Publications by authors named "Masoud Saman"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Complications in Facial Esthetic Surgery.

Semin Plast Surg 2020 Nov 24;34(4):272-276. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Esthetic surgery continues to become increasingly popular both in the United States and globally. Facial esthetic procedures in particular account for a large proportion of procedures performed. This increase in popularity will inevitably result in the number of potential complications associated with these procedures. In this review, the authors describe common complications encountered with frequently performed cosmetic facial procedures and their associated management. This article is meant as a general overview and introduction to potential complications surgeons may encounter, interested readers are encouraged to further review comprehensive subspecialty literature for more detailed discussion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1721764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759431PMC
November 2020

Management of Facial Scars.

Facial Plast Surg 2019 Dec 29;35(6):666-671. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Scarring is a natural process of healing after damage to the skin that extends to the reticular dermis. While some scars may be socially acceptable, even admirable, scars of the face can be viewed as disfiguring or ugly. Minimizing the appearance of facial scars and optimizing their cosmetic outcome ideally begin before surgery or, in the cause of trauma, at the initial reconstruction. Even when there has been poor initial healing, a scar's appearance can be improved. Herein, we review conservative, medical, and surgical therapies to improve the appearance of facial scars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-3401642DOI Listing
December 2019

Postoperative Free-Flap Monitoring Techniques.

Semin Plast Surg 2019 Feb 8;33(1):13-16. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Free tissue transfer is commonly employed in the reconstruction of large or complicated defects. Postoperative flap failure from microvascular compromise is an uncommon but major potential complication of this procedure. As such, many postoperative monitoring techniques devices have been developed. This paper provides an overview of the wide variety of options available for surgeons today.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1677880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408240PMC
February 2019

The Paramedian Forehead Flap for Nasal Reconstruction: From Antiquity to Present.

J Craniofac Surg 2019 Mar/Apr;30(2):330-333

Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York City, NY.

Nasal reconstruction is considered the historic foundation of facial plastic surgery, and the forehead flap remains the workhorse of repair. To recreate both the aesthetic contour and function of the nose, all anatomic layers must be addressed-covering, lining, and structural support. This article reviews the noteworthy history underlying the development of the paramedian forehead flap as the primary tool in reconstruction of large nasal defects while highlighting its implications on modern nasal repair. Current developments in the use of 2-staged paramedian forehead flap reconstruction are examined and a modern technique is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000004976DOI Listing
August 2019

Higher Complication Rates in Self-Inflicted Gunshot Wounds After Microvascular Free Tissue Transfer.

Laryngoscope 2019 04 24;129(4):837-840. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: Microvascular free tissue transfer is often employed to reconstruct significant facial defects from ballistic injuries. Herein, we present our comparison of complications between self-inflicted and non-self-inflicted gunshot wounds after microvascular free tissue transfer.

Study Design: Retrospective case review.

Methods: Approval was obtained from the JPS institutional review board. We performed a retrospective review of cases of ballistic facial injuries between October 1997 and September 2017 that underwent vascularized free tissue transfer for reconstruction. Comparisons were made between self-inflicted and non-self-inflicted gunshot wounds after microvascular free tissue transfer. The χ test was used for all comparisons. P value and 95% confidence interval (CI) were reported.

Results: There were 73 patients requiring free flap reconstruction after gunshot wounds to the face during the study period. There was a statistically significant difference in the rates of nonunion between self-inflicted and non-self-inflicted wounds (P = .02, 95% CI: 0.9 to 35.8) There were also no significant differences in flap failure (P = .10, 95% CI: -2.8 to 24.2), plate exposure (P = .28, 95% CI: -6.7 to 33.0), wound infection (P = .40, 95% CI: -8.9 to 31.2), scar contracture (P = .60, 95% CI: -8.1 to 25.1), and fistula formation (P = .13, 95% CI: -2.8 to 28.8) between patients with self-inflicted and those with non-self-inflicted wounds. Overall, complication rates were significantly higher in the self-inflicted group compared to the non-self-inflicted group (P < .0001, 95% CI: 32.6 to 68.6).

