Publications by authors named "Masatsugu Tanaka"

131 Publications

Dasatinib-based Two-step Induction for Adults with Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

The standard treatment for adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ALL) in Japan is imatinib-based chemotherapy followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, approximately 40% of patients cannot undergo HSCT in their first complete remission (CR1) because of chemotherapy-related toxicities and relapse before HSCT, and older age. We evaluated dasatinib-based two-step induction with the primary endpoint of 3-year event-free survival (EFS) in this study. The first induction (IND1) was dasatinib plus prednisolone to achieve CR and the second (IND2) was dasatinib plus intensive chemotherapy to achieve minimal residual disease (MRD)-negativity. Patients who achieved CR and had an appropriate donor were recommended to undergo HSCT during a consolidation phase later than the first consolidation, which included high-dose methotrexate. Prophylactic dasatinib after HSCT was assigned to patients with positive pre-transplant MRD. All 78 eligible patients achieved CR or incomplete CR after IND1, and 52.6% achieved MRD-negativity after IND2. Non-relapse mortality (NRM) was not reported. T315I mutation was detected in all 4 hematological relapses before HSCT. Fifty-eight (74.4%) patients underwent HSCT in CR1 and 44 (75.9%) were negative with pre-transplant MRD. At a median follow-up of 4.0 years, the 3-year EFS and overall survival were 66.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.4-75.5) and 80.5% (95% CI, 69.7-87.7), respectively. The cumulative incidence of relapse and NRM at 3 years from enrollment were 26.1% and 7.8%, respectively. Dasatinib-based two-step induction was demonstrated to improve the 3-year EFS. This study was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trial Registry as #UMIN000012173.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004607DOI Listing
September 2021

Compromised anti-tumor-immune features of myeloid cell components in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 10;11(1):18046. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Immunology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a form of myeloproliferative neoplasm caused by the oncogenic tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL. Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors have dramatically improved the prognosis of patients with CML, several problems such as resistance and recurrence still exist. Immunological control may contribute to solving these problems, and it is important to understand why CML patients fail to spontaneously develop anti-tumor immunity. Here, we show that differentiation of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), which are vital for anti-tumor immunity, is restricted from an early stage of hematopoiesis in CML. In addition, we found that monocytes and basophils, which are increased in CML patients, express high levels of PD-L1, an immune checkpoint molecule that inhibits T cell responses. Moreover, RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that basophils express genes related to poor prognosis in CML. Our data suggest that BCR-ABL not only disrupts the "accelerator" (i.e., cDCs) but also applies the "brake" (i.e., monocytes and basophils) of anti-tumor immunity, compromising the defense against CML cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97371-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433374PMC
September 2021

Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation from Alternative Donors in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Comparative Analysis.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: In the absence of matched related and unrelated donors, an alternative donor has to be found for patients in need of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). There are at least three donor options: a mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD), an umbilical cord blood (UCB), and a haploidentical related donor (Haplo); however, the optimal alternative donor selection remains to be established.

Objectives: This study aimed to address how the outcomes of these three alternative donor transplantations differ, and whether the outcomes of each of the alternative donor transplantations have changed over time.

Study Design: We retrospectively analyzed Japanese nationwide transplantation registry data of adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing allogeneic HCT during first complete remission (CR) from MMUD with a 7/8-match at the allele level (n = 601), UCB, (n = 1110), or Haplo (n = 221) between 2007 and 2018.

Results: For patients transplanted from 2007 to 2014, the 3-year overall survival (OS) for the MMUD, UCB, and Haplo groups was 60%, 54%, and 47%, respectively (P = 0.022). For those transplanted from 2015 to 2018, the 3-year OS was 60%, 66%, and 63%, respectively (P = 0.693). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risks of both overall mortality and non-relapse mortality (NRM) were significantly lower in the later period than in the earlier period in the UCB group [hazard ratio (HR), 0.66; P < 0.001 for OS; and HR, 0.64; P < 0.001 for NRM], and in the Haplo group (HR, 0.58; P = 0.019 for OS; HR, 0.39; P = 0.004 for NRM), but not in the MMUD group (HR, 1.07; P = 0.631 for OS; HR, 1.26; P = 0.175 for NRM). The results of a test for interaction showed a significant difference in the effect of the transplantation period on OS and NRM between the MMUD and UCB groups (P = 0.014 for OS and P = 0.004 for NRM) and between the MMUD and Haplo groups (P = 0.034 for OS and P = 0.003 for NRM).

Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the recent improvements in the outcomes of UCB and Haplo transplantations in patients with AML in first CR, consequently resulting in the similar OS of patients transplanted from MMUD, UCB, and Haplo in the later period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.08.027DOI Listing
September 2021

A case series of patients treated with inotuzumab ozogamicin for acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapsed after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Int J Hematol 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Hematology and Clinical Immunology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

This single-center retrospective study was performed in consecutive patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who relapsed after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and received salvage therapy using inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO). Ten patients (median age: 27 years) treated between June 2018 and July 2020 who met the eligibility criteria were included in this study. Nine patients received InO in one cycle and seven of these patients achieved complete hematological remission after salvage chemotherapy including InO. Negative minimal residual disease was confirmed in all four evaluable patients. Eight patients were successfully bridged to the subsequent HCT. After HCT, veno-occlusive disease (VOD) developed in three patients, and caused the death of one. No patient received maintenance therapy. At present, five patients are disease-free and alive, and the overall and progression-free survival rates at 1 year were 60% and 40%, respectively. High rates of disease remission and bridging to HCT with comprehensive treatments including InO may have contributed to favorable outcomes. However, further investigation is needed to reduce post-HCT complications including VOD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03217-4DOI Listing
September 2021

Cytomegalovirus reactivation is associated with an increased risk of late-onset invasive aspergillosis independently of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: JSTCT Transplant Complications Working Group.

