Publications by authors named "Masamichi Okada"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Intervention Strategies to Reduce Surgical Site Infection Rates in Patients Undergoing Rectal Cancer Surgery.

In Vivo 2022 Jan-Feb;36(1):439-445

Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background/aim: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of surgical site infection (SSI) prevention approaches in rectal cancer surgery.

Patients And Methods: A total of 1,408 patients who underwent elective rectal cancer surgery between 1995 and 2017 were reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups: control group (group A, n=245), SSI prevention intervention group (group B, n=516), and laparoscopic or robotic surgery group (group C, n=647). The groups were compared in terms of SSI and anastomotic leakage (AL) incidences, and risk factors for SSI were investigated.

Results: The overall SSI and AL rates were 19.4% and 3.6%, respectively. These rates were significantly lower in Group C (9.3%, 1.7%), compared to Groups A (40.0%, 6.1%) and B (22.5%, 3.5%). Abdominoperineal resection, open surgery, operation time, intraoperative bleeding, lack of absorbable sutures, lack of mechanical bowel preparation, and lack of oral antibiotics were independently associated with SSI.

Conclusion: SSI reduction after rectal cancer surgery was achieved through various intervention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/invivo.12722DOI Listing
January 2022

Improved functional properties of meat analogs by laccase catalyzed protein and pectin crosslinks.

Sci Rep 2021 08 17;11(1):16631. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Amano Enzyme Inc. Innovation Center, Kakamigahara, Japan.

The gap between the current supply and future demand of meat has increased the need to produce plant-based meat analogs. Methylcellulose (MC) is used in most commercial products. Consumers and manufacturers require the development of other novel binding systems, as MC is not chemical-free. We aimed to develop a novel chemical-free binding system for meat analogs. First, we found that laccase (LC) synergistically crosslinks proteins and sugar beet pectin (SBP). To investigate the ability of these SBP-protein crosslinks, textured vegetable protein (TVP) was used. The presence of LC and SBP improved the moldability and binding ability of patties, regardless of the type, shape, and size of TVPs. The hardness of LC-treated patties with SBP reached 32.2 N, which was 1.7- and 7.9-fold higher than that of patties with MC and transglutaminase-treated patties. Additionally, the cooking loss and water/oil-holding capacity of LC-treated patties with SBP improved by up to 8.9-9.4% and 5.8-11.3%, compared with patties with MC. Moreover, after gastrointestinal digestion, free amino nitrogen released from LC-treated patties with SBP was 2.3-fold higher than that released from patties with MC. This is the first study to report protein-SBP crosslinks by LC as chemical-free novel binding systems for meat analogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96058-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8370993PMC
August 2021

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastatic ability of CD133 colorectal cancer stem-like cells under hypoxia.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jan 9;21(1):19. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan.

Although CD133 is a representative cancer stem cell marker, its function in tumor aggressiveness under hypoxia remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the associations between CD133, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and distant metastasis in colorectal cancer. CD133 and CD133 cells were isolated from a single colorectal cancer cell line LoVo, and their adhesive and migratory properties were compared under hypoxic conditions. Immunostaining analysis was performed to determine CD133 expression in clinical samples of primary tumors, as well as liver and peritoneal metastases. Under hypoxia, the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers N-cadherin and vimentin were significantly higher in the CD133 compared with those in the CD133 cells. Furthermore, the migratory ability of the CD133 cells was higher compared with that of the CD133 cells under hypoxia. By contrast, the expression levels of β1 integrin were significantly lower in the CD133 cells under hypoxia compared with those in the CD133 cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of clinical samples revealed that the levels of CD133 expression in metastatic tissues from the liver were significantly higher compared with those in the corresponding primary tumors, whereas CD133 expression levels in peritoneal metastatic tissues were significantly lower compared with those in the corresponding primary tumors. In conclusion, compared with the CD133 cells, the CD133 colorectal cancer cells exhibited enhanced levels of HIF-1α expression and tumor cell migration during hypoxia. This was associated with an increased ability of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, possibly leading to the acquisition of an increased hematogenous metastatic potential and eventually resulting in liver metastasis. High β1 integrin expression levels in the CD133 cells under hypoxia may serve a key role in cell adhesion to the peritoneum, resulting in peritoneal metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.12280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7681219PMC
January 2021

Metastatic role of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling activation by chemoradiotherapy in advanced rectal cancer.

