Publications by authors named "Matías Morín"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Novel Truncating Mutation in HOMER2 Causes Nonsyndromic Progressive DFNA68 Hearing Loss in a Spanish Family.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Servicio de Genética, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, IRYCIS, Carretera de Colmenar km 9.100, 28034 Madrid, Spain.

Nonsyndromic hereditary hearing loss is a common sensory defect in humans that is clinically and genetically highly heterogeneous. So far, 122 genes have been associated with this disorder and 50 of them have been linked to autosomal dominant (DFNA) forms like DFNA68, a rare subtype of hearing impairment caused by disruption of a stereociliary scaffolding protein (HOMER2) that is essential for normal hearing in humans and mice. In this study, we report a novel HOMER2 variant (c.832_836delCCTCA) identified in a Spanish family by using a custom NGS targeted gene panel (OTO-NGS-v2). This frameshift mutation produces a premature stop codon that may lead in the absence of NMD to a shorter variant (p.Pro278Alafs*10) that truncates HOMER2 at the CDC42 binding domain (CBD) of the coiled-coil structure, a region that is essential for protein multimerization and HOMER2-CDC42 interaction. c.832_836delCCTCA mutation is placed close to the previously identified c.840_840dup mutation found in a Chinese family that truncates the protein (p.Met281Hisfs*9) at the CBD. Functional assessment of the Chinese mutant revealed decreased protein stability, reduced ability to multimerize, and altered distribution pattern in transfected cells when compared with wild-type HOMER2. Interestingly, the Spanish and Chinese frameshift mutations might exert a similar effect at the protein level, leading to truncated mutants with the same Ct aberrant protein tail, thus suggesting that they can share a common mechanism of pathogenesis. Indeed, age-matched patients in both families display quite similar hearing loss phenotypes consisting of early-onset, moderate-to-profound progressive hearing loss. In summary, we have identified the third variant in HOMER2, which is the first one identified in the Spanish population, thus contributing to expanding the mutational spectrum of this gene in other populations, and also to clarifying the genotype-phenotype correlations of DFNA68 hearing loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12030411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001007PMC
March 2021

CSVS, a crowdsourcing database of the Spanish population genetic variability.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 01;49(D1):D1130-D1137

Clinical Bioinformatics Area, Fundación Progreso y Salud (FPS), Hospital Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla 41013, Spain.

The knowledge of the genetic variability of the local population is of utmost importance in personalized medicine and has been revealed as a critical factor for the discovery of new disease variants. Here, we present the Collaborative Spanish Variability Server (CSVS), which currently contains more than 2000 genomes and exomes of unrelated Spanish individuals. This database has been generated in a collaborative crowdsourcing effort collecting sequencing data produced by local genomic projects and for other purposes. Sequences have been grouped by ICD10 upper categories. A web interface allows querying the database removing one or more ICD10 categories. In this way, aggregated counts of allele frequencies of the pseudo-control Spanish population can be obtained for diseases belonging to the category removed. Interestingly, in addition to pseudo-control studies, some population studies can be made, as, for example, prevalence of pharmacogenomic variants, etc. In addition, this genomic data has been used to define the first Spanish Genome Reference Panel (SGRP1.0) for imputation. This is the first local repository of variability entirely produced by a crowdsourcing effort and constitutes an example for future initiatives to characterize local variability worldwide. CSVS is also part of the GA4GH Beacon network. CSVS can be accessed at: http://csvs.babelomics.org/.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7778906PMC
January 2021

Insights into the pathophysiology of DFNA10 hearing loss associated with novel EYA4 variants.

Sci Rep 2020 04 10;10(1):6213. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Servicio de Genética, Ramón y Cajal Institute of Health Research (IRYCIS) and Biomedical Network Research Centre on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), 28034, Madrid, Spain.

