Publications by authors named "Massimo Pacilli"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Integrated genomic, epidemiologic investigation of Candida auris skin colonization in a skilled nursing facility.

Nat Med 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Candida auris is a fungal pathogen of high concern due to its ability to cause healthcare-associated infections and outbreaks, its resistance to antimicrobials and disinfectants and its persistence on human skin and in the inanimate environment. To inform surveillance and future mitigation strategies, we defined the extent of skin colonization and explored the microbiome associated with C. auris colonization. We collected swab specimens and clinical data at three times points between January and April 2019 from 57 residents (up to ten body sites each) of a ventilator-capable skilled nursing facility with endemic C. auris and routine chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing. Integrating microbial-genomic and epidemiologic data revealed occult C. auris colonization of multiple body sites not targeted commonly for screening. High concentrations of CHG were associated with suppression of C. auris growth but not with deleterious perturbation of commensal microbes. Modeling human mycobiome dynamics provided insight into underlying alterations to the skin fungal community as a possible modifiable risk factor for acquisition and persistence of C. auris. Failure to detect the extensive, disparate niches of C. auris colonization may reduce the effectiveness of infection-prevention measures that target colonized residents, highlighting the importance of universal strategies to reduce C. auris transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01383-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Community-Based Testing for SARS-CoV-2 - Chicago, Illinois, May-November 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 May 14;70(19):707-711. Epub 2021 May 14.

On May 13, 2020, Chicago established a free community-based testing (CBT) initiative for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The initiative focused on demographic groups and geographic areas that were underrepresented in testing by clinical providers and had experienced high COVID-19 incidence, including Hispanic persons and those who have been economically marginalized. To assess the CBT initiative, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) compared demographic characteristics, economic marginalization, and test positivity between persons tested at CBT sites and persons tested in all other testing settings in Chicago. During May 13-November 14, a total of 253,904 SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests were conducted at CBT sites. Compared with those tested in all other testing settings in Chicago, persons tested at CBT sites were more likely to live in areas that are economically marginalized (38.6% versus 32.0%; p<0.001) and to be Hispanic (50.9% versus 20.7%; p<0.001). The cumulative percentage of positive test results at the CBT sites was higher than that at all other testing settings (11.1% versus 7.1%; p<0.001). These results demonstrate the ability of public health departments to establish community-based testing initiatives that reach communities with less access to testing in other settings and that experience disproportionately higher incidences of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7019a4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8118149PMC
May 2021

Positive correlation between Candida auris skin-colonization burden and environmental contamination at a ventilator-capable skilled nursing facility in Chicago.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that contaminates healthcare environments causing healthcare-associated outbreaks. The mechanisms facilitating contamination are not established.

Methods: C. auris was quantified in residents' bilateral axillary/inguinal composite skin swabs and environmental samples during a point-prevalence survey at a ventilator-capable skilled-nursing facility (vSNF A) with documented high colonization prevalence. Environmental samples were collected from all doorknobs, windowsills and handrails of each bed in 12 rooms. C. auris concentrations were measured using culture and C. auris-specific qPCR. The relationship between C. auris concentrations in residents' swabs and associated environmental samples were evaluated using Kendall's tau-b (τb) correlation coefficient.

Results: C. auris was detected in 70 /100 tested environmental samples and 31/ 57 tested resident skin swabs. The mean C. auris concentration in skin swabs was 1.22 x 10 5 cells/mL by culture and 1.08 x 10 6 cells/mL by qPCR. C. auris was detected on all handrails of beds occupied by colonized residents, as well as 10/24 doorknobs and 9/12 windowsills. A positive correlation was identified between the concentrations of C. auris in skin swabs and associated handrail samples based on culture (τb = 0.54, p = 0.0004) and qPCR (τb = 0.66, p = 3.83e -6). Two uncolonized residents resided in beds contaminated with C. auris.