Ann Hematol 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, 1-847 Amanuma, Omiya-ku, Saitama-city, Saitama, 330-8503, Japan.

There is a matter of debate about the clinical impact of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation on the development of late-onset invasive aspergillosis (IA), which occurs 40 days or later after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Using a Japanese transplant registry database, we analyzed the risk factors for the development of late-onset IA in 21,015 patients who underwent their first allogeneic HSCT between 2006 and 2017. CMV reactivation was defined as the initiation of preemptive anti-CMV antiviral therapy. Overall, there were 582 cases of late-onset IA, which occurred at a median of 95 days after HSCT. The 2-year cumulative incidence was 3.4% (95% confidence interval (CI), 3.0-3.9) in patients with CMV reactivation within 40 days after HSCT and 2.5% (95% CI, 2.3-2.8) in those without it (P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, CMV reactivation as a time-dependent covariate was significantly associated with the development of late-onset IA (hazard ratio (HR) 1.40, P < 0.001), as well as grade II-IV acute GVHD, age > 50 and HCT-CI ≥ 3 in the entire cohort. If we focus on the subgroup without grade II-IV acute GVHD, which is generally an indication for systemic corticosteroid therapy (n = 12,622), CMV reactivation was still a significant factor for the development of late-onset IA (HR 1.37, P = 0.045) as well as age > 50 years, HCT-CI ≥ 3, and cord blood transplantation. In conclusion, CMV reactivation was associated with an increased risk of late-onset IA after allogeneic HSCT independently of acute GVHD. Close monitoring for late-onset IA is necessary for patients who develop CMV reactivation even without grade II-IV acute GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04660-3DOI Listing
September 2021

Impact of HLA disparity on the risk of overall mortality in patients with grade II-IV acute GVHD on behalf of the HLA Working Group of Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Hematology, Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Stem cell source or HLA disparity may exert a significant impact on the overall survival (OS) after the development of aGVHD. In order to clarify this point, we performed a retrospective analysis using a database of the Japan Society for HCT. We analyzed the clinical outcomes of 10,035 patients who developed grade II-IV aGVHD. The median age of the patients was 48 years. The probability of 2-year OS after the onset of grade II-IV aGVHD in the study cohort was 54.1%. The multivariate analysis showed that the HLA ≥2-loci mismatched related donor and HLA 1-locus mismatched unrelated donor were significantly associated with an inferior OS after grade II-IV aGVHD. In a subgroup analysis, peripheral blood stem cells and HLA disparity were associated with an inferior OS in patients who received related or unrelated HCT. Thus, the clinical outcome after grade II-IV aGVHD significantly varied as per the combination of the presence of HLA disparity and stem cell source. Further research using other databases is necessary to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01443-2DOI Listing
September 2021

The differential effect of disease status at allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation on outcomes in acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemia.

Ann Hematol 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

This study aimed to compare the effect of disease status at the time of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on post-transplant outcomes between acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Japanese nationwide registry data for 6901 patients with AML and 2469 patients with ALL were analyzed. In this study, 2850 (41%), 937 (14%), 62 (1%), and 3052 (44%) AML patients and 1751 (71%), 265 (11%), 23 (1%), and 430 (17%) ALL patients underwent transplantation in first complete remission (CR1), second CR (CR2), third or subsequent CR (CR3 +), and non-CR, respectively. The probabilities of overall survival at 5 years for patients transplanted in CR1, CR2, CR3 + , and non-CR were 58%, 61%, 41%, and 26% for AML patients and 67%, 45%, 20%, and 21% for ALL patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that the risks of relapse and overall mortality were similar for AML patients transplanted in CR1 and CR2 (P = 0.672 and P = 0.703), whereas they were higher for ALL patients transplanted in CR2 than for those transplanted in CR1 (P < 0.001 for both). The risks of relapse and overall mortality for those transplanted in CR3 + and non-CR increased in a stepwise manner for both diseases, with the relevance being stronger for ALL than for AML patients. These results suggest a significant difference in the effect of disease status at HCT on post-transplant outcomes in AML and ALL. Further investigation to incorporate measurable residual disease data is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04661-2DOI Listing
September 2021

Resignation and return to work in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation close up.

J Cancer Surviv 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: To characterize the issues regarding work and employment specific to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) survivors, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

Methods: We targeted allo-HCT survivors employed at diagnosis, aged 20-64 at survey, and survived ≥2 years without relapse. The questionnaire included the timing of and reasons for resignation (termination of employment contract), and patient-related, HCT-related, work-related, and HCT center-related factors.

