Publications by authors named "Masato Nakamura"

566 Publications

Percutaneous Two-Dimensional Shear Wave Elastography for Diagnosis of Pancreatic Tumor.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Gastroenterology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohan, Chuo-ku Chiba City 260-8670, Japan.

Background: To investigate the efficacy of two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) for the diagnosis of pancreatic mass lesions.

Methods: This ethics committee-approved cross-sectional study included 52 patients with histologically-proven pancreatic tumors (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), 36; tumor-forming pancreatitis (TFP), 15; neuroendocrine tumor, 1) and 33 control subjects. The 2D-SWE was performed for the tumor/non-tumor tissues, and SWE-mapping patterns and propagation quality were assessed.

Results: Three mapping patterns were detected based on the size and distribution of the coloring areas. Pattern A (whole coloring) was detected in all non-tumor tissues and TFP, whereas pattern C (multiple small coloring spots) was detected in PDAC only. Pattern B (partial coloring with smaller spots) was detected in other lesions. The specificity and positive predictive value of pattern A for non-PDAC and those of pattern C for PDAC were 100%. The SWE value was higher in tumor lesions than in the non-tumor tissues (38.1 vs. 9.8 kPa; < 0.001) in patients with PDAC. The SWE value in the non-tumor lesion was higher in patients with PDAC than in control (9.8 vs. 7.5 kPa; < 0.001).

Conclusions: 2D-SWE may play a role as a novel diagnostic tool for PDAC to detect a specific mapping pattern with quantitative assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11030498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001884PMC
March 2021

Lesion size and adjacent tissue damage assessment with high power and short duration radiofrequency ablation: comparison to conventional radiofrequency ablation power setting.

Heart Vessels 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, 2-17-6 Ohashi Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8515, Japan.

There is increased interest in creating high-power short duration (HPSD) ablation lesions in the field of atrial fibrillation (AF) radiofrequency ablation (RFA). We evaluated the lesion characteristics and collateral damage using two separate RFA protocols setting (HPSD: 50 W and 7 s vs control: 25 W and 30 s) in vitro model. Sixteen freshly killed porcine hearts were obtained, and the atrium and ventricle slabs were harvested for ablation. The each slabs were placed in a tissue bath with circulating 0.9% NaCl at maintained temperature 37 °C. RFA was performed with 4 mm tip irrigated force sensing catheter. All lesions were ablated under recording the electrical parameters using with Ensite Navx system (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, Minnesota). After RFA, lesion characteristics were assessed for each lesion. Thirty-five lesions were made for each ablation protocol (total 70 lesions for analysis). Ablation parameters were similar between two groups (HPSD vs control; impedance drop (Ω): 34.2 ± 13.1 vs 36.1 ± 8.65 P = 0.49, contact force (g): 13.9 ± 4.37 vs 14.6 ± 5.09, P = 0.51, lesion size index: 4.8 ± 0.52 vs 4.73 ± 0.59, P = 0.62). Although the lesion volume was similar, the HPSD ablation creates wider but more shallower lesions compared to control group (HPSD vs control; lesion volume: 29.6 ± 18.1 mm vs 35.5 ± 17.1 mm P = 0.16, lesion diameter: 4.98 ± 0.91 mm vs 4.45 ± 0.74 mm P = 0.0095, lesion depth: 2.2 ± 0.76 mm vs 2.8 ± 1.56 mm P = 0.046). Of these, 38 lesions were assessed for adjacent tissue damage and adjacent tissue damages were more frequent seen in control group (HPSD vs control; 1/19 (5.26%) vs 6/19 (31.5%), P = 0.036). Effective lesions were made with HPSD, thereby reducing RFA procedure time. Although the lesion volume was similar between two groups, collateral damage was less seen in HPSD group attributed by lesion characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-021-01833-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Final 5-Year Results in Randomized Japanese Patients Implanted With a Thin-Strut, Bioabsorbable, Polymer-Coated, Everolimus-Eluting SYNERGY Stent (From the EVOLVE II Study).

Circ Rep 2020 Dec 11;3(1):9-17. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Boston Scientific Corporation Marlborough, MA USA.

SYNERGY is a thin-strut, platinum-chromium metal alloy stent with an ultrathin abluminal everolimus-eluting bioabsorbable polymer. EVOLVE II was a global randomized controlled trial that enrolled 1,684 patients treated with either a SYNERGY or durable polymer PROMUS Element Plus (PE+) everolimus-eluting stent, including 155 patients from Japanese sites. This substudy analyzed 5-year clinical outcomes in the Japanese and non-Japanese cohorts. Patients aged ≥18 years with ≤3 native coronary artery lesions (reference vessel diameter ≥2.25-≤4.00 mm; length ≤34 mm) in ≤2 major vessels were randomized 1 : 1 to receive either SYNERGY (n=74 patients in Japan) or PE+ (n=81 patients in Japan). Five-year target lesion failure (TLF) was observed in 8.3% SYNERGY- and 11.2% PE+-treated patients (P=0.54). There were no cardiac deaths, and rates of target lesion revascularization and myocardial infarction were comparable between treatment arms. One patient in the SYNERGY arm experienced a very late definite stent thrombosis (ST); no ST occurred in the PE+ arm (P=0.30). Despite differences in baseline clinical and lesion characteristics, the 5-year TLF rates were not significantly different in SYNERGY-treated patients either in (8.3%) or outside (14.8%) Japan (P=0.14). In Japanese patients with coronary artery disease, SYNERGY showed comparable efficacy to PE+, with low rates of adverse events over 5 years. Similarly, 5-year clinical outcomes were favorable in Japanese vs. non-Japanese patients implanted with SYNERGY.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circrep.CR-20-0114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7939784PMC
December 2020

Design of the Japanese Comprehensive Health-Economic Assessment for Appropriate Cardiac Imaging Strategy Including Outcome and Cost-Effectiveness in Stable Coronary Artery Disease Study (J-CONCIOUS).

Circ Rep 2020 Nov 17;2(12):759-763. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Toho University Ohashi Medical Center Tokyo Japan.

