Publications by authors named "Masoud Sabouri Ghannad"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Survival Rates among Co-infected Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Tuberculosis in Tehran, Iran.

Iran J Public Health 2017 Aug;46(8):1123-1131

Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: The number of deaths related with co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV remains inappropriately high worldwide. TB is anticipated to be the major reason of HIV-related deaths globally. This study aimed to find out and evaluate the characteristics of the possible risk factors influencing the survival time of co-infected patients with HIV/TB in Tehran the capital of Iran.

Methods: This retrospective study was performed on the referred patients to the one of two Behavioral Diseases Counseling Centers, Imam Khomeini, and Zamzam Centers, Tehran, Iran, in 2004-2013. Data were analyzed by Cox PH model utilizing SPSS16 statistical software.

Results: Multivariate analysis confirmed that the age at diagnosis (P=0.014), gender (P=0.002), sexual transmission (P=0.01), cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (P<0.001), and onset to TB after post-HIV diagnosis (P=0.01) were the parameters which had significant effects on the death of HIV/TBco-infected patients.

Conclusion: The results, recommend interplay between different risk factors and the risk of death in co-infected patients with HIV/TB. We presented the barriers to higher-level organizational and functional integration for commitment to interfere with the modifiable risk factors, which effect on the mortality of patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5575393PMC
August 2017

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FOXP3 gene are associated with increased risk of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

Hum Antibodies 2016 ;24(3-4):85-90

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Although Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune multifactorial disease with unknown etiology, various genetic and environmental factors are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease.

Objective: Recent studies have confirmed that the suppressive function of regulatory T cells (T (reg)) is impaired in MS patients and that the FOXP3 gene is a crucial transcription factor in the regulation of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Treg cells. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the FOXP3 gene may alter the gene expression level and, therefore, contribute to the disease susceptibility.

Methods: The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs3761548 and rs2232365 in the FOXP3 gene and predisposition to MS. We conducted a case-control study on 410 patients with sporadic MS and 446 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).

Results: Significant differences in distribution of both rs3761548 and rs2232365 A allele were found in MS patients in comparison to controls. Haplotype frequencies were also different among the studied groups. The A-A and C-G haplotype blocks showed a significant difference between case and controls.

Conclusion: we have provided further evidence for the association between genetic variations and haplotypes in FOXP3 and MS in Iranian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/HAB-160299DOI Listing
March 2017

Frequency of viral infections and environmental factors in multiple sclerosis.

Hum Antibodies 2016 Jun;24(1-2):17-23

Faculty of Paramedicine, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complicated disease which occurs due to relationship between genes and environmental factors that causes tissue damage by autoimmune mechanisms.We investigated and illustrated the hypotheses correlated to the evidence of several putative environmental risk factors for MS onset and progression in this part of Iran.

Materials And Methods: Univariate logistic regression was used to detect the effects of environmental factors on the risk of MS. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.

Results: The childhood history of patients with rubella, measles and chickenpox increased the risk of MS significantly. Moreover, low consumption of dairy products, avoidance of seafood consumption, cigarette smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke, stress, anxiety disorders, depress and disturbing thoughts, negative and disturbing thoughts, developing a sudden shock upon hearing bad news, having obsessive-compulsive and being depressed increased the risk of MS significantly.

Conclusions: The results of the current research partially solved the puzzling question of complex interplay between environmental factors and MS disease in this part of Iran. Incorporating these factors enables more powerful and accurate detection of novel risk factors with diagnostic and prognostic methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/HAB-150289DOI Listing
June 2016

Individual Factors of Social Acceptance in Patients Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) at the Yazd Behavioral Consultation Center in Iran.

Int J High Risk Behav Addict 2016 Mar 30;5(1):e22243. Epub 2016 Jan 30.

Department of Biostatistics, Ali ebene Abitaleb Medical School of Medicine, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, IR Iran.

Background: A considerable number of patients infected with HIV also have mental health problems. Individual psychotherapy is an effective way to treat these issues. Lack of social acceptance is a barrier to patients receiving proper medication and emotional/psychological support.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the individual factors of social acceptance in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

Patients And Methods: Fifty HIV-infected patients who were registered in the Behavioral Consultation Center entered the study. Each of them filled out a questionnaire based on the Crown-Marlow social acceptance scale. Their answers were evaluated according to the questionnaire key.