Conclusions: Colonized residents can have high C. auris burdens on their skin, which was positively related with contamination of their surrounding healthcare environment. These findings underscore the importance of hand hygiene, transmission-based precautions, and particularly environmental disinfection in preventing spread in healthcare facilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab327DOI Listing
May 2021

Risk Factors for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection in Homeless Shelters in Chicago, Illinois-March-May, 2020.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Nov 12;7(11):ofaa477. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Chicago Department of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: People experiencing homelessness are at increased risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but little is known about specific risk factors for infection within homeless shelters.

Methods: We performed widespread severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction testing and collected risk factor information at all homeless shelters in Chicago with at least 1 reported case of COVID-19 (n = 21). Multivariable, mixed-effects log-binomial models were built to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for SARS-CoV-2 infection for both individual- and facility-level risk factors.

Results: During March 1 to May 1, 2020, 1717 shelter residents and staff were tested for SARS-CoV-2; 472 (27%) persons tested positive. Prevalence of infection was higher for residents (431 of 1435, 30%) than for staff (41 of 282, 15%) (prevalence ratio = 2.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-3.58). The majority of residents with SARS-CoV-2 infection (293 of 406 with available information about symptoms, 72%) reported no symptoms at the time of specimen collection or within the following 2 weeks. Among residents, sharing a room with a large number of people was associated with increased likelihood of infection (aPR for sharing with >20 people compared with single rooms = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.11-2.80), and current smoking was associated with reduced likelihood of infection (aPR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.60-0.85). At the facility level, a higher proportion of residents leaving and returning each day was associated with increased prevalence (aPR = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16), whereas an increase in the number of private bathrooms was associated with reduced prevalence (aPR for 1 additional private bathroom per 100 people = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98).

Conclusions: We identified a high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections in homeless shelters. Reducing the number of residents sharing dormitories might reduce the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection. When community transmission is high, limiting movement of persons experiencing homelessness into and out of shelters might also be beneficial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665740PMC
November 2020

Lack of Serologic Evidence of Infection Among Health Care Personnel and Other Contacts of First 2 Confirmed Patients With COVID-19 in Illinois, 2020.

Public Health Rep 2021 Jan/Feb;136(1):88-96. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

1242 National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Objectives: Widespread global transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), continues. Many questions remain about asymptomatic or atypical infections and transmission dynamics. We used comprehensive contact tracing of the first 2 confirmed patients in Illinois with COVID-19 and serologic SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing to determine whether contacts had evidence of undetected COVID-19.

Methods: Contacts were eligible for serologic follow-up if previously tested for COVID-19 during an initial investigation or had greater-risk exposures. Contacts completed a standardized questionnaire during the initial investigation. We classified exposure risk as high, medium, or low based on interactions with 2 index patients and use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Serologic testing used a SARS-CoV-2 spike enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on serum specimens collected from participants approximately 6 weeks after initial exposure to either index patient. The 2 index patients provided serum specimens throughout their illness. We collected data on demographic, exposure, and epidemiologic characteristics.

Results: Of 347 contacts, 110 were eligible for serologic follow-up; 59 (17% of all contacts) enrolled. Of these, 53 (90%) were health care personnel and 6 (10%) were community contacts. Seventeen (29%) reported high-risk exposures, 15 (25%) medium-risk, and 27 (46%) low-risk. No participant had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The 2 index patients had antibodies detected at dilutions >1:6400 within 4 weeks after symptom onset.