The evaluation of stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) has evolved, and contemporary clinical practice guidelines emphasize the importance of in-depth consideration of procedure indications, risk stratification, and results of non-invasive imaging tests. However, little is known about the appropriate selection of imaging modalities for ischemia evaluation and the comparative cost-effectiveness in real-world clinical practice. The Japanese Comprehensive Health-Economic Assessment for Appropriate Cardiac Imaging Strategy including Outcome and cost-effectiveness in Stable Coronary Artery Disease Study (J-CONCIOUS), a multicenter observational study, was designed to prospectively enroll 2,500 patients with suspected or known SCAD, register clinical information and administrative records, and follow patients for 3 years. Any diagnostic or cardiac imaging modality (including stress tests using electrocardiography, echocardiography, or myocardial perfusion imaging; coronary computed tomographic angiography; and/or invasive coronary angiography with or without fractional flow reserve assessment) is acceptable. Clinical endpoints, such as all-cause mortality, cardiac death, and non-fatal myocardial infarction, will be obtained, along with quality of life assessment using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire. The cost-effectiveness of individual assessment patterns will be quantified by analysis of Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) data, and quality-adjusted life years and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be calculated. J-CONCIOUS is expected to establish a risk-based and cost-effective imaging strategy for the detection and evaluation of functional myocardial ischemia and/or anatomical coronary imaging in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circrep.CR-20-0109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937523PMC
November 2020

Acquisition of mesenchymal-like phenotypes and overproduction of angiogenic factors in lenvatinib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 3;549:171-178. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Lenvatinib is one of the first-line drugs for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and widely used around the world. However, the mechanisms underlying resistance to lenvatinib remain unclear. In this study, we conducted characteristic analyses of lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells. Lenvatinib-resistant HCC cell lines were established by exposure to serially escalated doses of lenvatinib over 2 months. The biological characteristics of these cells were examined by in vitro assays. To investigate the cytokine profile of lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells, the supernatant derived from lenvatinib-resistant Huh7 cells was subjected to nitrocellulose membrane-based sandwich immunoassay. Both activation of the MAPK/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and upregulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition markers were observed in lenvatinib-resistant cells. Concordant with these findings, proliferation and invasion abilities were enhanced in these cells compared with control cells. Screening of a cytokine array spotted with 105 different antibodies to human cytokines enabled us to identify 16 upregulated cytokines in lenvatinib-resistant cells. Among them, 3 angiogenic cytokines: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA), and angiogenin, were increased significantly. Conditioned medium from lenvatinib-resistant cells accelerated tube formation of human umbilical vein cells. In conclusion, lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells were characterized by enhanced proliferation and invasion abilities. These findings might contribute to the establishment of new combination therapies with lenvatinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.02.097DOI Listing
April 2021

The impact of FGF19/FGFR4 signaling inhibition in antitumor activity of multi-kinase inhibitors in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 5;11(1):5303. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

FGF19/FGFR4 autocrine signaling is one of the main targets for multi-kinase inhibitors (MKIs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying FGF19/FGFR4 signaling in the antitumor effects to MKIs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, the impact of FGFR4/ERK signaling inhibition on HCC following MKI treatment was analyzed in vitro and in vivo assays. Serum FGF19 in HCC patients treated using MKIs, such as sorafenib (n = 173) and lenvatinib (n = 40), was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lenvatinib strongly inhibited the phosphorylation of FRS2 and ERK, the downstream signaling molecules of FGFR4, compared with sorafenib and regorafenib. Additional use of a selective FGFR4 inhibitor with sorafenib further suppressed FGFR4/ERK signaling and synergistically inhibited HCC cell growth in culture and xenograft subcutaneous tumors. Although serum FGF19 (n = 68) patients treated using sorafenib exhibited a significantly shorter progression-free survival and overall survival than FGF19 (n = 105) patients, there were no significant differences between FGF19 (n = 21) and FGF19 (n = 19) patients treated using lenvatinib. In conclusion, robust inhibition of FGF19/FGFR4 is of importance for the exertion of antitumor effects of MKIs. Serum FGF19 levels may function as a predictive marker for drug response and survival in HCC patients treated using sorafenib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84117-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935880PMC
March 2021

Rivaroxaban monotherapy versus combination therapy according to patient risk of stroke and bleeding in atrial fibrillation and stable coronary disease: AFIRE trial subanalysis.

Am Heart J 2021 Feb 28;236:59-68. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Background: In the AFIRE trial, rivaroxaban monotherapy was noninferior to combination therapy with rivaroxaban and an antiplatelet agent for thromboembolic events or death, and superior for major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease. Little is known about impacts of stroke and bleeding risks on the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban monotherapy.

Methods: In this subanalysis of the AFIRE trial, we assessed the risk of stroke and bleeding by the CHADS, CHADS-VASc, and HAS-BLED scores. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of stroke, systemic embolism, myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina requiring revascularization, or death from any cause. The primary safety end point was major bleeding defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

Results: Rivaroxaban monotherapy significantly reduced the primary efficacy and safety end points with no evidence of differential effects by stroke risk (CHADS, p for interaction = 0.727 for efficacy, 0.395 for safety; CHADS-VASc, p for interaction = 0.740 for efficacy, 0.265 for safety) or bleeding risk (HAS-BLED, p for interaction = 0.581 for efficacy, 0.225 for safety). There was also no evidence of statistical heterogeneity across patient risk categories for other end points; stroke or systemic embolism, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, MI, MI or unstable angina, death from any cause, any bleeding, or net adverse clinical events.

Conclusions: The advantages of rivaroxaban monotherapy compared with those of combination therapy with respect to all prespecified end points, including thromboembolism, bleeding, and mortality were similar across patients with AF and stable coronary artery disease, irrespective of their risk for stroke and bleeding.

Clinical Trial Registration: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry number, UMIN000016612, and ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02642419.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.02.021DOI Listing
February 2021

Lipid Management and 2-Year Clinical Outcomes in Japanese Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome: EXPLORE-J.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Feb 21. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Molecular Innovation in Lipidology, National Cerebral & Cardiovascular Center Research Institute.

Aim: The prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease has risen in Japan due to increasing metabolic risk factors, including dyslipidemia. A positive linear correlation between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, incidence of CV events, and preventive effects of lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) is well established; however, data in Japan are limited. This analysis evaluated current lipid management practices and risk of recurrent CV events in Japanese post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients.

Methods: EXPLORE-J is a multicenter, 2-year observational study of hospitalized ACS patients in Japan.