Conclusions: Patients with self-inflicted injuries had more complications postoperatively than those with non-self-inflicted injuries. This is likely helpful in surgical planning and patient counseling.

Level Of Evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 129:837-840, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.27391DOI Listing
April 2019

Preoperative radiation and complication rates after double free flap reconstruction of head and neck cancer.

Am J Otolaryngol 2018 Sep - Oct;39(5):558-560. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: In this study, we explore whether preoperative external beam radiation affects complication rates in patients that have undergone double simultaneous free tissue transfer for head and neck defects.

Study Design, Setting, Subjects And Methods: Approval was obtained from the JPS Institutional Review Board. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent double free flap reconstruction of head and neck defects between August 1997 and April 2017. Minimum follow up was 6 months. Patients were grouped according to preoperative radiation status (XRT vs non-XRT). The chi-squared test was used for all comparisons. P-values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported as (P, 95% CI).

Results: 90 flaps were performed on 45 patients. The most common flap combination utilized was fibula plus radial forearm free flap (RFF) in 17 out of 45 patients. There were no statistically significant differences in frequency of flap failure (0.35, -15.9-20.1), wound infection (0.75, -22.1-19.3), hematoma (0.16, -5.3-36.7), or fistula formation (0.69, -22.5-24.6). There were also no statistically significant differences in cardiac complications (0.57, -10.3-28.2) and DVT (0.22, -12.4-25.3).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that double free flap patients who had preoperative radiation are not more likely to have complications compared to non- radiated patients. Simultaneous double free flaps should be reserved for the most complex cases. Extensive discussion should be had with the patient about possible morbidity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2018.06.015DOI Listing
January 2019

Evaluating the role of embolization and carotid artery sacrifice and reconstruction in the management of carotid body tumors.

Laryngoscope 2016 10 9;126(10):2282-7. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.A..

Objectives/hypothesis: To review the surgical management of carotid body tumors (CBT), outcomes of carotid artery reconstruction, as well as utility of preoperative embolization.

Study Design: Retrospective chart review.

Methods: A single-surgeon case series with chart review was performed of all cases between 1997 and 2014 at a single institution. Tumor classification, major neurovascular resection, requirement for in-line carotid artery reconstruction, intraoperative blood loss, and operative time, and postoperative neurovascular complications were determined.

Results: In all, 96 patients with 101 CBTs underwent definitive resection disease. Vascular sacrifice was 2.9% (three) for the internal jugular vein, 8.9% (nine) for the external carotid artery, and 13.8% (14) for the internal carotid artery (ICA). ICA sacrifices were performed with immediate in-line arterial bypass grafting with vascular surgery. Permanent cranial neuropathies occurred in 4.9% (five) of patients, without cerebrovascular events.

Conclusions: We recommend surgical resection as the primary approach to the management of these CBTs. In lesions involving the ICA, we recommend vein bypass grafting. We found no differences or advantages to preoperative embolization.

Level Of Evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2282-2287, 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.26006DOI Listing
October 2016

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp in the immunocompromised patient: review of 53 cases.

Oral Maxillofac Surg 2016 Jun 16;20(2):171-5. Epub 2016 Jan 16.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, 923 Pennsylvania Avenue Suite 100, Fort Worth, TX, 76104, USA.

Objective: We analyzed outcomes from immunocompromised patients with scalp squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with surgical excision with and without radiation in order to explore 3-year disease-free survival and overall survival.

Study Design: The study design was a retrospective chart review.

Setting: This study was conducted in a private practice setting.

Subjects And Methods: The study included 53 immunocompromised patients with an average age of 63.2 years, with scalp squamous cell carcinoma. Pre-operative imaging dictated the extent of resection. Patients with bony involvement received wide local excision including full-thickness craniectomy and cranioplasty. Patients without bony involvement underwent wide local excision and outer-table calvarial resection. All patients were recommended to have post-operative radiation. Patients were followed for a minimum of 3 years.