Conclusions: In serologic follow-up of the first 2 known patients in Illinois with COVID-19, we found no secondary transmission among tested contacts. Lack of seroconversion among these contacts adds to our understanding of conditions (ie, use of PPE) under which SARS-CoV-2 infections might not result in transmission and demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing is a useful tool to verify epidemiologic findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033354920966064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856379PMC
December 2020

Community Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at Two Family Gatherings - Chicago, Illinois, February-March 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Apr 17;69(15):446-450. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread rapidly around the world since it was first recognized in late 2019. Most early reports of person-to-person SARS-CoV-2 transmission have been among household contacts, where the secondary attack rate has been estimated to exceed 10% (1), in health care facilities (2), and in congregate settings (3). However, widespread community transmission, as is currently being observed in the United States, requires more expansive transmission events between nonhousehold contacts. In February and March 2020, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) investigated a large, multifamily cluster of COVID-19. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 and their close contacts were interviewed to better understand nonhousehold, community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This report describes the cluster of 16 cases of confirmed or probable COVID-19, including three deaths, likely resulting from transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at two family gatherings (a funeral and a birthday party). These data support current CDC social distancing recommendations intended to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. U.S residents should follow stay-at-home orders when required by state or local authorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6915e1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755060PMC
April 2020

Regional Emergence of Candida auris in Chicago and Lessons Learned From Intensive Follow-up at 1 Ventilator-Capable Skilled Nursing Facility.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 12;71(11):e718-e725

Communicable Disease Program, Chicago Department of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Since the identification of the first 2 Candida auris cases in Chicago, Illinois, in 2016, ongoing spread has been documented in the Chicago area. We describe C. auris emergence in high-acuity, long-term healthcare facilities and present a case study of public health response to C. auris and carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) at one ventilator-capable skilled nursing facility (vSNF-A).

Methods: We performed point prevalence surveys (PPSs) to identify patients colonized with C. auris and infection-control (IC) assessments and provided ongoing support for IC improvements in Illinois acute- and long-term care facilities during August 2016-December 2018. During 2018, we initiated a focused effort at vSNF-A and conducted 7 C. auris PPSs; during 4 PPSs, we also performed CPO screening and environmental sampling.

Results: During August 2016-December 2018 in Illinois, 490 individuals were found to be colonized or infected with C. auris. PPSs identified the highest prevalence of C. auris colonization in vSNF settings (prevalence, 23-71%). IC assessments in multiple vSNFs identified common challenges in core IC practices. Repeat PPSs at vSNF-A in 2018 identified increasing C. auris prevalence from 43% to 71%. Most residents screened during multiple PPSs remained persistently colonized with C. auris. Among 191 environmental samples collected, 39% were positive for C. auris, including samples from bedrails, windowsills, and shared patient-care items.

Conclusions: High burden in vSNFs along with persistent colonization of residents and environmental contamination point to the need for prioritizing IC interventions to control the spread of C. auris and CPOs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa435DOI Listing
December 2020

First known person-to-person transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the USA.

Lancet 2020 04 13;395(10230):1137-1144. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Illinois Department of Public Health, Springfield, IL, USA.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first detected in China in December, 2019. In January, 2020, state, local, and federal public health agencies investigated the first case of COVID-19 in Illinois, USA.

Methods: Patients with confirmed COVID-19 were defined as those with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Contacts were people with exposure to a patient with COVID-19 on or after the patient's symptom onset date. Contacts underwent active symptom monitoring for 14 days following their last exposure. Contacts who developed fever, cough, or shortness of breath became persons under investigation and were tested for SARS-CoV-2. A convenience sample of 32 asymptomatic health-care personnel contacts were also tested.

Findings: Patient 1-a woman in her 60s-returned from China in mid-January, 2020. One week later, she was hospitalised with pneumonia and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Her husband (Patient 2) did not travel but had frequent close contact with his wife. He was admitted 8 days later and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 372 contacts of both cases were identified; 347 underwent active symptom monitoring, including 152 community contacts and 195 health-care personnel. Of monitored contacts, 43 became persons under investigation, in addition to Patient 2. These 43 persons under investigation and all 32 asymptomatic health-care personnel tested negative for SARS-CoV-2.

Interpretation: Person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurred between two people with prolonged, unprotected exposure while Patient 1 was symptomatic. Despite active symptom monitoring and testing of symptomatic and some asymptomatic contacts, no further transmission was detected.