Cancer Sci 2020 Apr 22;111(4):1291-1302. Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Postoperative distant metastasis dramatically affects rectal cancer patients who have undergone neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT). Here, we clarified the association between NACRT-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway activation and rectal cancer metastatic potential. We performed immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR) and phosphorylated S6 (p-S6) on surgical specimen blocks from 98 rectal cancer patients after NACRT (cohort 1) and 80 colorectal cancer patients without NACRT (cohort 2). In addition, we investigated the association between mTOR pathway activity, affected by irradiation, and the migration ability of colorectal cancer cells in vitro. Based on the results of the clinical study, p-mTOR was significantly overexpressed in cohort 1 (with NACRT) as compared to levels in cohort 2 (without NACRT) (P < .001). High p-mTOR and p-S6 levels correlated with the development of distant metastasis only in cohort 1. Specifically, high p-S6 expression (HR 4.51, P = .002) and high pathological T-stage (HR 3.73, P = .020) after NACRT were independent predictors of the development of distant metastasis. In vitro, p-S6 levels and migration ability increased after irradiation in SW480 cells (TP53 mutation-type) but decreased in LoVo cells (TP53 wild-type), suggesting that irradiation modulates mTOR signaling and migration through cell type-dependent mechanisms. We next assessed the expression level of p53 by immunostaining in cohort 1 and demonstrated that p-S6 was overexpressed in samples with high p53 expression as compared to levels in samples with low p53 expression (P = .008). In conclusion, p-S6 levels after NACRT correlate with postoperative distant metastasis in rectal cancer patients, suggesting that chemoradiotherapy might modulate the mTOR signaling pathway, promoting metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156826PMC
April 2020

Laparoscopic resection of an urachal abscess caused by migration of a fish bone: a case report.

ANZ J Surg 2019 11 2;89(11):E536-E537. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.14866DOI Listing
November 2019

[Rectal cancer with local re-recurrence successfully treated by carbon ion radiotherapy].

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2014 Nov;41(12):1710-2

Dept. of Surgery, Tokyo Metropolitan Hiroo Hospital.

A 61 year-old male with rectal cancer underwent anterior resection with D2 lymph node dissection in August 2007. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level was 5.6 before the operation. Pathological findings were Rs, tub2»>tub1, type 3, pSE, ly1, v2, pN1 (1/23), H0, P0, M0 , pStage IIIA. Adjuvant chemotherapy with tegafur-uracil (UFT) 600 mg/Leucovorin (LV) 75 mg was administered for 1 year. A recurrence at a site of anastomosis developed and lower anterior resection was required in September 2010. CEA level was 5.4 before the operation. After 7 courses of capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) treatment, the right #283 lymph node increased to 8 mm in October 2011 and the patient was diagnosed with a re-recurrence of the original tumor (CEA level, 4.6). Carbon ion radiotherapy (73.6 Gy/16 Fr/4 weeks) was performed between November 28 and December 22, 2011. Although the right #283 lymph node had shrunk by January 2012, a single node in the S3 domain of the right lung was observed and became progressively larger, indicating a lung metastasis (CEA level, 5.4). The patient received carbon ion radiotherapy (60.0 Gy/4 Fr) for the lung metastasis between July 30 and August 2, 2012. No additional recurrences have been seen through February 2014.
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November 2014

ASP6537, a novel highly selective cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor, exerts potent antithrombotic effect without "aspirin dilemma".

Thromb Res 2013 Jul 22;132(1):56-62. Epub 2013 Mar 22.