The mutational spectrum of many genes and their contribution to the global prevalence of hereditary hearing loss is still widely unknown. In this study, we have performed the mutational screening of EYA4 gene by DHLPC and NGS in a large cohort of 531 unrelated Spanish probands and one Australian family with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL). In total, 9 novel EYA4 variants have been identified, 3 in the EYA4 variable region (c.160G > T; p.Glu54*, c.781del; p.Thr261Argfs*34 and c.1078C > A; p.Pro360Thr) and 6 in the EYA-HR domain (c.1107G > T; p.Glu369Asp, c.1122G > T; p.Trp374Cys, c.1281G > A; p.Glu427Glu, c.1282-1G > A, c.1601C > G; p.S534* and an heterozygous copy number loss encompassing exons 15 to 17). The contribution of EYA4 mutations to ADNSHL in Spain is, therefore, very limited (~1.5%, 8/531). The pathophysiology of some of these novel variants has been explored. Transient expression of the c-myc-tagged EYA4 mutants in mammalian COS7 cells revealed absence of expression of the p.S534* mutant, consistent with a model of haploinsufficiency reported for all previously described EYA4 truncating mutations. However, normal expression pattern and translocation to the nucleus were observed for the p.Glu369Asp mutant in presence of SIX1. Complementary in silico analysis suggested that c.1107G > T (p.Glu369Asp), c.1281G > A (p.Glu427Glu) and c.1282-1G > A variants alter normal splicing. Minigene assays in NIH3T3 cells further confirmed that all 3 variants caused exon skipping resulting in frameshifts that lead to premature stop codons. Our study reports the first likely pathogenic synonymous variant linked to DFNA10 and provide further evidence for haploinsufficiency as the common underlying disease-causing mechanism for DFNA10-related hearing loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63256-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7148344PMC
April 2020

Simple Protocol for Generating and Genotyping Genome-Edited Mice With CRISPR-Cas9 Reagents.

Curr Protoc Mouse Biol 2020 Mar;10(1):e69

National Centre for Biotechnology (CNB), CSIC, Madrid, Spain.

The simple protocol described in this article aims to provide all required information, as a comprehensive, easy-to-follow step-by-step method, to ensure the generation of the expected genome-edited mice. Here, we provide protocols for the preparation of CRISPR-Cas9 reagents for microinjection and electroporation into one-cell mouse embryos to create knockout or knock-in mouse models, and for genotyping the resulting offspring with the latest innovative next-generation sequencing methods. © 2020 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Basic Protocol 1: Designing the best RNA guide for your gene disruption/editing strategy Basic Protocol 2: Preparing and validating CRISPR-Cas9 reagents Basic Protocol 3: Preparing and injecting CRISPR-Cas9 compounds into fertilized mouse oocytes Basic Protocol 4: Genotyping genome-edited mice Support Protocol: Genotyping for CRISPR-generated "indel" mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpmo.69DOI Listing
March 2020

Novel mutations in the KCNJ10 gene associated to a distinctive ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss and spasticity clinical phenotype.

Neurogenetics 2020 04 15;21(2):135-143. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Servicio de Genética, Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria (IRYCIS) and Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, CIBERER, 28034, Madrid, Spain.

KCNJ10 encodes the inward-rectifying potassium channel (Kir4.1) that is expressed in the brain, inner ear, and kidney. Loss-of-function mutations in KCNJ10 gene cause a complex syndrome consisting of epilepsy, ataxia, intellectual disability, sensorineural deafness, and tubulopathy (EAST/SeSAME syndrome). Patients with EAST/SeSAME syndrome display renal salt wasting and electrolyte imbalance that resemble the clinical features of impaired distal tubular salt transport in Gitelman's syndrome. A key distinguishing feature between these two conditions is the additional neurological (extrarenal) manifestations found in EAST/SeSAME syndrome. Recent reports have further expanded the clinical and mutational spectrum of KCNJ10-related disorders including non-syndromic early-onset cerebellar ataxia. Here, we describe a kindred of three affected siblings with early-onset ataxia, deafness, and progressive spasticity without other prominent clinical features. By using targeted next-generation sequencing, we have identified two novel missense variants, c.488G>A (p.G163D) and c.512G>A (p.R171Q), in the KCNJ10 gene that, in compound heterozygosis, cause this distinctive EAST/SeSAME phenotype in our family. Electrophysiological characterization of these two variants confirmed their pathogenicity. When expressed in CHO cells, the R171Q mutation resulted in 50% reduction of currents compared to wild-type KCNJ10 and G163D showed a complete loss of function. Co-expression of G163D and R171Q had a more pronounced effect on currents and membrane potential than R171Q alone but less severe than single expression of G163D. Moreover, the effect of the mutations seemed less pronounced in the presence of Kir5.1 (encoded by KCNJ16), with whom the renal Kir4.1 channels form heteromers. This partial functional rescue by co-expression with Kir5.1 might explain the lack of renal symptoms in the patients. This report illustrates that a spectrum of disorders with distinct clinical symptoms may result from mutations in different parts of KCNJ10, a gene initially associated only with the EAST/SeSAME syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10048-020-00605-6DOI Listing
April 2020

Three New Mutations and Mild, Asymmetrical Phenotype in the Highly Distinctive LAMM Syndrome: A Report of Eight Further Cases.