Results: A total of 53 patients were included in the study. Six patients had pre-operative CT showing bone involvement and were treated with full-thickness craniectomy along with post-operative radiation. Fourteen patients without bone involvement on pre-operative CT were found to have positive bone involvement on final pathology. Forty-five patients underwent post-operative radiation. Patients treated with adjuvant radiation demonstrated a 3-year survival of 80 % and the overall survival was 62 %. In the surgery-only group, the 3-year survival was 62.5 % and the overall survival was 32.5 %.

Conclusions: Immunocompromised patients with scalp SCC have a poor prognosis. Early detection and treatment are crucial. Based on our results, we recommend wide local excision with at least outer-table calvarial resection, and post-operative radiation. Despite aggressive therapy, patients may still have distant, local, or regional recurrence.

Level Of Evidence: level 2b (retrospective cohort).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10006-016-0545-6DOI Listing
June 2016

The role of elective superficial parotidectomy in the treatment of temporal region squamous cell carcinoma.

Oral Maxillofac Surg 2016 Jun 21;20(2):143-7. Epub 2015 Dec 21.

Department of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, 923 Pennsylvania Avenue, Suite 100, Fort Worth, TX, 76104, USA.

Objective: In order to determine rates of metastasis and efficacy of elective superficial parotidectomy, we examine parotid specimens in patients with temporal region cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma treated with local excision and ipsilateral parotidectomy.

Study Design: This paper is a retrospective review.

Setting: This study was conducted at a private tertiary referral practice in Fort Worth, Texas, from 1998 to 2013.

Subjects And Methods: Ninety-three patients between ages 27 and 98 with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal region greater than or equal to 2 cm were included in this study. Subjects had no evidence of adenopathy or parotid involvement on exam or imaging. Patients were treated with local excision and ipsilateral parotidectomy. The primary tumor was studied for vascular involvement and perineural invasion while the parotid specimen was analyzed for occult cancer. Patients were post-operatively followed for a minimum of three years.

Results: Twenty-three (24.7 %) parotid samples were found to harbor occult malignancy. Of these, nine (39.1 %) patients had vascular involvement of the primary tumor and 14 (60.8 %) had perineural invasion. Thirteen out of 58 affected males and 10 out of 35 affected females were found to have intraparotid node positivity. Vascular involvement (p = 0.0004) and perineural invasion (p = 0.0001) in the primary malignancy were found to be greater in patients with positive specimen. Sex was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: In patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal region at least 2 cm in size, elective superficial parotidectomy may be a beneficial part of treatment, especially in primary tumors showing perineural and/or vascular involvement.

Level Of Evidence: Level 2b (retrospective cohort).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10006-015-0539-9DOI Listing
June 2016

Internal to external jugular vein bypass allowing for simultaneous bilateral radical neck dissection.

Laryngoscope 2015 Nov 30;125(11):2480-4. Epub 2015 Jul 30.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: The goal of the study was to determine the role of internal jugular vein (IJV) to external jugular vein (EJV) bypass grafting in the setting of bilateral radical neck dissection with IJV sacrifice.

Study Design: The study group consisted of eight patients who underwent bilateral radical neck dissection with IJV sacrifice. Demographic and oncologic parameters were defined for each patient, including age, gender, and pathology. Patients were monitored and evaluated for potential effects of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Doppler ultrasonic evaluation was performed to assess patency of the site of anastamoses.

Results: In all, six patients underwent unilateral bypass grafting, whereas two patients underwent bilateral bypass grafts. Average age at time of surgery was 68.2 (range 56-71). Postoperatively, no sequelae of increased ICP were noted. Follow-up ultrasonic evaluation revealed patent vessels in all patients.

Conclusion: We presently report on the use of EJV-to-IJV bypass grafting for all patients undergoing bilateral radical neck dissection for extensive neck disease.

Level Of Evidence: 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.25428DOI Listing
November 2015

The Gracilis Free Flap in Head and Neck Reconstruction: A Historical Overview of Uses Outside of Facial Reanimation.

J Craniofac Surg 2015 Jul;26(5):1724-6

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, NY Department of Facial Plastic Surgery, Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, TX Department of Plastic Surgery, Beth Israel Medical Center, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, NY Department of Facial Plastic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000001794DOI Listing
July 2015

Concepts in Neural Coaptation: Using the Facial Nerve as a Paradigm in Understanding Principles Surrounding Nerve Injury and Repair.