Results: A total of 1048 eligible participants were included in the analysis (response rate, 60%). The median time after allo-HCT was 5 years (range, 2-30) at the time of survey. After diagnosis, 41% of participants resigned from work throughout the course of treatment. The most frequent timing of the first resignation was "after discharge post-HCT" (46%), followed by "from diagnosis to initial treatment" (27%). Factors significantly associated with resignation included female gender, older age, and part-time employment. Favorable factors included the presence of occupational health staff at the workplace, employment of ≥10 years, and self-employed/freelance. After resignation, the overall incidence of return to work with some accommodations was 76% at 5 years after HCT, but it was 52% without any accommodation.

Conclusions: Overall, the rate of resignation was 41%, and the most frequent timing of resignation was after discharge post-HCT, accounting for approximately half of the resignations (46%). Workplace accommodations increased the rate of return to work from 52% to 76%.

Implications For Cancer Survivors: Early detection of employment-related concerns and support throughout the treatment process are necessary for patients receiving allo-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11764-021-01092-wDOI Listing
August 2021

Pre-conditioning intervention in patients with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a KSGCT multicenter retrospective analysis.

Ann Hematol 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The efficacy and clinical significance of pre-conditioning intervention (PCI) before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) not in remission remain inconclusive. The purpose of this multicenter retrospective study was to clarify the clinical significance of PCI before HCT in patients with non-remission ALL. Patients with non-remission ALL who received HCT between 2005 and 2015 at 16 institutions were included. PCI was objectively defined and classified to three groups according to the intensity of PCI (no, intensive, or moderate). The study cohort consisted of 104 patients with a median age of 38 (range 17-68). A significant decrease of blast percentage in the peripheral blood (PB) was confirmed in both PCI groups, suggesting that PCIs were effective to stabilize the disease activity. The group with moderate PCI had higher nucleated cell count in the BM compared to the group with intensive PCI or the group without PCI. The overall survival (OS) rates of groups with intensive and no PCI showed comparable and significantly better compared to the group with moderate PCI (P = 0.009). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the OS of moderate PCI group was significantly worse compared to that of intensive PCI group (HR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.32-4.14, P = 0.004), while the OS of intensive PCI group was comparable to that of the group without PCI. These results suggest that the intensity of PCI rather than the response to PCI may contribute to improve the transplant outcome in patients with ALL not in remission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04607-8DOI Listing
August 2021

Difference in outcomes following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Aug 4:1-9. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

To evaluate whether outcomes following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation differ according to disease type, a three-way comparison for patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) ( = 3318), AML evolving from myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) ( = 208), and MDS with excess blasts (MDS-EB) ( = 994) was performed. The 5-year probabilities of overall survival (OS) for de novo AML, AML evolving from MDS, and MDS-EB were 60%, 42%, and 41% ( < 0.001), respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that, compared to de novo AML, AML evolving from MDS was associated with a higher risk of NRM ( = 0.030) and MDS-EB with a higher risk of relapse ( < 0.001), both leading to lower OS ( = 0.010 and  < 0.001, respectively). These findings demonstrate inter-disease differences in post-transplant outcomes and highlight the needs to reduce NRM for AML evolving from MDS and to reduce relapse for MDS-EB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1961242DOI Listing
August 2021

Newly proposed threshold and validation of white blood cell count at diagnosis for Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: risk assessment of relapse in patients with negative minimal residual disease at transplantation-a report from the Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Working Group of the JSTCT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

White blood cell count (WBC) at diagnosis is the conventional prognostic factor in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph ALL). Nevertheless, little is known about the impact of WBC at diagnosis considering the minimal residual disease (MRD) status at allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We evaluated adult patients with Ph ALL who achieved negative-MRD and received HCT in first complete remission between 2006 and 2018. The entire cohort was temporally divided into derivation (n = 258) and validation cohorts (n  =  366). Using a threshold of 15,000/μL, which was determined by a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in the derivation cohort, high WBC was associated with an increased risk of hematological relapse in both the derivation cohort (25.3% vs. 11.6% at 7 years, P = 0.004) and the validation cohort (16.2% vs. 8.5% at 3 years, P = 0.025). In multivariate analyses, high WBC was a strong predictor of hematological relapse in the derivation cohort (HR, 2.52, 95%CI 1.32-4.80, P = 0.005) and in the validation cohort (HR, 2.32, 95%CI, 1.18-4.55; P = 0.015). In conclusion, WBC at diagnosis with a new threshold of 15,000/μL should contribute to better risk stratification in patients with negative-MRD at HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01422-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Novel Indicators of Transplant Outcomes for PhALL: Current Molecular-Relapse-Free Survival.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Sep 24;27(9):800.e1-800.e8. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan. Electronic address:

Molecular relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) has been thought to predict clinical relapse in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (PhALL). Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) administration after allo-HCT may dynamically change the status from molecular relapse to molecular remission, but these state changes cannot be accurately represented by conventional survival indicators such as relapse-free survival, where events are usually considered irreversible. We aimed to develop novel indicators of transplant outcomes for allo-HCT recipients with PhALL and to visualize current molecular-relapse-free survival (CMRFS) and current on-TKI status (CTKI), treating molecular relapse or TKI administration after allo-HCT as a reversible event. We retrospectively analyzed 286 patients with PhALL who received allo-HCT between 2000 and 2016 in order to develop the indicators. CMRFS was defined as the probability of molecular remission without clinical relapse or death at any time after allo-HCT. Similarly, CTKI was defined as the probability of TKI administration without clinical relapse or death at any time after allo-HCT. The 1- and 5-year CMRFS rates were 67% and 59%, respectively, whereas the 1- and 5-year conventional molecular relapse-free survival rates were 42% and 37%. The 1- and 5-year CTKI rates were 14% and 8%, respectively. In a post hoc analysis focusing on patients who had achieved a molecular complete remission within 6 weeks (n = 201), the 5-year CMRFS rate (71%) was similar to the 5-year conventional molecular relapse-free survival (molRFS) rate (70%) in the non-TKI group. On the other hand, the 5-year CMRFS rate in the TKI group was 61%, whereas the 5-year conventional molRFS rate was only 38%. CMRFS and CTKI might become useful indicators of transplant success in terms of survival, leukemia-free status, and treatment-free status at any time point. Future extension of these survival models to other clinical situations is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.06.020DOI Listing
September 2021

Residual disease is a strong prognostic marker in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with chemotherapy-refractory or relapsed disease prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Br J Haematol 2021 Jul 22;194(2):403-413. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is one of the curative treatment options for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, the outcomes in patients transplanted without complete remission (non-CR) have not yet been fully reported, and detailed analyses are required to identify subgroups in which optimal prognosis is expected and to optimize pre-transplant therapeutic strategies. Hence, we performed a multicentred retrospective cohort study including a total of 663 adult ALL patients transplanted at non-CR status; the median bone marrow (BM) blast counts at HSCT was 13·2%, and 203 patients (30·6%) were treated at primary induction failure status. The overall survival (OS) was 31·1% at two years, and the multivariate analyses identified five prognostic risk factors, including older age (≥50 years), increased BM blasts (≥10%), poor performance status, high haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)-comorbidity index, and relapsed disease status, among which BM blast was the most significantly related. A predictive scoring system composed of these risk factors clearly stratified OS (15·6-59·5% at two years). In conclusion, this is the first large-scale study to analyze the correlation of patient characteristics with post-transplant prognosis in ALL transplanted at non-CR status. The importance of blast control before HSCT should be focused on for better patient prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17646DOI Listing
July 2021

Differential Effect of Graft-versus-Host Disease on Survival in Acute Leukemia according to Donor Type.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Sep 22;27(17):4825-4835. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Hematology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Japan.

Purpose: The anti-leukemic activity of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) depends on both the intensity of conditioning regimen and the strength of the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. However, it is unclear whether the sensitivity of the GVL effects differs between donor type and graft source.

Experimental Design: We retrospectively evaluated the effect of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) on transplant outcomes for adults with acute leukemia ( = 6,548) between 2007 and 2017 using a Japanese database. In all analyses, we separately evaluated three distinct cohorts based on donor type [(8/8 allele-matched sibling donor, 8/8 allele-matched unrelated donor, and unrelated single-cord blood (UCB)].

Results: The multivariate analysis, in which the development of GVHD was treated as a time-dependent covariate, showed a reductive effect of grade I-II acute GVHD on treatment failure (defined as 1-leukemia-free survival; < 0.001), overall mortality (OM; < 0.001), relapse ( < 0.001), and non-relapse mortality (NRM; < 0.001) in patients receiving from UCB. A reductive effect of limited chronic GVHD on treatment failure ( < 0.001), OM ( < 0.001), and NRM ( < 0.001) was also shown in patients receiving from UCB. However, these effects were not always shown in patients receiving from other donors. The beneficial effects of mild acute and chronic GVHD after UCB transplantation on treatment failure were noted relatively in subgroups of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and a non-remission status.

Conclusions: These data suggested that the development of mild GVHD could improve survival after UCB transplantation for acute leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4856DOI Listing
September 2021

Personalized prediction of overall survival in patients with AML in non-complete remission undergoing allo-HCT.

Cancer Med 2021 07 16;10(13):4250-4268. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Division of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is the standard treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in non-complete remission (non-CR); however, the prognosis is inconsistent. This study aimed to develop and validate nomograms and a web application to predict the overall survival (OS) of patients with non-CR AML undergoing allo-HCT (cord blood transplantation [CBT], bone marrow transplantation [BMT], and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation [PBSCT]). Data from 3052 patients were analyzed to construct and validate the prognostic models. The common significant prognostic factors among patients undergoing allo-HCT were age, performance status, percentage of peripheral blasts, cytogenetic risk, chemotherapy response, and number of transplantations. The conditioning regimen was a significant prognostic factor only in patients undergoing CBT. Compared with cyclophosphamide/total body irradiation, a conditioning regimen of ≥3 drugs, including fludarabine, with CBT exhibited the lowest hazard ratio for mortality (0.384; 95% CI, 0.266-0.554; p < 0.0001). A conditioning regimen of ≥3 drugs with CBT also showed the best leukemia-free survival among all conditioning regimens. Based on the results of the multivariable analysis, we developed prognostic models showing adequate calibration and discrimination (the c-indices for CBT, BMT, and PBSCT were 0.648, 0.600, and 0.658, respectively). Our prognostic models can help in assessing individual risks and designing future clinical studies. Furthermore, our study indicates the effectiveness of multi-drug conditioning regimens in patients undergoing CBT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267144PMC
July 2021

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with high hyperdiploidy: a retrospective nationwide study.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 May 12:1-7. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