Results: At 2-year follow-up (n=1944, mean age 66 years, 80.3% male), the cumulative incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; death associated with myocardial infarction/cerebrovascular accident [CVA] and other CV death, non-fatal ACS, and non-fatal CVA requiring hospitalization during the observation period) was 6.2%; respective incidences of CV death, non-fatal ACS, and CVA were 0.7%, 4.5%, and 1.7%. Statin, intensive statin, and ezetimibe were prescribed for 93.6%, 8.2%, and 3.9% at visit (V)1 (Day[D]1+14), and 92.3%, 10.5%, and 11.6% of patients at V5 (D730±30 days), respectively. Mean LDL-C was reduced from first post-ACS measurement (121.3 mg/dL) to V5 (79.8 mg/dL). A limited number of patients achieved LDL-C <70 mg/dL from V1-V5 (14.4%-34.6%); those with a greater LDL-C reduction by V1 had a lower probability of MACE, indicating the benefits of early LDL-C reduction post ACS.

Conclusions: Guideline-recommended LDL-C target achievement post ACS in Japan is suboptimal, suggesting the need for LLT intensification. Additional analyses by risk stratification of the study population and the benefits of lipid management are planned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.59543DOI Listing
February 2021

Single Antiplatelet Therapy With Prasugrel vs. Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Japanese Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Patients With High Bleeding Risk.

Circ J 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Division of Cardiology & Catheterization Laboratories, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital.

Background: Outcomes with prasugrel single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) vs. dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in Japanese percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients with high bleeding risk (HBR) are currently unknown.Methods and Results:Data from 1,173 SAPT and 2,535 DAPT patients from the PENDULUM mono and PENDULUM registry studies (respective median DAPT durations: 108 vs. 312 days) were compared. The adjusted cumulative incidence of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 2, 3, or 5 bleeding from 1 to 12 months after PCI (primary endpoint) was 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-4.2) and 4.1% (95% CI, 3.3-5.1), respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.45-1.06; P=0.090). The adjusted cumulative incidences of BARC 2, 3, or 5 bleeding from 0 to 12 months after PCI (secondary endpoint) were 3.8% (95% CI, 2.7-5.3) and 5.6% (95% CI, 4.7-6.7), respectively (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.98; P=0.039). There was no significant difference in major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) from 1 to 12 months after PCI (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.63-1.37; P=0.696) and at 12 months after PCI (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.61-1.19; P=0.348) between the groups.

Conclusions: Prasugrel SAPT may reduce BARC 2, 3, or 5 bleeding, without increasing MACCE, in Japanese patients with HBR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-1058DOI Listing
February 2021

Evolution of patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension treated by balloon pulmonary angioplasty, according to their anticoagulant regimens.

Heart Vessels 2021 Feb 13. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, 2-22-36 Ohashi, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) need anticoagulant therapy for life. Conventionally, vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have been used and data about direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in CTEPH patients are lacking. Recently, balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) has emerged as a treatment option for CTEPH. However, there are no reports examining the effects of DOACs and VKAs on the hemodynamics of patients after BPA. The aim of this study was to compare DOACs and VKAs regarding the hemodynamic changes in patients with CTEPH treated by BPA. Patients who were treated by BPA and underwent follow-up right heart catheterization 6 ± 1 months after the final BPA procedure were included in this study. The subjects were divided into two groups based on the anticoagulant administered, and hemodynamic changes (mean pulmonary artery pressure, mPAP; pulmonary vascular resistance, PVR; cardiac index, CI) were assessed. Of the 65 consecutive patients, 29 met the inclusion criteria (DOAC-group n = 14, VKA-group n = 15). Compared to pre-BPA, post-BPA hemodynamic parameters were improved in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding pre-BPA, post-BPA, 6Mo-f/u and Δhemodynamic parameters (difference between 6Mo-f/u and post-BPA, ΔmPAP, - 0.7 ± 3.3 vs. - 2.7 ± 5.4 mmHg, p = 0.24; ΔPVR, - 41.9 ± 80.9 vs. - 16.4 ± 74.1 dyne s/cm, p = 0.38; ΔCI, - 0.06 ± 0.35 vs. - 0.10 ± 0.35 L/min/m, p = 0.80; DOAC-group vs. VKA-group, respectively). Hemodynamic improvement by BPA was maintained over 6 months of follow-up irrespective of the type of anticoagulant administered in CTEPH patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-021-01799-xDOI Listing
February 2021

Thrombotic Lesions are Associated with Poor Outcomes after Endovascular Treatment in Patients with Non-Acute Aortoiliac Total Occlusions.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Toho University, Ohashi Medical Centre.

Aim: The post-endovascular treatment outcomes of thrombotic lesions remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of thrombotic lesions on post-endovascular treatment outcomes in patients with non-acute aortoiliac total occlusions.

Methods: This subanalysis of a multicenter prospective observational registry study included patients from 64 institutions in Japan between April 2014 and April 2016. A total of 346 patients (394 limbs; median age, 72 years), including 186 men, underwent endovascular treatment for non-acute aortoiliac total occlusions and were included. The patients were classified as having thrombotic or non-thrombotic lesions. The primary (1-year primary patency rate) and secondary (1-year overall survival rate) endpoints were evaluated.

Results: Thrombotic lesions were identified in 18.5% (64/346) of the patients. The 1-year primary patency (85.9% versus 95.4%, log-rank p<.001) and overall survival (90.6% versus 97.9%, log-rank p=.003) rates were significantly lower in the thrombotic group than in the non-thrombotic group. Thrombotic lesions had significant effects on the post-endovascular treatment outcomes, with adjusted hazard ratios of 3.91 (95% confidence interval, 1.64-9.34, p=.002) for primary patency and 4.93 (95% confidence interval, 1.59-15.3, p=.006) for all-cause mortality.

Conclusions: Thrombotic lesions were associated with 1-year restenosis and all-cause mortality after endovascular treatment for non-acute aortoiliac total occlusions. Endovascular treatment strategies should be carefully planned for patients with thrombotic lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.61150DOI Listing
February 2021

Phase II study of an oxaliplatin-based regimen for relapsed colon cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy (INSPIRE study).