Funding: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30607-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7158585PMC
April 2020

A multistate investigation of health care-associated Burkholderia cepacia complex infections related to liquid docusate sodium contamination, January-October 2016.

Am J Infect Control 2018 06 9;46(6):649-655. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Background: Outbreaks of health care-associated infections (HAIs) caused by Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have been associated with medical devices and water-based products. Water is the most common raw ingredient in nonsterile liquid drugs, and the significance of organisms recovered from microbiologic testing during manufacturing is assessed using a risk-based approach. This incident demonstrates that lapses in manufacturing practices and quality control of nonsterile liquid drugs can have serious unintended consequences.

Methods: An epidemiologic and laboratory investigation of clusters of Bcc HAIs that occurred among critically ill, hospitalized, adult and pediatric patients was performed between January 1, 2016, and October 31, 2016.

Results: One hundred and eight case patients with Bcc infections at a variety of body sites were identified in 12 states. Two distinct strains of Bcc were obtained from patient clinical cultures. These strains were found to be indistinguishable or closely related to 2 strains of Bcc obtained from cultures of water used in the production of liquid docusate, and product that had been released to the market by manufacturer X.

Conclusions: This investigation highlights the ability of bacteria present in nonsterile, liquid drugs to cause infections or colonization among susceptible patients. Prompt reporting and thorough investigation of potentially related infections may assist public health officials in identifying and removing contaminated products from the market when lapses in manufacturing occur.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2017.11.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6192668PMC
June 2018

Increased Risk for Meningococcal Disease Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in the United States, 2012-2015.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 Sep;65(5):756-763

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.

Background: Several clusters of serogroup C meningococcal disease among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported in the United States in recent years. The epidemiology and risk of meningococcal disease among MSM is not well described.

Methods: All meningococcal disease cases among men aged 18-64 years reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System between January 2012 and June 2015 were reviewed. Characteristics of meningococcal disease cases among MSM and men not known to be MSM (non-MSM) were described. Annualized incidence rates among MSM and non-MSM were compared through calculation of the relative risk and 95% confidence intervals. Isolates from meningococcal disease cases among MSM were characterized using standard microbiological methods and whole-genome sequencing.

Results: Seventy-four cases of meningococcal disease were reported among MSM and 453 among non-MSM. Annualized incidence of meningococcal disease among MSM was 0.56 cases per 100000 population, compared to 0.14 among non-MSM, for a relative risk of 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1-5.1). Among the 64 MSM with known status, 38 (59%) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV-infected MSM had 10.1 times (95% CI, 6.1-16.6) the risk of HIV-uninfected MSM. All isolates from cluster-associated cases were serogroup C sequence type 11.

Conclusions: MSM are at increased risk for meningococcal disease, although the incidence of disease remains low. HIV infection may be an important factor for this increased risk. Routine vaccination of HIV-infected persons with a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine in accordance with Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations should be encouraged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5737672PMC
September 2017

Investigation of the First Seven Reported Cases of Candida auris, a Globally Emerging Invasive, Multidrug-Resistant Fungus - United States, May 2013-August 2016.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016 Nov 11;65(44):1234-1237. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

Candida auris, an emerging fungus that can cause invasive infections, is associated with high mortality and is often resistant to multiple antifungal drugs. C. auris was first described in 2009 after being isolated from external ear canal discharge of a patient in Japan (1). Since then, reports of C. auris infections, including bloodstream infections, have been published from several countries, including Colombia, India, Israel, Kenya, Kuwait, Pakistan, South Africa, South Korea, Venezuela, and the United Kingdom (2-7). To determine whether C. auris is present in the United States and to prepare for the possibility of transmission, CDC issued a clinical alert in June 2016 informing clinicians, laboratorians, infection control practitioners, and public health authorities about C. auris and requesting that C. auris cases be reported to state and local health departments and CDC (8). This report describes the first seven U.S. cases of C. auris infection reported to CDC as of August 31, 2016. Data from these cases suggest that transmission of C. auris might have occurred in U.S. health care facilities and demonstrate the need for attention to infection control measures to control the spread of this pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6544e1DOI Listing
November 2016

Outbreak of Gastroenteritis in Adults Due to Rotavirus Genotype G12P[8].