J Craniofac Surg 2015 Jun;26(4):1304-9

*Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary-Mount Sinai Health System, New York, NY †Department of Neuroscience, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD ‡Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, NY.

Objectives: Individuals with nerve transection face unpredictable outcomes, and microsurgical interventions have variable success. The facial nerve in particular is prone to traumatic transection and leads to debilitating sequelae. Surgeons have used multiple modalities of enhancing nerve regeneration and restoring premorbid functionality. The success of nerve regeneration is predicated on multiple physiologic factors. This article sought to collate the literature on factors influencing nerve damage and repair, using the facial nerve as a paradigm. As such, facial reanimation will also be briefly discussed as it relates to the central theme.

Design: A PubMed search was conducted to find articles published on nerve physiology and anatomy, as well as repair. Articles from 1947 to 2013 were studied; however, the preponderance of articles in the study was from the past 15 years to include recent advances.

Results: The type and severity of nerve injury, as well as timing of intervention, influence the anatomical and functional outcomes of nerve repair. As there is no uniform solution for all reconstructive challenges, multiple factors must be considered when planning an intervention. Future advances suggest a potential role for engineered nerve conduits in providing a tool for nerve regrowth.

Conclusion: Our review has detailed mechanisms of nerve injury, physiology, interventions in nerve repair, and future direction of this expanding field. This review provides a guide for the microsurgeon in factors involved in restorative success.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000001566DOI Listing
June 2015

Management of the thyroid gland during total laryngectomy in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Laryngoscope 2015 Aug 8;125(8):1835-8. Epub 2015 Jun 8.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Objectives/hypothesis: The goal of the study was to determine the role of routine total thyroidectomy and hemithyroidectomy in patients undergoing total laryngectomy for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Study Design: The study group consisted of 343 patients who underwent total laryngectomy (98 treated with surgery alone, 136 treated following radiation failure, and 109 following chemoradiation failure). Total thyroidectomy was performed in all obstructing and bilateral lesions or if there was suspicion of contralateral lobe involvement. Hemithyroidectomy was performed in all lateralized lesions. Retrospective histopathologic analysis of thyroid specimens was subsequently performed.

Results: In all, 262 patients underwent total thyroidectomy during total laryngectomy, six of which demonstrated squamous cell carcinoma evident within the thyroid gland (4 from transglottic lesions, 2 from subglottic lesions). Hemithyroidectomy was performed in 81 patients, with only one patient demonstrating evidence of squamous cell carcinoma within the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism was observed in 88% (n = 61) of patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy alone, requiring hormone supplementation.

Conclusion: Routine surgical management of the thyroid gland should not be performed, except in cases of subglottic primary lesions, lesions with significant subglottic extension, or transglottic lesions. Despite efforts to preserve the contralateral thyroid lobe in cases of selective lobectomy, these patients often have a high rate of hypothyroidism, and a total thyroidectomy should be considered when involvement of the thyroid gland is suspected.

Level Of Evidence: N/A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.25263DOI Listing
August 2015

Carotid Artery Sacrifice and Reconstruction in the Setting of Advanced Head and Neck Cancer.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2015 Aug 2;153(2):225-30. Epub 2015 Jun 2.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas, USA

Objective: To determine oncological and neuromorbidity outcomes in patients with advanced head and neck cancer (stage IVB) requiring sacrifice and reconstruction of the carotid artery.

Study Design: Case series with chart review.

Setting: Tertiary care referral center.

Subjects And Methods: Overall, 51 patients underwent carotid artery sacrifice during surgical treatment of the neck, in both the primary and salvage setting. All patients underwent autogenous in-line carotid artery bypass grafting with either saphenous vein or the deep femoral vein in conjunction with vascular surgery. In all, the study included 39 males and 12 female subjects, with age ranging from 39 to 82 (mean, 62.7).