Results: Forty-five patients (90%) were male and five (10%) were female. Their ages ranged between 28 and 52 years old. Other variables researched in this study include patients' age, sex, education, occupation, place of living, marital status, family history of HIV, and family history of psychological disorders. Employed patients experienced more social acceptance than housewives and people who were unemployed or retired.

Conclusions: This study showed that HIV-infected patients with jobs enjoy a great deal of acceptance from the people around them and a higher quality of life in general. It also led to suggestions for further study with the purpose of finding more effective solutions for HIV prevention and better strategies for dealing with psychological disorders. Such research could also help in providing an enhanced understanding of the potential psychological impact that AIDS has on patients in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ijhrba.22243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4870544PMC
March 2016

Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis C virus and its relation with persistence or clearance of infection in Hamadan, West-Iran.

Iran J Microbiol 2015 Apr;7(2):109-17

Immunology Department, Medical School, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IRAN.

Background And Objectives: Hepatitis C Virus genotyping appears to be vital for predicting the response to antiviral therapy. The present study aimed to analyze the HCV genotypes in relation to persistence or clearance of the virus in residents of Hamadan Province, West-Iran.

Material And Methods: A total of 1159 recorded questionnaires of HCV infected people were evaluated in this prospective study. Several parameters including HCV genotypes, anti-HCV antibodies, viral load, drug treatment, response to therapy and amount of ALT and AST were analyzed.

Results: HCV genotyping in 637 samples revealed a predominance of type 1a (52.1%) followed by 3a (42.4%), type 1b (2.7%) and type 2 (0.2%) respectively. Mixed genotypes (3a-1a) were detected in 0.9%, and 1.7% had untypable genotype. High frequency of genotypes 1a and 3a were observed in drug-resistant (group-a) and drug-sensitive (group-b) patients respectively (P<0.0001). Additionally, duration of drug treatment was significantly higher in group-a than group-b (P<0.0001). During follow-up period, 92 cases showed spontaneous clearance of HCV infection and more importantly 86 of 92 cases were positive for anti-HCV antibodies compared with 59 of 455 antibody positive cases with treatment-induced clearance of HCV infection (P<0.0001).

Conclusion: HCV genotyping and also antibody screening could be useful for proper therapeutic intervention in HCV infected subjects.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4662778PMC
April 2015

Survival rates of human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis co-infected patients.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2014 Jun 1;7(6):e10565. Epub 2014 Jun 1.

Department of Health Services, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, IR Iran.

Background: At present, limited clinical data is available regarding survival rates of patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries.

Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on the survival chances of active TB adults who disclosed their symptoms of TB in this part of Iran.

Patients And Methods: The records and data of 807 patients only infected with TB and 21 co-infected patients with HIV/TB, who were admitted to primary health care units in Iran, were evaluated. Their survival time was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier Estimator, Log-rank test and SPSS version 16.

Results: Cox regression analysis showed that co-infection with HIV significantly affects the survival rate of TB patients so that the rate of death was 20.7 (8.1-53) times more than TB infected patients alone. Also, married patients with tuberculosis were 2.7 times more at risk of death than single subjects. We also confirmed that in HIV/TB positive patients, married individuals were more prone to death than single subjects (P value < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our results denote the need to progress diagnostic and preventive measures in this part of Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.10565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4217676PMC
June 2014

The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Herpes Simplex Virus 1.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2014 Jul 1;7(7):e11616. Epub 2014 Jul 1.

Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran.

Background: Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) resistance to drugs and the side effects of drugs have drawn the attention of investigators to herbal plants.

Objectives: The main aim of the current research was to investigate the effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice root) on HSV-1. One of the objectives of the current research was to determine the efficacy and the effect of the elapsed incubation time of treating the Vero cells infected with HSV-1 by G. glabra. In addition, the effect of cells pretreatment with licorice root extract, preincubation of virus with licorice root extract, and the antiviral activity were assessed.

Patients And Methods: Vero cells were incubated after adding different concentrations of aqueous extracts of G. glabra. The cells were incubated during various time courses. Cytotoxicity assay, determining the 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50), and incubation of HSV-1 with licorice root extract prior to viral infection were performed.

Results: Internal association among different experiment groups showed the significant difference in the efficacy of the extract with regard to incubation period between one and four hours, one and eight hours, four and 12 hours, and eight and 12 hours. Moreover, there was a significant difference with regard to efficacy among the pretreatment of cells with extract for two hours, incubation of virus with extract for one hour, incubation of virus with extract for two hours.