Genes (Basel) 2019 07 12;10(7). Epub 2019 Jul 12.

North East Thames Regional Genetics Service, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London WC1N 3JH, UK.

Labyrinthine aplasia, microtia, and microdontia (LAMM) is an autosomal recessive condition causing profound congenital deafness, complete absence of inner ear structures (usually Michel's aplasia), microtia (usually type 1) and microdontia. To date, several families have been described with this condition and a number of mutations has been reported. We report on eight further cases of LAMM syndrome including three novel mutations, c. 173T>C p.L58P; c. 284G>A p.(Arg95Gln) and c.325_327delinsA p.(Glu109Thrfs*18). Congenital deafness was the primary presenting feature in all affected individuals and consanguinity in all but two families. We compare the features in our patients to those previously reported in LAMM, and describe a milder, asymmetrical phenotype associated with mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes10070529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6678228PMC
July 2019

Selective miRNA Modulation Fails to Activate HIV Replication in In Vitro Latency Models.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2019 Sep 20;17:323-336. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria (IRYCIS) and Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain; Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Spain.

HIV remains incurable because of viral persistence in latent reservoirs that are inaccessible to antiretroviral therapy. A potential curative strategy is to reactivate viral gene expression in latently infected cells. However, no drug so far has proven to be successful in vivo in reducing the reservoir, and therefore new anti-latency compounds are needed. We explored the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in latency maintenance and their modulation as a potential anti-latency strategy. Latency models based on treating resting CD4 T cells with chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) or interleukin-7 (IL7) before HIV infection and next-generation sequencing were used to identify the miRNAs involved in HIV latency. We detected four upregulated miRNAs (miRNA-98, miRNA-4516, miRNA-4488, and miRNA-7974). Individual or combined inhibition of these miRNAs was performed by transfection into cells latently infected with HIV. Viral replication, assessed 72 h after transfection, did not increase after miRNA modulation, despite miRNA inhibition and lack of toxicity. Furthermore, the combined modulation of five miRNAs previously associated with HIV latency was not effective in these models. Our results do not support the modulation of miRNAs as a useful strategy for the reversal of HIV latency. As shown with other drugs, the potential of miRNA modulation as an HIV reactivation strategy could be dependent on the latency model used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2019.06.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6614709PMC
September 2019

Parental Mosaicism in Causes Intra-Familial Variability: Implications for Genetic Counseling of Congenital Aniridia and Microphthalmia.

Front Genet 2018 17;9:479. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Genetics and Genomics, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de la Fundación Jiménez Díaz, University Hospital - Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Mutations in are involved in several developmental eye disorders. These disorders have considerable phenotypic variability, ranging from panocular forms of congenital aniridia and microphthalmia to isolated anomalies of the anterior or posterior segment. Here, we describe 3 families with variable inter-generational ocular expression of aniridia, iris coloboma, or microphthalmia, and an unusual transmission of mutations from an unaffected or mildly affected parent; all of which raised suspicion of gonosomal mosaicism. We first identified two previously known nonsense mutations and one novel likely pathogenic missense variant in in probands by means of targeted NGS. The subsequent segregation analysis by Sanger sequencing evidenced the presence of highly probable mosaic events in paternal blood samples. Mosaicism was further confirmed by droplet digital PCR analysis in several somatic tissues of mosaic fathers. Quantification of the mutant allele fraction in parental samples showed a marked deviation from 50%, with a range between 12 and 29% depending on cell type. Gonosomal mosaicsm was definitively confirmed in one of the families thanks to the availability of a sperm sample from the mosaic father. Thus, the recurrence risk in this family was estimated to be about one-third. This is the first report confirming parental mosaicism as a cause of disease recurrence in aniridia and other related phenotypes. In addition, we demonstrated that post-zygotic mosaicism is a frequent and underestimated pathogenic mechanism in aniridia, explaining intra-familial phenotypic variability in many cases. Our findings may have substantial implications for genetic counseling in congenital aniridia. Thus, we also highlight the importance of comprehensive genetic screening of parents for new sporadic cases with aniridia or related developmental eye disease to more accurately assess recurrence risk. In conclusion, somatic and/or gonosomal mosaicism should be taken into consideration as a genetic factor to explain not only families with unaffected parents despite multiple affected children but also variable expressivity, apparent cases, and even uncharacterized cases of aniridia and related developmental eye disorders, apparently lacking mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6199369PMC
October 2018