Pharmacology Research Labs., Drug Discovery Research, Astellas Pharma Inc., Ibaraki, Japan.

Introduction: Aspirin inhibits both the cyclooxygenase (COX)-1-dependent production of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) in platelets and COX-2-dependent production of anti-aggregatory prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) in vessel walls, resulting in "aspirin dilemma." Our objective is to investigate whether ASP6537 can overcome aspirin dilemma and exert a potent antithrombotic effect without a concurrent ulcerogenic effect.

Methods: We evaluated the inhibitory effects of ASP6537 on recombinant human COX-1 (rhCOX-1) and rhCOX-2 activities using a COX-1/2 selectivity test. To determine whether ASP6537 induces aspirin dilemma, we examined the effects of ASP6537 on in vitro TXA2 and PGI2 metabolite production from platelets and isolated aorta of guinea pigs, and on plasma concentrations of TXA2 and PGI2 metabolites in aged rats. Finally, we evaluated the antithrombotic effects and ulcerogenic activity of ASP6537 using an electrically induced carotid arterial thrombosis model and a gastric ulcer model in guinea pigs.

Results: The IC50 ratios of rhCOX-2 to rhCOX-1 for ASP6537 and aspirin were >142,000 and 1.63 fold, respectively. ASP6537 inhibited TXA2 production more selectively than aspirin in in vitro and in vivo TXA2/PGI2 production studies. ASP6537 exerted a significant antithrombotic effect at ≥3 mg/kg, while aspirin tended to inhibit thrombosis at 300 mg/kg but it was not statistically significant. Further, ASP6537 did not induce ulcer formation at 100 mg/kg, whereas aspirin exhibited an ulcerogenic effect at doses of ≥100 mg/kg.

Conclusions: ASP6537 functions as a highly selective COX-1 inhibitor with a superior ability to aspirin for normalizing TXA2/PGI2 balance, and exerts antithrombotic effect without ulcerogenic effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2013.03.005DOI Listing
July 2013

Renoprotective properties of pirfenidone in subtotally nephrectomized rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2010 Mar 13;629(1-3):118-24. Epub 2009 Dec 13.

Pharmacology Research Lab., Drug Discovery Research, Astellas Pharma Inc. 21, Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8585, Japan.

Renal fibrosis is the final common pathway of chronic kidney disease, and its progression predicts the degree of renal dysfunction. We investigated the renoprotective properties of pirfenidone in a remnant kidney model of chronic renal failure to determine its pharmacological potency compared to enalapril. Five-sixths nephrectomized rats were fed diet containing pirfenidone (approximately 700mg/kg/day) for 8weeks. Pirfenidone steadily inhibited the progression of proteinuria, but not to a significant degree. Pirfenidone prevented the elevation of plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. At the end of the experiment, pirfenidone had reduced systolic blood pressure by means of its renoprotective effect. In a histological study, pirfenidone improved interstitial fibrosis in the renal cortex. These effects were supported by the suppression of the expression of TGF-beta and fibronectin in the mRNA of the kidney. In contrast, pirfenidone had little effect on the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, which is one of the proteins responsible for epithelial-mesenchymal transition. This property was confirmed by the TGF-beta-induced transdifferentiation observed in cultured normal rat kidney tubular epithelial NRK52E cells. These results suggest that pirfenidone improves the progression of chronic renal failure via its antifibrotic action, although pirfenidone has less effective TGF-beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.12.011DOI Listing
March 2010

Minodronic acid, a third-generation bisphosphonate, antagonizes purinergic P2X(2/3) receptor function and exerts an analgesic effect in pain models.

Eur J Pharmacol 2008 Jul 20;589(1-3):98-101. Epub 2008 May 20.