Conclusions: G. glabra showed the characteristics of a novel antiviral medication; however, more in vitro experiments are needed to determine the antiherpetic activities of the G. glabra.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.11616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4216581PMC
July 2014

The assessment of affected factors on cytomegalovirus and rubella virus prevalence in females in Hamadan, Iran.

Acta Med Iran 2014 ;52(4):303-9

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and rubella are considered as dangerous viral infections to the fetus. The findings of this research can clear the possible progress made thus far toward prevention in this part of the country. The data of all referees to genetic center of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan, including the rubella and CMV tests were recorded in questionnaires and analyzed by logistic regression models. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were utilized to assess the affected factors on CMV and Rubella separately. STATA and SPSS16 statistical software were used with setting P-value as 0.05. Logistic regression analysis indicates a statistically significant relationship between CMV IgM and on occupation (P=0.045), pregnancy (P=0.03) and years of referring the patients (P<0.001). The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that job was significantly affected on the CMV infection [OR (95% C.I) = 1.71(1.1-2.83)]. Univariate logistic regression showed that age (P=0.001), the residential area (P=0.03), pregnancy (P=0.03), the marital status (P=0.022) and years of referring the patients (P<0.0001) has a significant effect on rubella IgG. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis also showed that residential status (OR=1.77) and age (OR=0.63) were significantly affected on the Rubella infection. The high level of IgG positivity against rubella in females may highlight the considerable impact of increasing public vaccination in this part of Iran. Also, the current data demonstrating frequency of primary infections with CMV in females which support the conclusion that regular prenatal screening tests is justified.
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September 2014

Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in hamadan, iran.

Iran J Microbiol 2013 Sep;5(3):272-7

Departments of Immunology and Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan.

Background And Objectives: Encephalitis can cause a severe public health problem. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the medical laboratory results of patients with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis.

Materials And Methods: Diagnosis of encephalitis for these patients was firstly based on a clinical profile for Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE), plus either a detected HSV1&2-DNA by PCR in CSF or brain neuro-imaging results.

Results: Molecular testing on CSF showed that 15 patients (15%) had HSV infection, 5 patients (5%) had Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) and one case was positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-RNA in CSF. The cause of encephalitis in 79 out of 100 patients (79%) was unknown. The comparison of CSF analysis in HSV positives and negatives showed a significant increase of glucose and protein levels in HSV positives than negatives. The mortality rate was 46.6% (7/15) in patients with HSV encephalitis compared to 11.4% (10/85) in non-HSV encephalitis (P = 0.003).

Conclusions: In the current study, 15% of cases were diagnosed as having HSV.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3895567PMC
September 2013

Bacteriophage: time to re-evaluate the potential of phage therapy as a promising agent to control multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2012 Mar;15(2):693-701

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Nowadays the most difficult problem in treatment of bacterial infections is the appearance of resistant bacteria to the antimicrobial agents so that the attention is being drawn to other potential targets. In view of the positive findings of phage therapy, many advantages have been mentioned which utilizes phage therapy over chemotherapy and it seems to be a promising agent to replace the antibiotics. This review focuses on an understanding of phages for the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases as a new alternative treatment of infections caused by multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria. Therefore, utilizing bacteriophage may be accounted as an alternative therapy. It is appropriate time to re-evaluate the potential of phage therapy as an effective bactericidal and a promising agent to control multidrug-resistant bacteria.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3586887PMC
March 2012

Prediction of time to recurrence and influencing factors for gastric cancer in Iran.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2012 ;13(6):2639-42

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Background: The patterns of gastric cancer recurrence vary across societies. We designed the current study in an attempt to evaluate and reveal the outbreak of the recurrence patterns of gastric cancer and also prediction of time to recurrence and its effected factors in Iran.

Materials And Methods: This research was performed from March 2003 to February 2007. Demographic characteristics, clinical and pathological diagnosis and classification including pathologic stage, tumor grade, tumor site and tumor size in of patients with GC recurrent were collected from patients' data files. To evaluate of factors affected on the relapse of the GC patients, gender, age at diagnosis, treatment type and Hgb were included in the research. Data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and logistic regression models.