We compared the transplant outcomes of adult patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia characterized by high hyperdiploidy (HeH; 51-65 chromosomes) ( = 29) and those with a normal karyotype ( = 87) by propensity score-matched analysis. There were no significant differences among groups in 3-year probabilities of overall survival (OS, 63.5% vs. 55.3%,  = .553), cumulative relapse incidence (28.6% vs. 28.7%,  = .982), and non-relapse mortality (10.9% vs. 21.4%,  = .303). Three-year OS was significantly worse in HeH patients with third or later complete remission (CR) or non-CR compared with those in first CR (19.0% vs. 69.9%,  = .010). Frequently gained chromosomes +21 (75.9%), +4 (69.0%), +6 (69.0%), +10 (69.0%), and +1 (69.0%) had no significant prognostic impact on the OS of patients with HeH in multivariate analyses. Patients with HeH who may benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be further analyzed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1924374DOI Listing
May 2021

Low-dose antithymocyte globulin inhibits chronic graft-versus-host disease in peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Sep 7;56(9):2231-2240. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Hematology, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan.

Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has been shown to reduce chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) particularly in allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from unrelated donors; however, anti-GVHD effects of lower doses of ATG remains to be elucidated. We conducted a nationwide retrospective study to compare the outcomes of unrelated PBSCT with or without rabbit ATG (thymoglobulin) in 287 patients. A median ATG dose was 2.0 mg/kg. The primary endpoint, the cumulative incidence of moderate-severe chronic GVHD at 2 years was 22.1% in the ATG group, which was significantly less than that in the non-ATG group (36.3%, P = 0.025). The ATG group had a higher incidence of immunosuppressant discontinuation, GVHD-free, relapse-free survival, and moderate-severe chronic GVHD-free, relapse-free survival at 2 years compared to the non-ATG group. The incidences of grade III-IV aGVHD and moderate-severe chronic GVHD were significantly higher in patients with high absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) before the administration of ATG, whereas relapse rate was significantly higher in patients with low ALC before ATG. In conclusion, low-dose ATG effectively suppresses chronic GVHD in unrelated PBSCT, and ALC before ATG may be a potential predictor for GVHD and relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01314-wDOI Listing
September 2021

Single Cord Blood Transplantation Versus Unmanipulated Haploidentical Transplantation for Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Complete Remission.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 04 28;27(4):334.e1-334.e11. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Hematology and Cell Therapy, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a potentially curative post-remission therapy for adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in complete remission (CR). The availability of alternative human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched donors, such as cord blood and haploidentical related donors, could allow patients to receive allogeneic HCT who are without an HLA-matched sibling or unrelated donor. The use of these alternative donors is preferable for patients with advanced disease due to the rapid availability. However, comparative data for cord blood transplantation (CBT) and haploidentical related donor transplantation (haplo-HCT) are limited for adult patients with AML in CR. We sought to compare overall survival (OS); leukemia-free survival (LFS); graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS); and chronic GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (CRFS) between single-unit CBT (SCBT) and haplo-HCT recipients for adult patients with intermediate- or poor-risk AML in CR. We retrospectively analyzed and compared the results of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in 1313 adult patients with intermediate- or poor-risk AML in CR who received either SCBT (n = 1102) or unmanipulated haplo-HCT (n = 211) between 2007 and 2018 in Japan. Among the whole cohort, the cumulative incidences of neutrophil and platelet recovery were significantly lower in SCBT recipients compared with those in haplo-HCT recipients (P < .001 for neutrophil, P < .001 for platelet). SCBT was significantly associated with a higher incidence of grade II to IV acute GVHD and lower incidence of extensive chronic GVHD compared to haplo-HCT (P = .013 for grades II to IV acute GVHD; P = .006 for extensive chronic GVHD). Haplo-HCT recipients developed a higher incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia compared to SCBT recipients (P = .004). In the multivariate analysis, there were no significant differences for grades III or IV acute GVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], .88 to 1.57; P = .26), relapse incidence (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, .76 to 1.58; P = .61), non-relapse mortality (HR, .83; 95% CI, .58 to 1.18; P = .32), OS (HR, .92; 95% CI, .70 to 1.20; P = .56), LFS (HR, .94; 95% CI, .73 to 1.21; P = .67), GRFS (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, .90 to 1.40; P = .27), or CRFS (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, .92 to 1.44; P = .19) between the two donor types. In the propensity score matching analysis, which identified 180 patients in each cohort, there were no significant differences in transplant outcomes between the two donor types, except for delayed neutrophil (P < .001) and platelet recovery (P < .001) and a higher incidence of grades II to IV acute GVHD (P = .052) in SCBT. SCBT and unmanipulated haplo-HCT had similar survival outcomes for adult patients with AML in CR despite the lower hematopoietic recovery and higher grade II to IV acute GVHD in SCBT recipients and the higher CMV antigenemia in haplo-HCT recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.01.023DOI Listing
April 2021

Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Adolescent and Young Adult Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 04 8;27(4):314.e1-314.e10. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Hematology and Cell Therapy, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan.