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 May 8;87(5):665-672. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Cancer Center, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Japan.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of first-line chemotherapy with re-introduction of oxaliplatin (OX) more than 6 months after adjuvant chemotherapy including OX.

Methods: Stage II/III colon cancer patients with neuropathies of grade ≤ 1 who relapsed more than 6 months after adjuvant chemotherapy including OX were considered eligible. Eligible patients were treated with 5-fluorouracil, l-leucovorin and OX plus molecularly targeted agents or capecitabine and OX plus bevacizumab (BV) or S-1 and OX plus BV. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival (PFS), and the secondary endpoints were the overall survival (OS), response rate (RR) and toxicity.

Results: A total of 50 patients were enrolled between September 2013 and May 2019. Twelve patients received 5-fluorouracil, l-leucovorin and OX (FOLFOX) plus BV, 21 patients received capecitabine and OX plus BV, 10 patients received S-1 and OX plus BV and 7 patients received FOLFOX plus cetuximab or panitumumab. The median PFS was 11.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.3-16.0), the median OS was 45.4 months (95% CI 37.4-NA), and the RR was 56.0% (95% CI 42.3-68.8). Adverse events of grade ≥ 3 that occurred in ≥ 5% of cases were neutropenia in 6 patients (12%), peripheral sensory neuropathy in 5 patients (10%), diarrhea in 4 patients (8%), hypertension in 4 patients (8%), anorexia in 3 patients (6%) and allergic reactions in 3 patients (6%).

Conclusions: First-line chemotherapy with re-introduction of OX more than 6 months after adjuvant chemotherapy including OX can be used safely with expected efficacy for relapsed colon cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-021-04232-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Propofol midazolam for sedation during radiofrequency ablation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

JGH Open 2021 Feb 22;5(2):273-279. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine Chiba University Chiba Japan.

Background And Aim: Standardization of the sedation protocol during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is needed. This randomized, single-blind, investigator-initiated trial compared clinical outcomes during and after RFA using propofol and midazolam, respectively, in patients with HCC.

Methods: Few- and small-nodule HCC patients (≤3 nodules and ≤3 cm) were randomly assigned to either propofol or midazolam. Patient satisfaction was assessed using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) (1 mm = not at all satisfied, 100 mm = completely satisfied). Sedation recovery rates 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after RFA were evaluated based on Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) scores; full recovery was defined as a MOAA/S score of 5.

Results: Between July 2013 and September 2017, 143 patients with HCC were enrolled, and 135 patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group. Compared with midazolam, propofol exhibited similar median procedural satisfaction (propofol: 73.1 mm, midazolam: 76.9 mm, = 0.574). Recovery rates 1 and 2 h after RFA were higher in the propofol group than in the midazolam group. Meanwhile, recovery rates observed 3 and 4 h after RFA were similar in the two groups. The safety profiles during and after RFA were almost identical in the two groups.

Conclusion: Patient satisfaction was almost identical in patients receiving propofol and midazolam sedation during RFA. Propofol sedation resulted in reduced recovery time compared with midazolam sedation in patients with HCC. The safety profiles of both propofol and midazolam sedation during and after RFA were acceptable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgh3.12483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857294PMC
February 2021

Advanced colorectal cancer subtypes (aCRCS) help select oxaliplatin-based or irinotecan-based therapy for colorectal cancer.

Cancer Sci 2021 Apr 27;112(4):1567-1578. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Medical Oncology, Tohoku University Hospital, Miyagi, Japan.

Oxaliplatin (OX) and irinotecan (IRI) are used as key drugs for the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, no biomarkers have been identified to decide which of the drugs is initially used. In this translational research (TR) of the TRICOLORE trial, the advanced colorectal cancer subtype (aCRCS) was analyzed as a potential biomarker for the selection of OX or IRI. We collected 335 (68.8%) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary tumor specimens from 487 patients registered in the TRICOLORE trial and performed direct sequencing and immunohistochemical staining of CRC-related genes, comprehensive gene-expression analysis, and genome-wide methylation analysis. The progression-free survival (PFS) of the IRI group was significantly better compared with the OX group in BRAF wild-type (WT), PTEN-positive, and aCRCS A1 patients. Among the molecular factors, aCRCS were only associated with the PFS of OX and IRI groups. The PFS of the IRI group was significantly better compared with the OX group in aCRCS A1 + B1 (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41-0.82; P = .0023). In contrast, the OX group had better PFS compared with the IRI group in aCRCS B2, although this was not statistically significant (HR = 1.66; 95% CI = 0.94-2.96; P = .083). Nearly half of patients with mCRC (46.8%, aCRCS A1 + B1) respond well to IRI, while only about 18.5% (aCRCS B2) of patients with mCRC responded well to OX. In conclusion, the aCRCS might be a predictive factor for the clinical outcomes of OX-based and IRI-based therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019218PMC
April 2021

Implications and characteristics of high bleeding risk in East Asian patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: Start with what is right rather than what is acceptable.

J Cardiol 2020 Dec 23. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Ohashi Medical Center, Toho University, 2-22-36 Ohashi, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8515, Japan.

Recent advances in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) technology and medication have changed the main focus of PCI from preventing ischemic to preventing bleeding events. Bleeding risk assessment is essential for preventing bleeding. Several types of assessment tools have been established, but they are heterogeneous, making interpretation, generalization, and comparison between trials difficult. In 2019, the Academic Research Consortium (ARC) introduced a new consensus document with 20 criteria to define high bleeding risk (HBR). The applicability of the ARCHBR criteria were subsequently investigated, and 4 studies have already demonstrated wide applicability worldwide, including in Japan. Nevertheless, it hase been suggested that bleeding risk is higher in people from East Asian countries than in people from Western countries. Patients with HBR have a 3-fold higher risk of major bleeding, and in Japan approximately 50% of patients undergoing PCI have HBR. In addition, patients with overlapping factors, such as older age, renal disease, and anemia, are at increased risk of bleeding, and each additional factor further increases the risk. In Japanese patients undergoing PCI, in addition to the ARC-HBR criteria, low body weight, heart failure, and peripheral arterial disease are high-risk subsets for bleeding. The addition of these factors to the ARCHBR criteria increases the prevalence of HBR in Japanese patients to 58% and improves the sensitivity of diagnostic evaluations. The additional factors are clinically important because they are often encountered in everyday practice, and Japan's newly updated guideline has adopted them as criteria for HBR. Studies found a temporal trend over the past 20 years of a gradual and consistent increase of bleeding risk. This finding contrasts with improved outcomes in people at risk of ischemic and thrombotic events. Therefore, further research is needed to eliminate the risk of bleeding while maintaining the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy after PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2020.12.004DOI Listing
December 2020

Treatment of Femoropopliteal Lesions With the BioMimics 3D Vascular Stent System: Two-Year Results From the MIMICS-2 Trial.