Results: After treatment, 82 patients suffered recurrence, 42, 33 and 17 by the ends of first, second and third years. The mean ( SD) and median ( IQR) time to recurrence in patients with GC were 25.5 (20.6-30.1) and 21.5 (15.6-27.1) months, respectively. The results of multivariate analysis logistic regression showed that only pathologic stage, tumor grade and tumor site significantly affected the recurrence.

Conclusions: We found that pathologic stage, tumor grade and tumor site significantly affect on the recurrence of GC which has a high positive prognostic value and might be functional for better follow-up and selecting the patients at risk. We also showed time to recurrence to be an important factor for follow-up of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2012.13.6.2639DOI Listing
February 2013

An epidemiologic study of animal bites in Ilam Province, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2012 Jun;15(6):356-60

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: In Iran, the number of stray dogs in cities and villages necessitates epidemiologic investigations. This study has undertaken an epidemiologic survey in Ilam, Iran with regard to animal bites during 1999-2009.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The data due to animal bites was collected from patients and analyzed.

Results: The number of animal bites reported was 4420, which included 3032 men (68.3%) and 398 women (31.7%). Most animal bites were reported in the 10-19 year-old (1172, 26%) age group. The feet were the most commonly attacked body part, which was reported in 3177 cases (71.8%). Most bites were from dogs (3942 cases, 89.15%). Of cases, 3419 (77.3%) resided in rural areas while 1001 (22.7%) were urban residents. The number of patients with incomplete vaccinations was 3596 (81.3%) compared to 824 (18.7%) completely vaccinated patients.

Conclusion: The present study showed a high incidence of animal bites in Ilam, which necessitates the importance of rabies prevention and control. It is recommended that the sanitation authorities provide for and implement measures to determine beneficial ways to avoid and control rabies infection in this part of Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/012156/AIM.008DOI Listing
June 2012

The Effect of GBV-C Infection on CD4 Count and Viral Loads in Patients Infected With HIV.

Hepat Mon 2012 Jan 20;12(1):39-42. Epub 2012 Jan 20.

School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: The picture that has emerged from studies investigating HIV infected people with GBV-C viremia is that they have lower plasma HIV viral loads in comparison with HIV-positive people who did not have the GBV-C viremia.

Objectives: Since GBV-C HIV coinfection has not been studied in Iran, we have designed a survey to study the outcomes of GBV-C infection on HIV infected individuals.

Patients And Methods: We analyzed 78 serum samples from HIV-positive patients in Tehran. The HIV positive statue was confirmed by Western blot in our laboratory. Next we detected GBV-C RNA by RT nested-PCR and divided our patient into GBV-C positive and GBV-C negative groups. The final step was measuring the CD4 count and HIV viral load and comparing the means of the CD4 count and HIV viral load in HIV-infected individuals in the GBV-C positive and GBV-C negative groups.

Results: We detected GBV-C RNA in 15 patients out of 78. The mean CD4 count was 607.13 compared to 415.87 in the GBV-C negative group and the difference was significant (P = 0.005). In contrast to the CD4 count there was no significant difference in HIV viral loads between HIV infected individuals in the GBV-C positive and GBV-C negative groups.

Conclusion: Although there was no significant difference in the mean of the HIV viral load between the GBV-C positive and GBV-C negative groups, the significantly higher CD4 mean in the GBV-C positive group compared with the GBV-C negative group suggests a beneficial effect of this coinfection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3298874PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/kowsar.1735143x.4406DOI Listing
January 2012

Needlestick and sharp object injuries among health care workers in Hamadan Province, Iran.

J Emerg Nurs 2012 Mar;38(2):171-5; quiz 202

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Introduction: Exposure to septic fluids through mucus and needlestick injuries is of great concern among health care workers (HCWs). The purpose of this study was to acquire epidemiological data, including occupation, level of education, and mode of exposure, in HCWs.

Methods: The data on this group was gathered during 6 months and analyzed using SPSS version 16.

Results: In this study, we detected 89 cases of needlestick injuries and exposure to septic body fluids in the health care centers. Nurses were the most exposed group (39.3%). The most exposed age group was 25-34 years (51.6%). Of those injured, 51.7% were evaluated for antibody titration after vaccination, and of them, 47.2% had titration above 10 mIU/mL and the remaining had titration below 10 mIU/mL.

Discussion: Numerous educational programs on care are still necessary to inform active workers in the health system about the warning trends and consequences in this part of Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2011.01.009DOI Listing
March 2012

Prognostic impact of risk factors in patients with gastric cancer in Iran.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011 ;12(11):3005-8

Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is one the most common causes of death worldwide. Despite the decreasing rate of GC in the world through recent years, it is still the most common cancer in men and the fourth in the general population in Iran. This study aimed to assess the survival of patients with GC and to determine prognostic factors.