Results: Two patients (3.9%) had a cerebral vascular accident in the immediate postoperative period. The remaining 49 patients (96%) had no neurologic sequela. Serial ultrasonic evaluation revealed 4 patients with intra-luminal thrombus within the site of reconstruction. Perioperative mortality occurred in a single patient. Disease-related mortality occurred in 9.8% (5) of patients, with an overall 2-year survival of 82%.

Conclusions: We presently report the largest series of surgical treatment for advanced head and neck cancer with carotid artery involvement. We document an overall 2-year survival of 82% in the setting of low perioperative neuromorbidity and mortality rates. We therefore consider carotid artery sacrifice and autogenous vein graft reconstruction in the absence of distant metastatic disease as a viable treatment option for what was once thought to be a palliative procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0194599815586719DOI Listing
August 2015

Does the use of an acellular dermal graft in abdominal closure after rectus flap harvest impact the occurrence of post-operative hernia?

Oral Maxillofac Surg 2015 Dec 26;19(4):347-51. Epub 2015 Apr 26.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery, John Peter Smith Health Network, Fort Worth, TX, USA.

Importance: Patients with rectus free flap harvest extending below the arcuate line are predisposed to postoperative hernia formation. As such, many authors have advocated the use of closure adjuncts to increase the integrity of the closure and prevent hernia or abdominal wall bulging.

Setting: Busy level 1 public trauma center in metropolitan Fort Worth, Texas

Interventions: Following harvest of the rectus free flap, 48 patients underwent primary closure; 24 of these patients had defects extending below the arcuate line. Forty patients were closed with an acellular dermal graft; 22 of these patients had defects extending below the arcuate line.

Main Outcome Measure: Postoperative hernia formation and local infection rate were examined in a minimum follow-up period of 1 year.

Results: Regardless of closure method, no hernias were observed in the postoperative period. Using an unpaired t test and an alpha value of 0.05, there was no statistically significant difference in the infection rate between the two groups.

Conclusion: Following rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flap harvest, the use of an acellular dermal graft in abdominal wall closure may not be of any further advantage in the prevention of hernia.

Level Of Evidence: Retrospective (Level III).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10006-015-0498-1DOI Listing
December 2015

The role of parotidectomy in the treatment of auricular squamous cell carcinoma.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2015 Jun 8;152(6):1048-52. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

Department of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas, USA

Objective: We analyze parotid specimens in patients treated with prophylactic parotidectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the auricle greater than or equal to 2 cm to determine rates of metastasis and the efficacy of elective resection.

Study Design: Case series with chart review.

Setting: Cancer treatment center in Fort Worth, Texas, from 1998 to 2013.

Subjects And Methods: The study included 104 patients between ages 36 and 97 years with primary auricular squamous cell carcinoma greater than or equal to 2 cm, with no evidence of adenopathy or parotid involvement on imaging. Patients underwent local excision and ipsilateral parotidectomy. The primary cancer was analyzed for vascular involvement, perineural invasion, and cartilage involvement, while the parotid specimen was analyzed for cancer positivity.

Results: Thirty-nine parotid (37.5%) samples were positive for carcinoma. Of these, 16 patients had primary auricular carcinomas with vascular involvement, 17 had perineural invasion, and 4 had cartilage involvement. Thirty-two of 77 affected men and 7 of 27 affected women had positive parotid specimen. Vascular involvement (P = .0006) and perineural invasion (P = .0027) of the primary lesion were significantly higher in patients with a positive parotid specimen. Cartilage involvement and sex were not statistically significant.

Conclusions: Elective parotidectomy is beneficial in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the auricle at least 2 cm in size, especially in lesions having perineural invasion and vascular involvement. For patients with positive parotid specimens, we recommend postoperative external beam radiation therapy and close surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0194599815579885DOI Listing
June 2015

Examining the genetics of congenital facial paralysis--a closer look at Moebius syndrome.

Oral Maxillofac Surg 2015 Jun 10;19(2):109-16. Epub 2015 Feb 10.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary-Mount Sinai Health System, 310 East 14th Street, 6th Floor, New York, NY, 10009, USA,

Objectives: The molecular underpinnings of Moebius syndrome (MBS) are diverse. This article provides a comprehensive summation of the genetic and etiologic literature underlying this disorder. Elucidating the genetic causes of the disorder can aid in earlier detection and treatment planning.

