS offers benefits in the form of pellet strength with a high water absorption capability. Notably, a study of crushed pellet litter under broiler rearing conditions and an analysis of the operational costs of using WS additives are required for implementing this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13204623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7602947PMC
October 2020

Friction and Shear Properties of Pine Biomass and Pellets.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Aug 12;13(16). Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Thermal Technology and Food Process Engineering, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 31, 20-612 Lublin, Poland.

Knowledge on the mechanical properties of granular biomass is important for the design and efficient operation of equipment used for handling, storage, and processing. Their mechanical properties are used as a measure of material quality. In this study, the mechanical properties of granular biomass obtained from pines (sawdust, shavings, long shavings, and pellets) were determined under a moisture content range of 10-50%. The coefficient of sliding friction µ of four construction materials was determined using a 210-mm-diameter direct shear tester (Jenike's shear box). To measure the shear resistance of the biomass materials (represented as torque T), a prototype vane tester was constructed. The characteristics of shear resistance with respect to time T(t) were determined for material samples under normal pressure ranging from 5 to 30 kPa and a vane rotation rate of 3 rpm. Measurements were performed for five geometries of the rotor, reflecting typical deformation conditions encountered in the processing of granular biomass. The coefficient of sliding friction was found to be affected by the type of material, moisture content, and normal compressive pressure. Depending on the biomass material, the highest µ, which ranged from 0.50 to 0.62, was obtained for black steel, whereas the lowest µ, which ranged from 0.27 to 0.52, was obtained for aluminum. The lowest coefficient of sliding friction was observed for dry materials and high normal pressure. The torque T was observed to be affected by the rotor shape, material, normal pressure, and moisture content. The parameters presented provide information useful for the design of transport equipment and processing of granular wood biomass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13163567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7475855PMC
August 2020

Potato Starch Utilization in Ecological Loose-Fill Packaging Materials-Sustainability and Characterization.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Mar 19;13(6). Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, Poland, Chodźki 4a, 20-093 Lublin, Poland.

Biodegradable materials are used in the manufacture of packaging and compostable films and various types of medical products. These have demonstrated high potential in medical applications: cardiac, vascular and orthopaedic conditions in adults as well in children. In our research, the extrusion-cooking technique was used to obtain environmentally friendly loose-fill foams as packaging. Potato starch was the basic raw material. Polyvinyl alcohol was used as an additive in the amount of 1%, 2% and 3% to replace starch. The components were mixed and moistened with water to various initial moisture contents of the blend (17%, 18% and 19%). The processing of starch foams employed the TS-45 single screw extruder-cooker (Gliwice, Poland) with the L/D ratio of 12. The foams were processed with various screw speeds (100 and 130 rpm) and with two types of forming dies (circular and ring die). The extrusion-cooking process efficiency (kg h) and the energy consumption (kWh kg) during the processing were also measured. The results showed that the processing efficiency of potato starch foams varied depending on the level of polyvinyl alcohol, the shape of the forming die and the screw speed applied. The analysis of energy consumption, mechanical properties and FTIR analyses demonstrated that the type of the forming die and the initial moisture level had the most significant impact on specific energy demands during the processing of potato starch-based foams.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13061390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7143879PMC
March 2020

Discrete Element Method Modelling of the Diametral Compression of Starch Agglomerates.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Feb 20;13(4). Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland.

Starch agglomerates are widely applied in the pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food industries. The formation of potato starch tablets and their diametral compression were simulated numerically and verified in a laboratory experiment to analyse the microscopic mechanisms of the compaction and the origins of their breakage strength. Discrete element method (DEM) simulations were performed using EDEM software. Samples comprised of 120,000 spherical particles with radii normally distributed in the range of 5-36 μm were compacted in a cylindrical die with a diameter of 2.5 cm. The linear elastic-plastic constitutive contact model with a parallel bonded-particle model (BPM) was used to model the diametral compression. DEM simulations indicated that the BPM, together with the linear elastic-plastic contact model, could describe the brittle, semi-brittle, or ductile breakage mode, depending on the ratio of the strength to Young's modulus of the bond and the bond-to-contact elasticity ratio. Experiments confirmed the findings of the DEM simulations and indicated that potato starch (PS) agglomerates can behave as a brittle, semi-brittle, or ductile material, depending on the applied binder. The PS agglomerates without any additives behaved as a semi-brittle material. The addition of 5% of ground sugar resulted in the brittle breakage mode. The addition of 5% gluten resulted in the ductile breakage mode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13040932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7078643PMC
February 2020

Structural and Micromechanical Properties of Ternary Granular Packings: Effect of Particle Size Ratio and Number Fraction of Particle Size Classes.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Jan 11;13(2). Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Department of Mechanical Engineering in Agro-Machinery & Mechanization, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), 31359-33151 Karaj, Iran.

The confined uniaxial tests of packings with discrete particle size distribution (PSD) were modeled with the discrete element method. Ternary packings of spheres with PSD uniform or nonuniform by number of particles were examined in three-dimensional (3D) system. The study addressed an effect of the particle size ratio and the particle size fraction on structural and micromechanical properties of mixtures. A study of packing structure included porosity and coordination numbers, while the investigation of micromechanical properties included distribution of normal contact forces and stress transmission through the packing. A micro-scale investigation of the effect of particle size ratio on structure and mechanics of the ternary packings revealed a strong relationship between the properties of sample and the value of parameter till its critical value was reached. A further increase in particle size ratio did not significantly affect properties of packings. Contrary to the porosity and coordination numbers, the partial stresses were highly affected by the fraction of particle size classes in ternary mixtures. The contribution of the partial stress into the global stress was determined by number fraction of particles in packings with small particle size ratio, while it was mainly determined by particle size ratio in packings with small particle size ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13020339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7014006PMC
January 2020