J Endovasc Ther 2020 Dec 17:1526602820980419. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Sheffield Vascular Institute, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield, UK.

Purpose: To report the safety and effectiveness outcomes through 2 years of the BioMimics 3D Vascular Stent System in the treatment of symptomatic patients with atherosclerotic femoropopliteal disease.

Materials And Methods: The tubular, nitinol BioMimics 3D stent, which was designed to impart a helical shape to the arterial segment, was implanted in 271 patients (mean age 68.4±9.5 years; 180 men) with de novo femoropopliteal lesions enrolled at 43 investigational sites [31 US (n=162), 6 German (n=78), and 6 Japanese (n=31)] in the prospective, single-arm MIMICS-2 investigational device exemption trial ( identifier NCT02400905) between June 2015 and October 2016. Mean lesion length was 81.2±38.4 mm, 30.0% of patients had total occlusions, and 45.9% had moderate to severe calcification. Primary safety and effectiveness endpoints were compared at 1 year with prespecified objective performance goals (OPGs) set by the VIVA Physicians organization. Outcomes through 2 years are reported.

Results: The primary effectiveness endpoint of 12-month primary stent patency was met by 182 of 249 patients (73.1%, 95% CI 67.3% to 78.2%), exceeding the OPG of 66%. The primary safety endpoint of 30-day freedom from major adverse events (MAEs) was met in 268 of 269 patients (99.6%, 95% CI 97.7% to 100%), exceeding the OPG of 88%. Kaplan-Meier estimates of freedom from loss of primary patency were 83.1% at 12 months and 70.2% at 24 months, freedom from MAEs estimates were 86.9% at 12 months and 79.2% at 24 months, and freedom from clinically-driven target lesion revascularization estimates were 88.0% at 12 months and 83.0% at 24 months. At 24 months, 88.2% of patients showed improvement of ≥1 Rutherford category; the ankle-brachial index was >0.9 for 64.4% vs 11.3% at baseline. There were no cases of stent fracture.

Conclusion: Through 24 months, the BioMimics 3D Vascular Stent System provided safe and effective treatment for femoropopliteal lesions in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1526602820980419DOI Listing
December 2020

Disagreement between patient- and physician-reported outcomes on symptomatic adverse events as poor prognosis in patients treated with first-line cetuximab plus chemotherapy for unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer: Results of Phase II QUACK trial.

Cancer Med 2020 Dec 21;9(24):9419-9430. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Gastroenterological Chemotherapy, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan.

The status and prognostic value of the disagreement between physician and patient assessments of symptomatic adverse events (AEs) remain unclear for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with first-line cetuximab plus chemotherapy. Paired data on patient-reported outcomes using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and physician-reported outcomes using the NCI-CTCAE for eight symptomatic AEs (fatigue, pain, insomnia, dyspnea, constipation, appetite loss, nausea/vomiting, and diarrhea) were collected from a prospective trial assessing the relationships between treatment efficacy, AEs, and quality of life. The overall agreement rates between patient and physician reporting at 4 weeks ranged from 40.2% to 76.5% for 129 patients. The level of agreement based on Cohen's κ statistics was slight to poor for dyspnea, pain, fatigue, and insomnia, while it was moderate to fair for the remaining AEs. No clinicopathological characteristics of disagreement were found. The underreporting by physicians ranged from 12.5% (nausea/vomiting) to 56.7% (fatigue). The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was more favorable for patients with high agreement than for those with low agreement (71.2% vs. 46.5%, p = .016), and the agreement status was an independent factor of OS (HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.13-4.71; p = .022). For patients who were reported as asymptomatic by the physician, the presence of patient-reported symptoms resulted in a trend toward poor prognostic outcomes for appetite loss, dyspnea, diarrhea, and constipation. These findings provide the clinical importance of the monitoring of patient-reported symptoms that can be complementary to physician-reported data to ensure more accurate clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774728PMC
December 2020

Association of the Hemoglobin to Serum Creatinine Ratio with In-Hospital Adverse Outcomes after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention among Non-Dialysis Patients: Insights from a Japanese Nationwide Registry (J-PCI Registry).

J Clin Med 2020 Nov 10;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Division of Cardiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara 259-1193, Japan.

Although baseline hemoglobin and renal function are both important predictors of adverse outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), scarce data exist regarding the combined impact of these factors on outcomes. We sought to investigate the impact and threshold value of the hemoglobin to creatinine (Hgb/Cr) ratio, on in-hospital adverse outcomes among non-dialysis patients in a Japanese nationwide registry. We analyzed 157,978 non-dialysis patients who underwent PCI in 884 Japanese medical institutions in 2017. We studied differences in baseline characteristics and in-hospital clinical outcomes among four groups according to their quartiles of the Hgb/Cr ratios. Compared with patients with higher Hgb/Cr ratios, patients with lower ratios were older and had more comorbidities and complex coronary artery disease. Patients with lower hemoglobin and higher creatinine levels had a higher rate of in-hospital adverse outcomes including in-hospital mortality and procedural complications (defined as occurrence of cardiac tamponade, cardiogenic shock after PCI, emergency operation, or bleeding complications that required blood transfusion). On multivariate analyses, Hgb/Cr ratio was inversely associated with in-hospital mortality (odds ratio: 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.92; < 0.001) and bleeding complications (odds ratio: 0.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.90-0.94; < 0.001). Spline curve analysis demonstrated that these risks started to increase when the Hgb/Cr ratio was <15, and elevated exponentially when the ratio was <10. Hgb/Cr ratio is a simple index among non-dialysis patients and is inversely associated with in-hospital mortality and bleeding complications after PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696709PMC
November 2020

Monotherapy With Prasugrel After Dual-Antiplatelet Therapy for Japanese Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Patients With High Bleeding Risk - A Prospective Cohort Study (PENDULUM mono Study).