Materials And Methods: A total of 471 patients with GC were followed from 21 March 2003 to 21 March 2007 in the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital. The patients' survival rate was determined by periodical refers. The survival period considered as the time from diagnosis up to death or the end of the study. The effects of gender, age at diagnosis, tumor site, pathologic stage of disease, type of treatment used, and metastasis were evaluated by log-rank test in a univariate analysis. In addition, all the variables were evaluated simultaneously by the Cox proportional hazard (PH) model. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software.

Results: 357 (75.8%) out of 471 patients were male and 153 cases (32.5%) experienced death. The mean and median ages at diagnosis were 58.5 and 60.7 years respectively. Also, the survival mean and median were 41.8 ( 3.1) and 27 (1.7) months respectively. Gender, type of treatment, pathologic stage, the degree of differentiation were significantly related to survival.

Conclusions: There was a potential effective role of age at diagnosis, gender of patients and pathologic stage of disease in cancer therapy in this part of Iran. Therefore, to reduce the risk of death in patients with GC, early diagnosis of patients at a younger age and also in primary stages must be targeted.
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July 2012

A study of HDV in HBsAg positive patients in Tabriz, Northwestern Iran.

Hepat Mon 2010 1;10(2):110-5. Epub 2010 Jun 1.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Backgrounds And Aims: Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) is a defective ssRNA virus requiring the provision of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for packaging of new HDV virions. Since the epidemiological features of HDV in this part of Iran seem to be unknown, the aim of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of HDV of hepatitis B surface antigen positive (HBsAg+) in blood donors, injecting drug users, hemophiliacs, hemodialysis and thalassemic patients in the city of Tabriz in northwestern Iran.

Methods: The numbers of patients who were screened in the years 2006-2007 were 100 hemodialysis patients, 165 blood donors and 90 intravenous drug users, or a total of 355 patients who were HBsAg+ and randomly selected at the Tabriz Regional Educational Blood Center. Anti-HDV antibodies (IgM), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in serum samples were measured.

Results: Eight of the hemodialysis patients (8%), 3 of the 165 blood donors (1.8%) and 9 intravenous drug addicts (10%) were HDV-IgM antibody-positive. Out of 152 serum samples collected in the hemophiliac population, only 11 samples were HBsAg+ (7.23%), and anti-HDV IgM antibodies were detected in just 2 cases. Also out of 112 thalassemic patients' sera specimens, only 2 samples was HBsAg+, and HDV-IgM antibodies were negative. The seropositivity of anti- HDV antibodies was 6.01%. The study of serum ALT levels in HBV-positive and HDV-positive patients showed obvious elevation in more than 95% of cases.

Conclusions: The results show the endemicity of HDV infection in Tabriz. HDV infection in Iran could be controlled by nationwide HBV vaccination.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3270353PMC
June 2012

Epidemiologic study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Infection in the patients referred to health centers in Hamadan province, Iran.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2009 Mar;25(3):277-83

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is one of the most important infectious diseases threatening the world's population today. The main aim of this study was to assess the epidemiologic features of HIV/AIDS from January 1989 to March 2007 in Hamadan province, Iran. In a cross-sectional study, epidemiodemographic characteristics of HIV/AIDS-positive patients during a period of 17 years were collected from health centers in Hamadan province. This study showed that about 1.8% of HIV/AIDS cases in Iran involved people who lived in Hamadan province. Further study is needed to determine the reasons for this. From January 1989 to March 2007, 285 individuals including 275 males and 10 females were infected with HIV in this province. The study showed that 88% of patients lived in urban areas while 12% involved a rural population. Hamadan city had the highest rate of HIV/AIDS infection and death with 191 and 33 individuals, respectively. The main transmission route was intravenous drug use with 78%. From 28 patients who were entered into the AIDS phase, only 10 patients returned to health centers to be covered under definite treatment. The establishment of the Triangular Clinic can be presented as the starting point in the organization of infected people to detect HIV/AIDS. Altogether, efforts in reducing the impact of HIV in this province to date can be considered beneficial. Continuous laboratory diagnostic strategies may lead in time to therapeutic approaches that result in appropriate outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.2008.0143DOI Listing
March 2009

The effect of garlic consumption on Th1/Th2 cytokines in phytohemagglutinin (PHA) activated rat spleen lymphocytes.