Clin Infect Dis 2015 Aug 13;61(4):e20-5. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

Chicago Department of Public Heath, Illinois.

Background: Rotavirus infection in adults is poorly understood and few rotavirus outbreaks among US adults have been reported in the literature. We describe an outbreak due to genotype G12P[8] rotavirus among medical students, faculty, and guests who attended a formal dinner event in April 2013.

Methods: A web-based questionnaire was distributed to event attendees to collect symptom and exposure data. A clinical case was defined as a person who developed diarrhea after attending the formal event. A laboratory-confirmed case was defined as a clinical case who attended the formal event, with rotavirus detected in stool by enzyme immunoassay or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay.

Results: Among 334 dinner attendees, 136 (41%) completed the web-based questionnaire; 58 (43%) respondents reported illness. Symptom onset ranged from 1 to 8 days, with peak onset 3 days after the event. In addition to diarrhea, predominant symptoms included fever (91%), abdominal pain (84%), and vomiting (49%). The median duration of illness was 2.5 days. Thirteen (22%) of 58 cases sought medical attention; none were hospitalized. Analysis of food exposures among questionnaire respondents did not identify significant associations between any specific food or drink item and illness. Stool specimens were negative for bacterial pathogens by culture and negative for norovirus by RT-PCR assay; 4 specimens were positive for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay or PCR. G12P[8]-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1 was identified as the causative full-genome genotype.

Conclusions: Rotavirus outbreaks can occur among adults, including young adults. Health professionals should consider rotavirus as a cause of acute gastroenteritis in adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/civ294DOI Listing
August 2015

New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-producing carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli associated with exposure to duodenoscopes.

JAMA 2014 Oct;312(14):1447-55

Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Importance: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) producing the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) are rare in the United States, but have the potential to add to the increasing CRE burden. Previous NDM-producing CRE clusters have been attributed to person-to-person transmission in health care facilities.

Objective: To identify a source for, and interrupt transmission of, NDM-producing CRE in a northeastern Illinois hospital.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Outbreak investigation among 39 case patients at a tertiary care hospital in northeastern Illinois, including a case-control study, infection control assessment, and collection of environmental and device cultures; patient and environmental isolate relatedness was evaluated with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Following identification of a likely source, targeted patient notification and CRE screening cultures were performed.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Association between exposure and acquisition of NDM-producing CRE; results of environmental cultures and organism typing.

Results: In total, 39 case patients were identified from January 2013 through December 2013, 35 with duodenoscope exposure in 1 hospital. No lapses in duodenoscope reprocessing were identified; however, NDM-producing Escherichia coli was recovered from a reprocessed duodenoscope and shared more than 92% similarity to all case patient isolates by PFGE. Based on the case-control study, case patients had significantly higher odds of being exposed to a duodenoscope (odds ratio [OR], 78 [95% CI, 6.0-1008], P < .001). After the hospital changed its reprocessing procedure from automated high-level disinfection with ortho-phthalaldehyde to gas sterilization with ethylene oxide, no additional case patients were identified.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this investigation, exposure to duodenoscopes with bacterial contamination was associated with apparent transmission of NDM-producing E coli among patients at 1 hospital. Bacterial contamination of duodenoscopes appeared to persist despite the absence of recognized reprocessing lapses. Facilities should be aware of the potential for transmission of bacteria including antimicrobial-resistant organisms via this route and should conduct regular reviews of their duodenoscope reprocessing procedures to ensure optimal manual cleaning and disinfection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.12720DOI Listing
October 2014
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