Circ J 2020 Dec 7;85(1):27-36. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Division of Cardiology & Catheterization Laboratories, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital.

Background: The risks of bleeding and cardiovascular events in high bleeding risk (HBR) Japanese patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) while receiving single-antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of bleeding and cardiovascular events associated with prasugrel monotherapy after short-term dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in Japanese HBR patients after PCI.Methods and Results:The PENDULUM mono study was a multicenter, non-interventional, prospective registry (n=1,173). The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of clinically relevant bleeding (CRB; Bleeding Academic Research Consortium types 2, 3, and 5) from 1 to 12 months after PCI. Secondary endpoints included major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). The proportion of patients who received prasugrel monotherapy at 12 months after PCI was 79.7%, and no cases of stent thrombosis were observed among these patients. The cumulative incidence of CRB was 3.2% from 1 to 12 months after PCI; that of MACCE was 3.8%. Severe anemia, chronic kidney disease, oral anticoagulant use at discharge, and heart failure were significantly associated with CRB.

Conclusions: Among HBR patients undergoing PCI who were not suitable for concomitant aspirin and were scheduled for prasugrel monotherapy, most patients were on prasugrel monotherapy after DAPT. Cumulative incidences of CRB and MACCE after periprocedural period were 3.2% and 3.8%, respectively, and no cases of stent thrombosis were reported. SAPT might be a suitable alternative to DAPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0786DOI Listing
December 2020

Effect of early tumor response on the health-related quality of life among patients on second-line chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer in the ABSOLUTE trial.

Gastric Cancer 2021 Mar 2;24(2):467-476. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Japan.

Background: This study evaluated the association between early tumor response at 8 weeks, previously reported as a positive outcome prognosticator, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients enrolled in the ABSOLUTE trial.

Methods: HRQOL was assessed using the EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) utility index score in patients with complete response (CR) + partial response (PR) and progressive disease (PD) at 8 weeks, and time-to-deterioration (TtD) of the EQ-5D score, with the preset minimally important difference (MID) of 0.05, was compared between these populations. Among the enrolled patients, 143 and 160 patients were assessable in weekly solvent-based paclitaxel (Sb-PTX) arm and weekly nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-PTX) arm, respectively.

Results: Changes of the EQ-5D score from baseline to 8 weeks in the nab-PTX arm were 0.0009 and - 0.1229 in CR + PR and PD patients, respectively; the corresponding values for the Sb-PTX arm were - 0.0019 and - 0.1549. For both treatments, changes of the EQ-5D score from baseline at 8 weeks were significantly larger in patients with PD than in those with CR + PR. The median TtD was 3.9 and 2.2 months in patients with CR + PR and PD, respectively, for nab-PTX [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.595, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.358-0.989]. For Sb-PTX, the corresponding values were 4.7 and 2.0 months (HR = 0.494, 95% CI 0.291-0.841).

Conclusions: Early tumor shrinkage was associated with maintained HRQOL in AGC patients on the second-line chemotherapy with taxanes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10120-020-01131-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902565PMC
March 2021

Long-Term Effectiveness of a Drug-Eluting Stent for Femoropopliteal In-Stent Restenosis: Subanalysis of the Zilver PTX Japan Post-Market Surveillance Study.

J Endovasc Ther 2020 Oct 21:1526602820966708. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

The University of Arizona Health Sciences, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Purpose: To present a subgroup analysis of patients from a large real-world study evaluating the safety and effectiveness of the Zilver PTX drug-eluting stent (DES) for treating femoropopliteal in-stent restenosis (ISR).

Materials And Methods: This study examined patients enrolled in the Zilver PTX Japan Post-Market Surveillance Study ( identifier NCT02254837), a prospective, multicenter registry of 904 symptomatic patients with 1082 femoropopliteal lesions treated with the DES at 95 institutions in Japan. Five-year outcomes, including mortality, stent radiography, freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR), and clinical benefit, were evaluated for 177 patients (mean age 74.2±8.3 years; 118 men) with 204 ISR lesions treated with the Zilver DES. Over half of the patients (108, 61.0%) were diabetic. Mean lesion length was 17.8±10.4 cm, and a third (72, 35.3%) were total occlusions. Outcome measures were all-cause mortality, thrombosis, freedom from TLR, and clinical benefit, defined as freedom from persistent or deteriorating ischemic symptoms.

Results: No device-related or procedure-related deaths or paclitaxel-related adverse events were reported. All-cause mortality was 25.1% at 5 years. Stent fracture was observed in 5 stents through 5 years. The 5-year rate of freedom from clinically-driven TLR was 73.4%, and the rate of clinical benefit was 63.6%. Improvement in Rutherford category and ankle-brachial index was sustained through 5 years.

Conclusion: The safety and effectiveness of the Zilver PTX stent for the treatment of femoropopliteal ISR lesions demonstrated that this device provides a favorable treatment option in this difficult-to-treat subgroup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1526602820966708DOI Listing
October 2020

Analyses of Intermediate-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Receiving Transarterial Chemoembolization prior to Designing Clinical Trials.

Liver Cancer 2020 Sep 22;9(5):596-612. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high frequency of recurrence and progression to advanced stage after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), particularly in patients with high tumor burden. Promising new results from immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and ICI-based therapies are expected to replace TACE, especially in HCC patients with high tumor burden.

Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of TACE with a view to design clinical trials comparing TACE and ICIs.

Methods: We retrospectively identified intermediate-stage HCC patients undergoing TACE from our database and subdivided patients into low- and high-burden groups based on three subclassification models using the diameter of the maximum tumor and the number of tumors. Clinical outcomes were compared between low- and high-burden intermediate-stage HCC.