Limited data exist regarding the outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) among adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here we analyzed the features and outcomes of AYA patients with AML who had achieved complete remission (CR) and those who had not (non-CR) at allo-HCT. We retrospectively analyzed 2350 AYA patients with AML who underwent allo-HCT with a myeloablative conditioning regimen and who were consecutively enrolled in the Japanese nationwide HCT registry. The difference in overall survival (OS) between younger (age 16 to 29 years) and older AYA (age 30 to 39 years) patients in CR at transplantation was not significant (70.2% versus 71.7% at 3 years; P = .62). Meanwhile, this difference trended toward a statistical significance between younger and older AYA patients in non-CR at transplantation (39.5% versus 34.3% at 3 years; P = .052). In AYA patients in CR and non-CR, the age at transplantation did not affect relapse or nonrelapse mortality (NRM). In AYA patients in CR, no difference in OS was observed between those who received total body irradiation (TBI) and those who did not (71.1% versus 70.5% at 3 years; P = .43). AYA patients who received TBI-based conditioning had a significantly lower relapse rate and higher NRM than those who underwent non-TBI-based conditioning (relapse: 19.8% versus 24.1% at 3 years [P = .047]; NRM: 14.7% versus 11.1% at 3 years [P = .021]). In contrast, among the non-CR patients, there were no differences between the TBI and non-TBI groups with respect to OS (P = .094), relapse (P = .83), and NRM (P = .27). Our data indicate that outcomes may be more favorable in younger AYA patients than in older AYA patients in non-CR at transplantation, and that outcomes of TBI-based conditioning could be comparable to those of non-TBI-based conditioning for AYA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.12.013DOI Listing
April 2021

Single cord blood transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia patients aged 60 years or older: a retrospective study in Japan.

Ann Hematol 2021 Jul 23;100(7):1849-1861. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Hematology and Cell Therapy, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan.

The availability of alternative donor sources could allow elderly patients to receive allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We retrospectively evaluated the outcomes of single-unit cord blood transplantation (CBT) in 1577 patients aged ≥60 years with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in Japan between 2002 and 2017. In total, 990 (63%) patients were not in complete remission (CR) at the time of CBT. A myeloablative conditioning regimen (52%) and calcineurin inhibitor (CI) + mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis (45%) were more commonly used. With a median follow-up for survivors of 31 months, the probability of overall survival and the cumulative incidence of leukemia-related mortality at 3 years was 31% and 29%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) at 100 days and 3 years were 24% and 41%, respectively. The cumulative incidences of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD at 100 days and extensive chronic GVHD at 2 years were 44%, 16%, and 14%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 80% at 42 days. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that the following factors were significantly associated with higher overall mortality: performance status ≥1, hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index ≥3, adverse cytogenetics, extramedullary disease at diagnosis, and non-CR status at CBT. By contrast, female sex, HLA disparities ≥2, mycophenolate mofetil-based GVHD prophylaxis, and recent CBT were significantly associated with lower overall mortality. In conclusion, single CBT offers a curative option for AML patients aged ≥60 years with careful patient selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04464-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Measurable residual disease affects allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in Ph+ ALL during both CR1 and CR2.

Blood Adv 2021 01;5(2):584-592

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

Although measurable residual disease (MRD) at the time of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) has been reported to be an important prognostic factor for Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during first complete remission (CR1), the prognostic impact of MRD is unclear during second CR (CR2). To clarify the impact of MRD for both CR1 and CR2, we analyzed data from a registry database including 1625 adult patients with Ph+ ALL who underwent first allo-HCT during either CR1 or CR2 between 2002 and 2017. Adjusted overall and leukemia-free survival rates at 4 years were 71% and 64%, respectively, for patients undergoing allo-HCT during CR1 with MRD-, 55% and 43% during CR1 with MRD+, 51% and 49% during CR2 with MRD-, and 38% and 29% during CR2 with MRD+. Although survival rates were significantly better among patients with CR1 MRD- than among patients with CR2 MRD-, no significant difference was observed in survival rate between patients with CR1 MRD+ and CR2 MRD-. Relapse rates after 4 years were 16% in patients with CR1 MRD-, 29% in CR1 MRD+, 21% in patients with CR2 MRD-, and 46% in patients with CR2 MRD+. No significant difference was identified in relapse rate between patients with CR1 MRD- and CR2 MRD-. CR2 MRD- was not a significant risk factor for relapse in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-2.29; P = .45 vs CR1 MRD-). MRD at time of allo-HCT was an important risk factor in patients with Ph+ ALL during both CR1 and CR2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839376PMC
January 2021

Reduced leukemia relapse through cytomegalovirus reactivation in killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor-ligand-mismatched cord blood transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 06 8;56(6):1352-1363. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Hematology, Rheumatology (Second Department of Internal Medicine), Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Japan.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in cord blood transplantation (CBT) may result in the proliferation and maturation of natural killer (NK) cells. Similarly, a mismatch of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)-ligand induces NK cell activation. Therefore, if CMV reactivation occurs in the presence of KIR-ligand mismatch, it might improve CBT outcomes. We assessed the difference in the effect of CMV reactivation in the presence of KIR-ligand mismatch on disease relapse in the graft-versus-host direction. A total of 2840 patients with acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and chronic myeloid leukemia were analyzed. Among those with a HLA-Bw4/A3/A11 (KIR3DL-ligand) mismatch, CMV reactivation up to 100 days following CBT had a favorable impact on relapse (18.9% vs. 32.9%, P = 0.0149). However, this effect was not observed in cases without the KIR3DL-ligand mismatch or in those with or without a HLA-C1/C2 (KIR2DL-ligand) mismatch. The multivariate analysis suggested that CMV reactivation had a favorable effect on relapse only in cases with a KIR3DL-ligand mismatch (hazard ratio 0.54, P = 0.032). Moreover, the interaction effect between CMV reactivation and KIR3DL-ligand mismatch on relapse was significant (P = 0.039). Thus, our study reveals the association between KIR-ligand mismatches and CMV reactivation, which will enhance CBT outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01203-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of Cytomegalovirus Reactivation With or Without Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease on the Risk of Nonrelapse Mortality.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 08;73(3):e620-e628