Primary T-cell immunodeficiency with functional revertant somatic mosaicism in CD247.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2017 01 21;139(1):347-349.e8. Epub 2016 Aug 21.

Department of Immunology, Complutense University School of Medicine and Hospital, 12 de Octubre Health Research Institute, Madrid, Spain; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.06.020DOI Listing
January 2017

Allelic Mutations of KITLG, Encoding KIT Ligand, Cause Asymmetric and Unilateral Hearing Loss and Waardenburg Syndrome Type 2.

Am J Hum Genet 2015 Nov 29;97(5):647-60. Epub 2015 Oct 29.

Hearing & Genes Division, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6525GA, the Netherlands; The Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6525GA, the Netherlands; Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6525GA, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Linkage analysis combined with whole-exome sequencing in a large family with congenital and stable non-syndromic unilateral and asymmetric hearing loss (NS-UHL/AHL) revealed a heterozygous truncating mutation, c.286_303delinsT (p.Ser96Ter), in KITLG. This mutation co-segregated with NS-UHL/AHL as a dominant trait with reduced penetrance. By screening a panel of probands with NS-UHL/AHL, we found an additional mutation, c.200_202del (p.His67_Cys68delinsArg). In vitro studies revealed that the p.His67_Cys68delinsArg transmembrane isoform of KITLG is not detectable at the cell membrane, supporting pathogenicity. KITLG encodes a ligand for the KIT receptor. Also, KITLG-KIT signaling and MITF are suggested to mutually interact in melanocyte development. Because mutations in MITF are causative of Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2), we screened KITLG in suspected WS2-affected probands. A heterozygous missense mutation, c.310C>G (p.Leu104Val), that segregated with WS2 was identified in a small family. In vitro studies revealed that the p.Leu104Val transmembrane isoform of KITLG is located at the cell membrane, as is wild-type KITLG. However, in culture media of transfected cells, the p.Leu104Val soluble isoform of KITLG was reduced, and no soluble p.His67_Cys68delinsArg and p.Ser96Ter KITLG could be detected. These data suggest that mutations in KITLG associated with NS-UHL/AHL have a loss-of-function effect. We speculate that the mechanism of the mutation underlying WS2 and leading to membrane incorporation and reduced secretion of KITLG occurs via a dominant-negative or gain-of-function effect. Our study unveils different phenotypes associated with KITLG, previously associated with pigmentation abnormalities, and will thereby improve the genetic counseling given to individuals with KITLG variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.09.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4667106PMC
November 2015

Three deaf mice: mouse models for TECTA-based human hereditary deafness reveal domain-specific structural phenotypes in the tectorial membrane.

Hum Mol Genet 2014 May 20;23(10):2551-68. Epub 2013 Dec 20.

School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK.

Tecta is a modular, non-collagenous protein of the tectorial membrane (TM), an extracellular matrix of the cochlea essential for normal hearing. Missense mutations in Tecta cause dominant forms of non-syndromic deafness and a genotype-phenotype correlation has been reported in humans, with mutations in different Tecta domains causing mid- or high-frequency hearing impairments that are either stable or progressive. Three mutant mice were created as models for human Tecta mutations; the Tecta(L1820F,G1824D/+) mouse for zona pellucida (ZP) domain mutations causing stable mid-frequency hearing loss in a Belgian family, the Tecta(C1837G/+) mouse for a ZP-domain mutation underlying progressive mid-frequency hearing loss in a Spanish family and the Tecta(C1619S/+) mouse for a zonadhesin-like (ZA) domain mutation responsible for progressive, high-frequency hearing loss in a French family. Mutations in the ZP and ZA domains generate distinctly different changes in the structure of the TM. Auditory brainstem response thresholds in the 8-40 kHz range are elevated by 30-40 dB in the ZP-domain mutants, whilst those in the ZA-domain mutant are elevated by 20-30 dB. The phenotypes are stable and no evidence has been found for a progressive deterioration in TM structure or auditory function. Despite elevated auditory thresholds, the Tecta mutant mice all exhibit an enhanced tendency to have audiogenic seizures in response to white noise stimuli at low sound pressure levels (≤84 dB SPL), revealing a previously unrecognised consequence of Tecta mutations. These results, together with those from previous studies, establish an allelic series for Tecta unequivocally demonstrating an association between genotype and phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddt646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3990158PMC
May 2014

Expression of Alt a 1 allergen from Alternaria alternata in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2012 Aug 18;333(2):121-8. Epub 2012 Jun 18.