Drug Discovery Research, Astellas Pharma Inc, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

The P2X(2/3) receptor has an important role in the nociceptive transmission. Minodronic acid is a third third-generation bisphosphonate and a potent inhibitor of bone resorption. We found that minodronic acid inhibited alpha,beta-methylene ATP-induced cation uptake with the potency higher than that of suramin in the P2X(2/3) receptor receptor-expressing cells. Other bisphosphonates did not show such activity. Subcutaneously administered (10-50 mg/kg) minodronic acid significantly inhibited the alpha,beta-methylene ATP-, acetic acid- and formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors in mice. These unique effects of minodronic acid would be beneficial for the treatment of accelerated bone turnover diseases accompanied by bone pain, including bone metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.05.011DOI Listing
July 2008

Comparison of chronic renal failure rats and modification of the preparation protocol as a hyperphosphataemia model.

Nephrology (Carlton) 2008 Apr;13(2):139-46

Kidney and Digestive Tracts Laboratory, Institute of Pharmacology, Astellas Pharma Co. Ltd, Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Background: Several animal models with chronic renal failure have been established and used for demonstrating complications including hyperphosphataemia. Although long-time feeding is required to cause hyperphosphataemia in animals, a few modifications have been reported to provide more useful models for research.

Methods: Three separate experiments were carried out in the present study. First, characteristics of commonly used subnephrectomized (5/6Nx) rats and rats fed an adenine diet (0.75% adenine in normal diet) were compared as hyperphosphataemia models. Next, using adenine-diet rats, the inhibitory effect of sevelamer hydrochloride (Sev) on serum phosphorus elevation was examined. Third, oral adenine dosing for induction of hyperphosphataemia and validation as a model using Sev were examined.

Results: Serum phosphorus in 5/6Nx rats became elevated in 8-17 weeks, but the levels and time points of elevation differed among animals. In adenine-fed rats, the elevation was more clearly demonstrated with less diversity at 4 weeks. The data revealed a potential shorter model preparation period and the importance of controlling feeding amounts. Oral adenine dosing induced hyperphosphataemia by 12 days, and Sev treatment was inhibitory. After a maintenance period of over a month (no treatments), Sev-treated rats showed hyperphosphataemia as did oral adenine-dosed control rats. The serum phosphorus levels significantly decreased on further Sev treatment.

Conclusion: Oral dosing with adenine made the model preparation period definitely shorter, and its usefulness as a hyperphosphataemia model was revealed using Sev.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1797.2007.00844.xDOI Listing
April 2008

Neuroprotective effects of the selective type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist YM-202074 in rat stroke models.

Brain Res 2008 Jan 28;1191:168-79. Epub 2007 Nov 28.

Pharmacology Research Laboratories, Drug Discovery Research, Astellas Pharma Inc., 21 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, 305-8585, Japan.

We describe in vitro properties and in vivo neuroprotective effects of a newly synthesized, high-affinity, selective allosteric metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 (mGluR(1)) antagonist, N-cyclohexyl-6-{[(2-methoxyethyl)(methyl)amino]methyl}-N-methylthiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazole-2-carboxamide (YM-202074). YM-202074 bound an allosteric site of rat mGluR(1) with a K(i) value of 4.8+/-0.37 nM. YM-202074 also inhibited the mGluR(1)-mediated inositol phosphates production in rat cerebellar granule cells with an IC(50) value of 8.6+/-0.9 nM, while showing selectivity over mGluR(2-7). When YM-202074 was infused intravenously at an initial dose of 20 mg/kg/h for 0.5 h followed by a dose of 5 mg/kg/h for 7.5 h, the free concentration of YM-202074 in the brain rapidly (<12 min) reached approximately 0.3 microM, reaching a steady-state phase within 1.5 h. We first treated rats such that they developed transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Results clearly demonstrate a dose-dependent improvement of neurological deficit and reduction of the infarct volume in both the hemisphere and cortex when YM-202074 was infused intravenously immediately after occlusion at a dose of 10 or 20 mg/kg/h for 0.5 h followed by a dose of 2.5 or 5 mg/kg/h for 23.5 h, respectively. Significant neuroprotection was maintained even when the administration of drugs was delayed by up to 2 h following the onset of ischemia. Furthermore, the improvement of neurological deficit and the reduction of infarct volume were sustained for 1 week following the onset of ischemia. These results suggest that YM-202074 exhibits great potential as a novel neuroprotective agent for the treatment of stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2007.11.035DOI Listing
January 2008

Experimental model of lower limb ischemia in rats and the effect of YM466, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor.