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

Background: Despite a strong association between acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and cytomegalovirus reactivation (CMVR), the joint effect of acute GVHD and CMVR on nonrelapse mortality (NRM) has not been well studied.

Methods: We evaluated the impact of CMVR on NRM stratified according to the development of acute GVHD using a landmark method. This study included 6078 patients who received their first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with a preemptive strategy for CMVR between 2008 and 2017.

Results: The cumulative incidences of grade 2-4 acute GVHD (G24GVHD), CMVR by day 100, and CMV disease by day 365 were 37.3%, 52.1%, and 2.9%, respectively. Patients with G24GVHD were associated with the subsequent development of CMVR, and the presence of CMVR also increased the risk of G24GVHD. In a landmark analysis at day 65, the cumulative incidence of NRM at 1 year was 5.4%, 10.0%, 13.9%, and 19.7% in patients with G24GVHD-/CMVR-, G24GVHD-/CMVR+, G24GVHD+/CMVR-, and G24GVHD+/CMVR+, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, CMVR was respectively associated with an increased risk of NRM by day 365 in patients without G24GVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.05; P < .001) and with G24GVHD (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06-1.70; P = .014), but the interaction between G24GVHD and CMVR was not significant (P = .326). Subgroup analyses suggested that the joint effect of acute GVHD and CMVR might vary according to the baseline characteristics.

Conclusions: These data regarding the close relationship between acute GVHD and CMVR should provide important implications for the treatment strategy after HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1871DOI Listing
August 2021

Randomised controlled trial of conditioning regimen for cord blood transplantation for adult myeloid malignancies comparing high-dose cytarabine/cyclophosphamide/total body irradiation with versus without G-CSF priming: G-CONCORD study protocol.

BMJ Open 2020 12 4;10(12):e040467. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, The Institute of Medical Science The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: A better long-term quality of life after umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) is observed compared with transplants from other alternative donors, whereas graft failure and relapses after CBT are still major issues. To minimise graft failure and relapse after CBT, intensification of conditioning by the addition of high-dose cytosine arabinoside (CA) and concomitant continuous use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) are reported to convey a significantly better survival after CBT in some retrospective studies. To confirm the effect of G-CSF plus CA combination, in addition to the standard conditioning regimen, cyclophosphamide (CY)/total body irradiation (TBI), we design a randomised controlled study comparing CA/CY/TBI with versus without G-CSF priming (G-CSF combined conditioned cord blood transplantation [G-CONCORD] study).

Methods And Analysis: This is a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase III study that aimed to compare G-CSF+CA/CY/TBI as a conditioning regimen for CBT with CA/CY/TBI. Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, aged 16-55 years, are eligible. The target sample size is 160 and the registration period is 4 years. The primary endpoint is the 2-year disease-free survival rate after CBT. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, relapse, non-relapse mortality, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, engraftment rate, time to neutrophil recovery, short-term adverse events, incidence of infections and causes of death.This study employs a single one-to-one web-based randomisation between the with-G-CSF versus without-G-CSF groups after patient registration. Combination of high-dose CA and CY/TBI in both groups is used for conditioning.

Ethics And Dissemination: The study protocol was approved by the central review board, Nagoya University Certified Review Board, after the enforcement of the Clinical Trials Act in Japan. The manuscripts presenting data from this study will be submitted for publication in quality peer-reviewed medical journals. Study findings will be disseminated via presentations at national/international conferences and peer-reviewed journals.

Trial Registration Numbers: UMIN000029947 and jRCTs041180059.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722372PMC
December 2020

Relapse of acute myeloid leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: clinical features and outcomes.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 05 2;56(5):1126-1133. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Posttransplant relapse represents the greatest obstacle to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This study investigated clinical features and outcomes of posttransplant relapse of AML based on data for 1265 patients with AML suffering relapse after allogeneic HCT conducted during complete remission (CR). Relapse occurred at a median of 6.1 months. The incidence rate of relapse peaked at 29.0 per 100 patient-years during the first 3-6 months period post transplant, after which the rate declined over time, and after 3 years remained consistently at less than 1 per 100 patient-years. The probability of overall survival (OS) after posttransplant relapse was 19% at 2 years, with 68% of deaths being attributed to leukemia. The interval from transplantation to relapse was identified as the strongest indicator for OS. Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and second allogeneic HCT (HCT2) were administered to 152 (12%) and 481 (38%) patients, respectively. Landmark analyses showed some signs of survival benefit when these procedures were performed during CR, but no benefit was gained when performed during non-CR. Our findings clarify clinical features of posttransplant relapse of AML, and indicate the urgent need for developing effective bridging to cellular therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01163-zDOI Listing
May 2021

Individual HLAs influence immunological events in allogeneic stem cell transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 03 9;56(3):646-654. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Central Japan Cord Blood Bank, Seto, Japan.