Design: Articles from 1880-2013 were selected and reviewed by six researchers to understand all of the molecular theories and chronicity of advancements in the literature.

Results: Mutations in the MBS1, MBS2, and MBS3 gene loci all have contributed to the development of MBS through various pathways. HOX family genes coding for homeobox domains, also, have been implicated in the abnormal development of the human brain. These are among the numerous genes that have been linked to the development of MBS.

Conclusion: Our study codified nascent findings of the molecular determinants of MBS. These findings add to a growing database of MBS-associated mutations and can be used to diagnose MBS and clarify pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10006-015-0485-6DOI Listing
June 2015

Instruments in rhinoplasty: who is behind the name?

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2015 Jan 16;68(1):87-92. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, New York, NY 10461, USA.

Rhinoplasty is considered one of the most commonly performed and most challenging operations in facial plastic surgery. The modern facial plastic surgeon utilizes many instruments in performing this procedure. Many of these instruments take their names from the pioneers who invented or designed them. Although meritorious, the recent trend in medicine to move away from eponyms in lieu of descriptive names should not come at the price of forgetting history. Although this communication does not seek to provide a comprehensive history of rhinoplasty or of its pioneers, our aim is to mention several of the salient contributing figures upon whose shoulders we stand and whose eponymous instruments we use commonly in rhinoplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2014.10.018DOI Listing
January 2015

Postoperative maxillomandibular fixation after open reduction of mandible fractures.

JAMA Facial Plast Surg 2014 Nov-Dec;16(6):410-3

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Importance: Patients are placed in maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) to restore premorbid occlusion prior to open reduction-internal fixation (ORIF) of mandibular fractures. Maintaining MMF for these patients for several weeks postoperatively is a widely accepted dictum.

Objective: We compare postoperative ORIF outcomes in dentate patients with noncomminuted symphyseal, parasymphyseal, or angle fractures of the mandible between those who underwent postoperative MMF and those who did not.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Retrospective review of medical records for 311 patients with 413 mandibular fractures treated at a level 1 public trauma center in the Fort Worth, Texas, metropolitan area. All patients were treated from August 1997 to August 2012 and had a minimum follow-up of 6 weeks.

Interventions: Of the 413 symphyseal, parasymphyseal, and angle fractures, 78, 63, and 83 patients were treated with postoperative MMF respectively. The group without postoperative MMF included 56 symphyseal fractures, 49 parasymphyseal fractures, and 84 angle fractures.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Rates of wound dehiscence, infection, plate removal, nonunion, malunion, and malocclusion were compared.

Results: Using an unpaired t test and α value of .05 for significance, the difference between the 2 groups' outcomes was not statistically significant for any of the complications evaluated. In the groups with vs without postoperative MMF, the mean numbers of complications were as follows: wound dehiscence, 4.7 vs 2.5 (95% CI, -1.7 to 6.0) (P = .16); infection, 6.7 vs 4.0 (95% CI, -1.7 to 7.0) (P = .14); plate removal, 2.3 vs 2.5 (95% CI, -7.9 to 7.6) (P = .94); nonunion, 1.0 vs 0.5 (95% CI, -2.2 to 3.2) (P = .59); malunion, 0.7 vs 1.0 (95% CI, -3.1 to 2.4) (P = .72); and malocclusion, 1.3 vs 1.0 (95% CI, -4.0 to 4.7) (P = .82).

Conclusions And Relevance: The surgical dictum of maintaining postoperative MMF for all trauma patients after ORIF of the mandible may not be of advantage in the treatment of dentate patients with noncomminuted symphyseal, parasymphyseal, or angle fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamafacial.2014.543DOI Listing
February 2016

Carpenter syndrome: a review for the craniofacial surgeon.

J Craniofac Surg 2014 Sep;25(5):1653-7

From the *Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, Mount Sinai Health System, New York; †Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx; and ‡Department of Plastic Surgery, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, New York.