Phytother Res 2009 Apr;23(4):579-81

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

The balance and regulation of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2-type cytokines are important in the effective immune response to different diseases. To clarify the effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) consumption on the Th1/Th2 balance, the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), as two prototypes of Th1/Th2 cytokines, were compared in serum and supernatant of in vitro phytohemagglutinin activated rat spleen lymphocytes. Thirty male rats were divided equally into two groups. The treatment group received garlic solution in water (600 mg/kg/4 mL) and controls received distilled water by gavage. After 1 month, serum and supernatant of PHA activated spleen lymphocytes were analysed for IFN-gamma and IL-4 by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test and thymus and spleen weights were measured. The garlic treatment group showed significantly decreased production of IFN-gamma from 101.73 +/- 4.62 to 74.64 +/- 4.64 pg/mL and significantly increased IL-4 production from 26.75 +/- 3.35 to 83.92 +/- 6.56 pg/mL (p < 0.001) in the supernatant of PHA induced spleen lymphocytes. The serum level of these cytokines was undetectable. The mean weight of thymuses in the garlic fed animals was significantly reduced from 0.456 +/- 0.016 to 0.368 +/- 0.023 g compared with the control group (p < 0.005). There were no significant differences between the spleen weights in the two groups. In conclusion, oral garlic treatment may favor a Th2 or humoral immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2700DOI Listing
April 2009

The full length hepatitis C virus polyprotein and interactions with the interferon-beta signalling pathways in vitro.

Iran Biomed J 2008 01;12(1):23-34

Dept. of Hematology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan 65178-3-8736, Iran.

Background: Hepatitis C is a global health problem. The exact mechanisms by which hepatitis C virus (HCV) can evade the host immune system have become controversial. Whether HCV polyproteins modulate IFN signalling pathways or HCV proteins are responsible for such a property is the subject of interest. Therefore, an efficient baculovirus delivery system was developed to introduce the whole genome of HCV1B minus 3’untranslated region (UTR) (HCV1BΔ3’UTR) into hepatoma cells.

Methods: The whole genome of HCV genotype 1b was developed into hepatoma cells. Also, two replicon constructs were used in this research: a recombinant baculovirus containing the culture adapted sub-genomic replicon (Fk5.1) derived from HCV genotype 1b, and a mutant form containing an inactivating mutation within the non-structural protein 5B (NS5B).

Results: As expected, the baculovirus carrying the FK5.1 replicon induced the production of IFN-beta as judged by the use of an IFN-beta promoter luciferase reporter construct, whereas the GND baculovirus (a control polymerase knock-out replicon) and the full-length 3'UTR deletant failed to induce luciferase expression. The activation of both IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB), two transcription factors induced by dsRNA signalling were examined. Both the wild type and GND-mutant replicon blocked the dsRNA-induced activation of IRF3 and NFkappaB.

Conclusion: Inhibition of the transcriptional response to IRF3 and NFkappaB seems to be one of the multiple mechanisms which HCV employs to escape the host immune defense. In contrast, the full length 3'UTR deletant had no significant effect on either transcription factor. These results may be attributed to the function of HCV subgenomic replicons when compared with full length 3'UTR deletant.
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January 2008

Designing E1 deleted adenoviral vector by homologous recombination.

Iran Biomed J 2007 Jul;11(3):199-202

Dept. of Microbiology and Virology, Medical School, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran.

Background: Adenoviruses are used extensively to deliver genes into mammalian cells, particularly where there is a requirement for high-level expression of transgene products in cultured cells, or for use as recombinant viral vaccines or in gene therapy. In spite of their usefulness, the construction of adenoviral vectors (AdV) is a cumbersome and lengthy process that is not readily amenable to the generation of large collection of clones.

Methods: In this project, to delete E1 gene in adenovirus, an adenoviral plasmid containing lateral sites of E1 region of adenovirus was made and recombination in the 293A cells between the homologous region of this linearized plasmid and the adenovirus genome resulted in the formation of the complete adenoviral recombinant.

Results: This recombination resulted in loss of E1 region and we constructed a recombinant adenovirus type 5 vector that E1 gene was deleted by homologous recombination.

Conclusion: Homologous recombination is more easy and fast technique in the production of AdV.
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July 2007