In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), the effects of patient and donor human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching status on graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) have been extensively elucidated, but the effects of specific HLAs on acute GVHD remain unclear. Using data from a Japanese registry, we retrospectively analyzed 4392 patients with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received transplants from HLA-identical sibling donors to investigate the effects of HLAs on acute GVHD. From unbiased searches of HLA-A, -B, and -DR, HLA-B60 was significantly associated with an increased risk of grades II-IV acute GVHD (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13-1.59; P = 0.001). In contrast, HLA-B62 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of grades II-IV (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.62-0.87; P < 0.001) and III-IV acute GVHD (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.46-0.87; P = 0.005). The risk of leukemia relapse was significantly higher in HLA-B62-positive patients than in HLA-B62-negative patients (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.43; P = 0.01). Both HLA-B60 and -B62 did not affect overall survival. The findings of this study may by implication suggest the possibility that the effects of specific HLAs on transplant outcomes may reflect inherent biological features, and thus consideration of specific HLAs may be helpful to predict transplant outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01070-3DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical Benefits of Preconditioning Intervention in Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Who Underwent Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Kanto Study of Group for Cell Therapy Multicenter Analysis.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 01 30;27(1):70.e1-70.e8. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

A multicenter retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the clinical significance of preconditioning intervention (PCI) before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) not in remission. The study cohort consisted of 519 patients classified according to the intensity (intensive/moderate) of PCI and their response to PCI. The group treated with PCI had higher blast counts in the peripheral blood (PB) and had a lower overall survival (OS) rate (P < .001) and higher nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rate (P = .035) compared with those without PCI (no PCI group). Approximately 40% of the patients (68 of 236) achieved a good response to PCI (good PCI group), and those patients had lower blast counts in the PB compared with the group with poor response to PCI (poor PCI group). OS in the good PCI group was comparable to that in the no PCI group and significantly better than that in the poor PCI group (hazard ratio, .54; 95% confidence interval, .39 to .77; P < .001). However, OS was significantly lower in patients with intensive/moderate PCI compared with the no PCI group. These results suggest that PCI increases NRM without decreasing the post-transplantation relapse rate, but may be beneficial for patients with lower blast counts in PB irrespective of its intensity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.09.025DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of allogeneic HCT from unrelated donors in AML patients with intermediate- or poor-risk cytogenetics: a retrospective study from the Japanese Society for HCT.

Ann Hematol 2020 Dec 17;99(12):2927-2937. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Hematology and Cell Therapy, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan.

This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with outcomes of bone marrow transplantation (UR-BMT) or cord blood stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors (UR-CBT). We assessed the time from diagnosis to transplantation among acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with intermediate- or poor-risk cytogenetics to identify the potential clinical efficacy of transplantation. We retrospectively analyzed 5331 patients who received UR-BMT or UR-CBT between 2008 and 2017. Patients were divided into four groups according to time from diagnosis to transplantation: (1) UR-BMT and > 5 months (n = 2353), (2) UR-BMT and ≤ 5 months (n = 379), (3) UR-CBT and > 5 months (n = 1494), and (4) UR-CBT and ≤ 5 months (n = 1106). There was no difference in overall survival (OS) for transplantation at ≤5 months and > 5 months in patients with first complete remission for both UR-BMT and UR-CBT, but OS in patients with primary induction failure (PIF) and transplantation at ≤ 5 months was significantly higher in the UR-CBT group compared with that at >5 months (P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis also showed that transplantation at >5 months in patients with PIF was an independent predictor of poorer OS. Therefore, UR-CBT at ≤ 5 months after diagnosis is an alternative option for AML patients with PIF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04261-6DOI Listing
December 2020

The impacts of BCR-ABL1 mutations in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Ann Hematol 2020 Oct 15;99(10):2393-2404. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

The prognostic impacts of BCR-ABL1 fusion gene mutations in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph + ALL) remain unknown. Using data from a nationwide Japanese registry, we have evaluated the prognostic impact of BCR-ABL1 mutations prior to the first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The cohort included 289 patients with a median of 48 years of age (range: 16-70). Point mutations were detected in 110 patients. Of these, 90 (82%) harbored T315I mutations, while 20 had other mutations. With a median follow-up period of 29 months (range: 1-125), outcomes after 2 years were worse with mutations than without (overall survival [OS]: 34% vs 68%, p < 0.001; relapse rate [RR]: 48% vs 18%, p < 0.001), particularly with the presence of the T315I mutation (OS: 29% vs 68%, p < 0.001; RR: 54% vs 18%, p < 0.001). OS was significantly worse in the T315I group even among the cohort with hematological (p < 0.001) or molecular complete remission (p = 0.025) as compared to the no mutation group. Multivariate analysis determined the prognostic impact of the T315I mutation (OS: hazard ratio [HR] = 2.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-3.3, p < 0.001; RR: HR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.5-4.2, p < 0.001). This study is the first to report on the prognostic significance of BCR-ABL1 mutations in Ph + ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04212-1DOI Listing
October 2020
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