Importance: As of now, there is no review of Carpenter syndrome (CS) for the craniofacial surgeon. This article seeks to unify salient recent studies to provide a resource for surgical planning and overview of this challenging syndrome.

Objectives: The phenotypic characteristics of CS are diverse, and the molecular underpinnings are equally complex. To date, the surgical management of this syndrome has not been fully elucidated, with only a number of selected case studies illustrating proper approach to treatment. This article summarizes treatment approaches from selected CS literature, analyzes craniofacial reconstruction techniques used in related syndromes, and discusses their possible role in CS.

Design: Articles from 1901 to 2013 were selected and reviewed by 5 researchers using the most recent literature of the genetics, pathophysiology, phenotype, and management of CS.

Results: Mutations in RAB23 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of CS. The RAB23 is a small, 35.43-kb gene with 1 noncoding and 6 coding regions that encode a guanosine triphosphatase responsible for regulating intracellular vesicular trafficking. Given the scarcity of CS cases, an algorithm for CS management has not been established. However, early release of craniosynostoses with fronto-orbital advancement is clearly indicated in the CS literature, particularly in cases of elevated intracranial pressure. Management of other craniofacial malformations is less clear. Literature from other craniofacial syndromes, including Apert syndrome and craniofacial microsomia, was helpful in establishing a putative timeline for craniofacial intervention.

Conclusions: This study collates surgical management data from CS and other related syndromes as a means of establishing a cohesive approach to the surgical treatment of CS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000001121DOI Listing
September 2014

Treacher Collins Syndrome: the genetics of a craniofacial disease.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2014 Jun 13;78(6):893-8. Epub 2014 Mar 13.

Department of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.

Objectives: The molecular underpinnings of Treacher Collins Syndrome (TCS) are diverse. This article codifies the most recent findings in this complex area of research to further current understanding of the disease process. Elucidating the genetic causes of the disorder can be useful in earlier detection and better treatment planning.

Design: Articles from 1991 to 2013 were selected and reviewed by five researchers utilizing the most recent literature of the genetics and pathophysiology of TCS.

Results: Mutations in TCOF1, POLR1C and POLR1D have all been implicated in causing TCS. The association of the TCOF1 gene product, Treacle, and gene products of POLR1C and POLR1D with ribosome biosynthesis suggests that a loss of function mutation in these genes disrupts ribosome biosynthesis in constituent neural crest cells and neuroepithelium leading to apoptosis. However, recent data illustrating that P53 heterozygosity is protective against TCS, and that P53 and TCOF1 hemizygous embryos do not affect ribosomal function, implicates P53 or elements downstream of P53 as playing a role in TCS pathogenesis.

Conclusion: Our study codified nascent findings of the molecular determinants of TCS. These findings add to a burgeoning database of TCS-associated mutations, and as such, can be used to establish TCS diagnosis and further clarify TCS pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2014.03.006DOI Listing
June 2014

In memoriam: Fernando Ortiz Monasterio, MD (1923-2012).

Authors:
Masoud Saman

JAMA Facial Plast Surg 2014 Jan-Feb;16(1):69-70

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamafacial.2013.1321DOI Listing
January 2015

Mandibular osteotomies and distraction osteogenesis: evolution and current advances.

JAMA Facial Plast Surg 2013 May;15(3):167-73

Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, 310 E 14th St, New York, NY 10003, USA.

Importance: Although a number of mandibular and occlusal problems may be addressed by orthodontic treatment alone, dentofacial osteotomies are often needed to achieve desired functional or cosmetic results. With the increased popularity of mandibular distraction osteogenesis in recent years, the role of the facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon is crucial in the multidisciplinary care of patients with such problems.

Objective: To review the history and evolution of mandibular osteotomies and distraction osteogenesis and to discuss indications, advantages, disadvantages, and recent advances of these techniques.

Evidence Review: Medline and PubMed searches without date limits, confined to publications in English, German, and French languages were used to search for terms mandibular advancement, mandibular osteotomy, orthognathic surgery, mandibular distraction osteogenesis, prognathism, and retrognathism in the respective languages. References not found on the sources noted were found in print form in the New York Medical College Library when needed. Particular techniques, as originally described or relating to mandibular osteotomies and mandibular distraction osteogenesis, were critically reviewed.