Results: Of 1,161 newly diagnosed HCC patients, 316 were diagnosed with intermediate-stage disease and underwent TACE. The median overall survival from high-burden intermediate-stage disease was not significantly different by clinical course, reaching high tumor burden in all subclassification models. The prognosis of high-burden patients after initial TACE was poor compared with low-burden patients for two models (except for the up-to-seven criteria). In all three models, high-burden patients showed a poor durable response rate (DRR) both ≥3 months and ≥6 months and poor prognosis after TACE. Moreover, patients with confirmed durable response ≥3 months and ≥6 months showed better survival outcomes for high-burden intermediate-stage HCC.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the basis for selecting a population that would not benefit from TACE and setting DRR ≥3 months or ≥6 months as alternative endpoints when designing clinical trials comparing TACE and ICIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7548915PMC
September 2020

Prasugrel for Japanese Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease in Long-Term Clinical Practice (PRASFIT-Practice II) - Final 2-Year Follow-up Results of a Postmarketing Observational Study.

Circ J 2020 Oct 2;84(11):1981-1989. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Post Marketing Study Department, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd.

Background: PRASFIT-Practice II is a postmarketing observational study conducted in 4,155 Japanese patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) who received long-term prasugrel. The data were used to assess the utility of Academic Research Consortium for High Bleeding Risk (ARC-HBR) criteria.Methods and Results:Patients in PRASFIT-practice II were clinically followed for 2 years. The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major/minor bleeding. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on ARC-HBR criteria (HBR (40.1% of patients) and non-HBR (59.9%)) and the effect of HBR on the primary endpoint was assessed. The median duration of dual antiplatelet therapy with prasugrel was 391.0 days. At 2 years, the cumulative incidence of MACE was 3.3%, and of TIMI major/minor bleeding was 2.7%. At 1 year, MACE and TIMI major/minor bleeding in the HBR group (4.0% and 3.4%, respectively) were higher than that in the non-HBR group (1.3% for both). Landmark analysis at 3 months and 1 year showed that the higher risk of MACE or TIMI major/minor bleeding in the HBR group persisted through 2 years.

Conclusions: The results of this study confirmed the safety and effectiveness of long-term treatment with prasugrel, and demonstrated that the ARC-HBR criteria for bleeding risk are applicable in Japanese IHD patients treated with prasugrel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0253DOI Listing
October 2020

Potential of Lenvatinib for an Expanded Indication from the REFLECT Trial in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Liver Cancer 2020 Aug 5;9(4):382-396. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib and verify the possibility of lenvatinib for the expanded indication from the REFLECT trial in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in real-world practice, primarily focusing on the population that was excluded in the REFLECT trial.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data on patients with advanced HCC who were administered lenvatinib in 7 institutions in Japan.

Results: Of 152 advanced HCC patients, 95 and 57 patients received lenvatinib in first-line and second- or later-line systemic therapies, respectively. The median progression-free survival in Child-Pugh class A patients was nearly equal between first- and second- or later-line therapies (5.2 months; 95% CI 3.7-6.9 for first line, 4.8 months; 95% CI 3.8-5.9 for second or later line, = 0.933). According to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, the objective response rate of 27 patients (18%) who showed a high burden of intrahepatic lesions (i.e., main portal vein and/or bile duct invasion or 50% or higher liver occupation) at baseline radiological assessment was 41% and similar with that of other population. The present study included 20 patients (13%) with Child-Pugh class B. These patients observed high frequency rates of liver function-related adverse events due to lenvatinib. The 8-week dose intensity of lenvatinib had a strong correlation with liver function according to both the Child-Pugh and albumin - bilirubin scores.

Conclusion: Lenvatinib had potential benefits for patients with advanced HCC with second- or later-line therapies and a high burden of intrahepatic lesions. Dose modification should be paid increased attention among patients with poor liver function, such as Child-Pugh class B patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7506220PMC
August 2020

Inter- and intra-core laboratory variability in the quantitative coronary angiography analysis for drug-eluting stent treatment and follow up.

Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 2020 Jan-Dec;14:1753944720958982

Division of Cardiology, Toho University Medical Center Ohashi Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: To evaluate inter-core laboratory variability of quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) parameters in comparison with intra-core laboratory variability in a randomized controlled trial evaluating drug-eluting stents.

Methods: A total of 50 patients with 62 coronary lesions were analyzed by four analysis experts belonging to an Angiographic Core Laboratory (ACL: 1 expert) and a Cardiovascular Imaging Core Laboratory (CICL: 3 experts). QCA was based on the same standard operating procedure, but selections of projection and cine frames were at the discretion of each analyst. Inter- and intra-core laboratory variabilities were evaluated by accuracy, precision, Bland Altman analysis, and coefficient of variation.

Results: Pre-MLD (minimal lumen diameter) was significantly smaller in results from ACL than those from all CICL experts. Number of analyzed projections did not affect pre-MLD results. Acute gain was larger in ACL than in CICL2. No significant difference was observed in late loss and loss index between inter-core laboratories. Agreement between core labs in the Bland-Altman analysis for each QCA parameter was as follows (mean difference, 95% limits of agreement): pre-MLD (-0.32, -0.74 to 0.10), stent MLD (0.08, -0.28 to 0.44), acute gain (0.22, -0.44 to 0.88), and late loss (-0.07, -0.69 to 0.55). Agreement between analysts in CICL (mean difference, 95% limits of agreement) was: pre MLD (-0.03, -0.37 to 0.31), stent MLD (0.15, -0.15 to 0.45), acute gain (0.05, -0.45 to 0.55), and late loss (0.04, -0.52 to 0.60). The widest limits of agreement among three analyses were shown in both analyses. Width of limited agreement in the intra-core laboratory analysis tended to be smaller than the inter-core laboratory analysis with these parameters. Coefficient of variation tended to be larger in lesion length (LL), acute gain, late loss, and loss index in inter- and in intra- core laboratory comparisons.

Conclusion: Inter-core laboratory QCA variability in late loss and loss index analysis could be similar to intra-core laboratory variability, but more strict alignment between core laboratories would be necessary for initial procedural data analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753944720958982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7534069PMC
October 2020

Early Tumor Shrinkage and Depth of Response in the Second-Line Treatment for KRAS exon2 Wild-Type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: An Exploratory Analysis of the Randomized Phase 2 Trial Comparing Panitumumab and Bevacizumab in Combination with FOLFIRI (WJOG6210G).

Target Oncol 2020 10;15(5):623-633

Department of Clinical Oncology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.

Background: Predictive markers for the clinical outcomes of second-line treatment in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remain unclear.

Objective: This retrospective biomarker study was conducted to explore predictive markers for patients with KRAS exon 2 wild-type mCRC who were treated with FOLFIRI plus panitumumab (Pani) or bevacizumab (Bev) in the WJOG6210G trial.