Department of Microbiology and Genetics, CIETUS, IBSAL Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.

Allergies affect almost 25% of the population in industrialized countries. Alternaria alternata is known to be a significant source of aeroallergens and sensitization to this mold is a risk factor for the development of wheezing, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Diagnosis and treatment of allergies requires the production of large amounts of pure and well defined protein. Yarrowia lipolytica, a non-pathogenic ascomycete able to secrete high levels of enzymes that can grow in inexpensive substrates, has been considered a useful host for heterologous gene expression. In the present work, we have developed two vectors for expressing Alt a 1, the most relevant A. alternata allergen, in Y. lipolytica. One vector is autosomal and one is integrative. With both systems, rAlt a 1 was secreted into the culture medium. The immunological characteristics of the purified recombinant allergen were determined by IgE-blot using sera from 42 A. alternata-allergic patients. We have carried out ELISA-inhibition experiments using sera from four patients to compare the IgE-binding capacity of natural and recombinant allergens. Our results show that Y. lipolytica is able to produce a recombinant Alt a 1 which is immunochemically equivalent to the natural counterpart and could be used for immunotherapy and diagnostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2012.02606.xDOI Listing
August 2012

DFNA8/12 caused by TECTA mutations is the most identified subtype of nonsyndromic autosomal dominant hearing loss.

Hum Mutat 2011 Jul 7;32(7):825-34. Epub 2011 Jun 7.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

The prevalence of DFNA8/DFNA12 (DFNA8/12), a type of autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), is unknown as comprehensive population-based genetic screening has not been conducted. We therefore completed unbiased screening for TECTA mutations in a Spanish cohort of 372 probands from ADNSHL families. Three additional families (Spanish, Belgian, and English) known to be linked to DFNA8/12 were also included in the screening. In an additional cohort of 835 American ADNSHL families, we preselected 73 probands for TECTA screening based on audiometric data. In aggregate, we identified 23 TECTA mutations in this process. Remarkably, 20 of these mutations are novel, more than doubling the number of reported TECTA ADNSHL mutations from 13 to 33. Mutations lie in all domains of the α-tectorin protein, including those for the first time identified in the entactin domain, as well as the vWFD1, vWFD2, and vWFD3 repeats, and the D1-D2 and TIL2 connectors. Although the majority are private mutations, four of them-p.Cys1036Tyr, p.Cys1837Gly, p.Thr1866Met, and p.Arg1890Cys-were observed in more than one unrelated family. For two of these mutations founder effects were also confirmed. Our data validate previously observed genotype-phenotype correlations in DFNA8/12 and introduce new correlations. Specifically, mutations in the N-terminal region of α-tectorin (entactin domain, vWFD1, and vWFD2) lead to mid-frequency NSHL, a phenotype previously associated only with mutations in the ZP domain. Collectively, our results indicate that DFNA8/12 hearing loss is a frequent type of ADNSHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.21512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3326665PMC
July 2011

In vivo and in vitro effects of two novel gamma-actin (ACTG1) mutations that cause DFNA20/26 hearing impairment.

Hum Mol Genet 2009 Aug 28;18(16):3075-89. Epub 2009 May 28.

Unidad de Genética Molecular, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain.