Findings: The goal of surgical mandibular modification procedures is to correct a variety of craniofacial abnormalities for both functional and aesthetic purposes. Multiple techniques of both mandibular osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis have been shown to be effective. Their effectiveness and utility is primarily determined by the specific craniofacial defect and desired outcome, as well as surgeon preference and patient compliance.

Conclusions: While mandibular osteotomy has evolved tremendously, distraction osteogenesis continues to grow as a leading method of surgical correction for a variety of craniofacial defects. Current research shows significant strides in making distraction more effective and efficient to use for both the surgeon and the patient. With the growing popularity of these procedures, the up-to-date knowledge of the facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon in these advances is of utmost importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamafacial.2013.44DOI Listing
May 2013

Platelet-rich fibrin matrix for facial plastic surgery.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2012 May;20(2):177-86, vi

Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, 310 East 14th Street, New York, NY 10003, USA.

Platelets are known primarily for their role in hemostasis, but there is increasing interest in the effect of platelets on wound healing. Platelet isolates such as platelet-rich plasma have been advocated to enhance and accelerate wound healing. This article describes the use of a novel preparation, platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM), for facial plastic surgery applications such as volume augmentation, fat transfer supplementation, and as an adjunct to open surgical procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsc.2012.02.004DOI Listing
May 2012

Recent advances in surgical pharyngeal modification procedures for the treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency in patients with cleft palate.

Arch Facial Plast Surg 2012 Mar-Apr;14(2):85-8

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, 310 E 14th Street, New York, NY 10003, USA.

Background To review recent advances in pharyngeal modification procedures for the treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) in patients with cleft palate after primary repair. In addition, we discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of the various pharyngoplasty techniques, as well as their safety and efficacy. Methods A review of frequently used pharyngeal modification techniques in correction of VPI was performed, and their advantages and disadvantages are outlined. Several techniques in pharyngoplasty most recently described in the literature are compared and contrasted. Results The goal of surgical pharyngeal modification procedures is to correct the abnormal failure of velopharyngeal closure. Multiple techniques used in VPI surgery have proven to be effective. They have similar adverse effect profiles, but what distinguishes them is likely their effectiveness in cases of severe VPI. Conclusions Velopharyngeal insufficiency is a problematic issue both for the patient and the treating surgeon. The negative effect of VPI on patients' quality of life has long been known, and over the years numerous techniques have been described to correct or improve this problem. Pharyngoplasty and pharyngeal flap or combination procedures are most effective in cases of severe VPI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archfacial.2011.1394DOI Listing
July 2012

Cleft lip and palate in the arts: a critical reflection.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2012 Mar 13;49(2):129-36. Epub 2011 Apr 13.

New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, 321 E 13th Street 9D, New York, NY 10003, USA.

Background: The aesthetics of facial structure are used by humans to measure one's beauty, character, and overall "goodness." Individuals born with cleft lip and/or palate are often stigmatized and face much psychosocial adversity. Social attitudes and beliefs have a direct impact upon the psychological development of these individuals. Such social norms are in large part shaped by the physical representations of "good" and "attractive" in various art media including films, advertisements, and paintings.

Objective: Individuals born with a cleft have been portrayed in the artworks of different eras. The light in which they are portrayed stems from the prevalent beliefs of each period and sheds light on the social attitudes of each epoch toward clefts. Here we discuss the social and psychological ramifications of these works. We then review several artworks representing cleft lip and/or palate and propose an active role for the artist in shaping social attitudes regarding facial deformities.

Methods: Numerous articles and works of arts were examined and inspected for signs of facial deformity, with particular attention to cleft lip and/or palate.

Conclusion: Social media have an important role in defining the norms of society. Much of the art of the past has depicted negatively individuals born with cleft lip and/or palate deformity, thus excluding them from the norm. In order to decrease the negative social stigmas of cleft lip and/or palate, it is now the responsibility of society to widen its range of norms to include individuals born with these deformities through "normal" representations in the various media.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1597/10-079DOI Listing
March 2012