Patients And Methods: The associations of early tumor shrinkage (ETS), tumor location, and VEGF-D with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the association of depth of response (DpR) with PFS and OS. Serum VEGF-D levels were measured in samples collected before treatment using magnetic bead panel Milliplex xMAP kits.

Results: In total, 101 patients (Pani, n = 49; Bev, n = 52) were enrolled in this study. Patients with ETS had longer PFS (Pani: hazard ratio (HR) 0.40, P = 0.009; Bev: HR 0.078, P = 0.0002) and OS (Pani: HR 0.49, P = 0.044; Bev: HR 0.35, P = 0.048) than patients without ETS. The DpR was moderately correlated with PFS and OS in Pani (rs = 0.75, P < 0.001; rs = 0.60, P < 0.001) and Bev groups (rs = 0.68, P < 0.001; rs = 0.44, P = 0.002). No significant differences were observed in PFS and OS between the two treatment groups even if in left-sided tumors. No significant interaction between VEGF-D levels and treatment was observed in PFS and OS.

Conclusions: ETS and DpR serve as surrogate markers of PFS and OS in the second-line treatment with FOLFIRI plus targeted agent for mCRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11523-020-00750-wDOI Listing
October 2020

Bleeding risks associated with anticoagulant therapies after percutaneous coronary intervention in Japanese patients with ischemic heart disease complicated by atrial fibrillation: A comparative study.

J Cardiol 2021 Feb 14;77(2):186-194. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Safety and Risk Management Department, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Current guidelines recommend early termination of triple therapy and the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), due to safety concerns. However, to date, real-world medication usage and safety outcomes (specifically bleeding) in NVAF patients with stent implantation have not been well assessed.

Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, medical database cohort study in Japanese ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients with NVAF who underwent PCI between 2012 and 2017. The primary outcome was clinically relevant bleeding; secondary outcomes included individual bleeding events. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify risk factors affecting the occurrence of clinically relevant bleeding events.

Results: The analysis population comprised 5695 patients [3530 received DOACs and 2165 received vitamin K antagonists (VKAs)]. The incidence of primary outcome events (clinically relevant bleeding/100 patient-years) was 6.05 in the DOAC group and 8.42 in the VKA group, resulting in a nonsignificant 21% lower risk in the DOAC group. The DOAC group also had a nonsignificant 24%, 24%, and 34% lower risk of bleeding requiring transfusion, intracranial bleeding, and lower gastrointestinal bleeding, respectively, compared with the VKA group. A multivariate analysis of the primary outcome showed a significantly higher risk of bleeding among older patients and those with lower body weight and abnormal renal function.

Conclusions: In this retrospective real-world evaluation of IHD patients with NVAF and PCI, DOAC-treated patients had a lower risk of developing clinically relevant bleeding compared with the VKA group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2020.08.008DOI Listing
February 2021

Clinical trial of carotid artery stenting using dual-layer CASPER stent for carotid endarterectomy in patients at high and normal risk in the Japanese population.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Sep 15. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan.

Background: The dual-layer nitinol CASPER stent was designed to prevent plaque prolapse into its strut and periprocedural stroke.

Objective: To conduct a clinical trial for government approval of the device in patients at either high or normal risk for carotid endarterectomy (CEA).

Methods: Eligible patients had ≥50% symptomatic stenosis or ≥80% asymptomatic stenosis according to the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial methods (peak systolic velocity 130 and 230 cm/s on ultrasonography, respectively). The primary endpoint was the lack of major adverse events (MAEs), defined as death, stroke, and myocardial infarction within 30 days, and ipsilateral stroke within 1 year. The performance goal was set at 90.5%. MAE rates were also compared between the CEA high- and normal-risk groups.

Results: 140 carotid artery stenting procedures, including 40% of patients at high risk and 60% at normal risk for CEA, were performed in 13 institutes. MAEs occurred in two cases (one intraprocedural and one postprocedural stroke), and the MAE rate was 1.4%. The non-MAE rate was 98.6% according to Kaplan-Meier analysis, which was superior to the previously set performance goal. The deployment success, target lesion revascularization (TLR), in-stent restenosis, and cerebrovascular event rates were 99.3%, 2.4%, 8.5%, and 7.2%, respectively. The MAE rate in patients with normal CEA risk was 1.2%, which was similar to the high-risk CEA group, with no significant difference due to the small number of MAEs.

Conclusions: The MAE rate following use of the CASPER stent was low (1.4%). The MAE, deployment success, TLR, in-stenosis, and cerebrovascular event rates were similar to those of previous reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016250DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparative Trends in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Japan and the United States, 2013 to 2017.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 09;76(11):1328-1340

Japanese Association of Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Adoption of the results of large-scale randomized controlled trials in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may differ internationally, yet few studies have described the potential variations in PCI practice patterns.

Objectives: Using representative national registries, we compared temporal trends in procedural volume, patient characteristics, pre-procedural testing, procedural characteristics, and quality metrics in the United States and Japan.

Methods: The National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI was used to describe care in the United States, and the J-PCI was used to assess practice patterns in Japan (numbers of participating hospitals: 1,752 in the United States and 1,108 in Japan). Both registries were summarized between 2013 and 2017.

Results: PCI volume increased by 15.8% in the United States from 550,872 in 2013 to 637,650 in 2017, primarily because of an increase in nonelective PCIs (p for trend <0.001). In Japan, the volume of PCIs increased by 36%, from 181,750 in 2013 to 247,274 in 2017, primarily because of an increase in elective PCIs (p for trend <0.001). The proportion of PCI cases for elective conditions was >2-fold greater in Japan (72.7%) than in the United States (33.8%; p < 0.001). Overall, the ratio of nonelective PCI (vs. elective PCI; 27.3% vs. 66.2%; p < 0.001) and the performance of noninvasive stress testing in patients with stable disease (15.2% vs. 55.3%; p < 0.001) was lower in Japan than in the United States. Computed tomography angiography was more commonly used in Japan (22.3% vs. 2.0%; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Elective PCI is more than twice as common in Japan as in the United States in contemporary practice. Computed tomography angiography is much more frequently used pre-procedurally in Japan than in the United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.07.037DOI Listing
September 2020