Here we report the functional assessment of two novel deafness-associated gamma-actin mutants, K118N and E241K, in a spectrum of different situations with increasing biological complexity by combining biochemical and cell biological analysis in yeast and mammalian cells. Our in vivo experiments showed that while the K118N had a very mild effect on yeast behaviour, the phenotype caused by the E241K mutation was very severe and characterized by a highly compromised ability to grow on glycerol as a carbon source, an aberrant multi-vacuolar pattern and the deposition of thick F-actin bundles randomly in the cell. The latter feature is consistent with the highly unusual spontaneous tendency of the E241K mutant to form bundles in vitro, although this propensity to bundle was neutralized by tropomyosin and the E241K filament bundles were hypersensitive to severing in the presence of cofilin. In transiently transfected NIH3T3 cells both mutant actins were normally incorporated into cytoskeleton structures, although cytoplasmic aggregates were also observed indicating an element of abnormality caused by the mutations in vivo. Interestingly, gene-gun mediated expression of these mutants in cochlear hair cells results in no gross alteration in cytoskeletal structures or the morphology of stereocilia. Our results provide a more complete picture of the biological consequences of deafness-associated gamma-actin mutants and support the hypothesis that the post-lingual and progressive nature of the DFNA20/26 hearing loss is the result of a progressive deterioration of the hair cell cytoskeleton over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddp249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2714729PMC
August 2009

Mutations in the seed region of human miR-96 are responsible for nonsyndromic progressive hearing loss.

Nat Genet 2009 May 12;41(5):609-13. Epub 2009 Apr 12.

Unidad de Genética Molecular, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) bind to complementary sites in their target mRNAs to mediate post-transcriptional repression, with the specificity of target recognition being crucially dependent on the miRNA seed region. Impaired miRNA target binding resulting from SNPs within mRNA target sites has been shown to lead to pathologies associated with dysregulated gene expression. However, no pathogenic mutations within the mature sequence of a miRNA have been reported so far. Here we show that point mutations in the seed region of miR-96, a miRNA expressed in hair cells of the inner ear, result in autosomal dominant, progressive hearing loss. This is the first study implicating a miRNA in a mendelian disorder. The identified mutations have a strong impact on miR-96 biogenesis and result in a significant reduction of mRNA targeting. We propose that these mutations alter the regulatory role of miR-96 in maintaining gene expression profiles in hair cells required for their normal function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.355DOI Listing
May 2009

Proteomic analysis reveals metabolic changes during yeast to hypha transition in Yarrowia lipolytica.

J Mass Spectrom 2007 Nov;42(11):1453-62

Departamento de Microbiología y Genética, Instituto de Microbiología Bioquímica, CSIC/Universidad de Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain.

Fungal dimorphism is important for survival in different environments and has been related to virulence. The ascomycete Yarrowia lipolytica can grow as yeast, pseudomycelial or mycelial forms. We have used a Y. lipolytica parental strain and a Deltahoy1 mutant, which is unable to form hypha, to set up a model for dimorphism and to characterize in more depth the yeast to hypha transition by proteomic techniques. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) based differential expression analysis of Y. lipolytica yeast and hyphal cells was performed, and 45 differentially expressed proteins were detected; nine with decreased expression in hyphal cells were identified. They corresponded to the S. cerevisiae homologues of Imd4p, Pdx3p, Cdc19, Sse1p, Sol3p, Sod2p, Xpt1p, Mdh1p and to the unknown protein YALIOB00924g. Remarkably, most of these proteins are involved in metabolic pathways, with four showing oxidoreductase activity. Furthermore, taking into account that this is the first report of 2-DE analysis of Y. lipolytica protein extracts, 35 more proteins from the 2D map of soluble yeast proteins, which were involved in metabolism, cell rescue, energy and protein synthesis, were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jms.1284DOI Listing
November 2007

Proteome profile changes during mouse testis development.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2006 Dec 18;1(4):404-15. Epub 2006 Oct 18.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Center of Biological Research (CSIC), Madrid, Spain, 28040.

Spermatogenesis is a process of terminal differentiation that results in the formation of mature sperm. In the first wave of this differentiation in the mouse testis, different cell types appear in the seminiferous epithelium at specific times. These cytological changes must be accompanied by changes in protein expression patterns. The aim of the present study was the comparative analysis of proteomic profiles of the soluble proteins expressed at different stages of mouse testis development (8, 18 and 45 postnatal days). Conspicuous variations in their accumulation (representing up or downregulation) were detected over the course of development. Using mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF), 44 proteins or variant forms were identified. Proteins with redox or antioxidant activity were identified in high proportions; others involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolic pathways, as well as a number of proteins or isoforms not previously characterized in testis were also detected. These results contribute to identify changes in soluble protein associated to the complex process of male germ cell differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbd.2006.10.002DOI Listing
December 2006