Biol Pharm Bull 2007 Oct;30(10):1874-7

Pharmacology Research Laboratories, Drug Discovery Research, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

A simple, quantitative, and reproducible model of lower limb ischemia was developed. Vascular injury was induced by ferric chloride (FeCl(3)) solution to the rat iliac artery, after which blood flow in all of the lower limbs were continuously monitored using a scanning laser Doppler blood flowmeter. After FeCl(3) injury, a distinct decrease in blood flow in the ischemic lower limb was observed and blood flow did not recover during the 30 min after vascular injury. YM466, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, dose-dependently inhibited the reduction of peripheral blood flow. The area under the blood flow-time curve during 30 min after vascular injury improved dose-dependently, with significance at doses of 3 and 10 mg/kg. These results suggest that factor Xa inhibitors are effective in patients with peripheral arterial disease, and that this vascular injury model is a useful tool for the screening and evaluation of the efficacy of new antithrombotic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.30.1874DOI Listing
October 2007

Antinociceptive profile of a selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist YM-230888 in chronic pain rodent models.

Eur J Pharmacol 2007 Sep 5;571(1):8-16. Epub 2007 Jun 5.

Pharmacology Laboratories, Drug Discovery Research, Astellas Pharma Inc., 21 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba 305-8585, Japan.

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGlu(1) receptor) has been suggested to play an important role in pain transmission. In this study, the effects of a newly-synthesized mGlu(1) receptor antagonist, (R)-N-cycloheptyl-6-({[(tetrahydro-2-furyl)methyl]amino}methyl)thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamine (YM-230888), were examined in a variety of rodent chronic pain models in order to characterize the potential analgesic profile of mGlu(1) receptor blockade. YM-230888 bound an allosteric site of mGlu(1) receptor with a K(i) value of 13+/-2.5 nM and inhibited mGlu(1)-mediated inositol phosphate production in rat cerebellar granule cells with an IC(50) value of 13+/-2.4 nM. It showed selectivity for mGlu(1) versus mGlu(2)-mGlu(7) subtypes and ionotropic glutamate receptors. YM-230888 recovered mechanical allodynia with an ED(50) value of 8.4 mg/kg p.o. in L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation models. It also showed antinociceptive response at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg p.o. in streptozotocin-induced hyperalgesia models. In addition, it significantly reduced pain parameters at a dose of 30 mg/kg p.o. in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic pain models. Although YM-230888 showed no significant effect on rotarod performance time at doses of 10 or 30 mg/kg p.o., it significantly decreased it at a dose of 100 mg/kg p.o. On the other hand, YM-230888 showed no significant sedative effect in locomotor activity measurement up to 100 mg/kg p.o. These results suggest that the blockade of mGlu(1) receptors is an attractive target for analgesics. YM-230888 has potential as a new analgesic agent for the treatment of various chronic pain conditions. In addition, YM-230888 may be a useful tool for the investigation of mGlu(1) receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.05.030DOI Listing
September 2007

Reverse reaction of Aspergillus niger APC-9319 alpha-galactosidase in a supersaturated substrate solution: production of alpha-linked galactooligosaccharide (alpha-GOS).

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2005 Jul;69(7):1381-8

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa, Nagano 399-4598, Japan.

The alpha-galactosidase that effectively catalyzes a reverse reaction of galactose, Aspergillus niger APC-9319 alpha-galactosidase, was screened from industrial enzyme preparations for food processing containing alpha-galactosidase activity. Reverse reaction of A. niger APC-9319 alpha-galactosidase was performed using a supersaturated solution (90% galactose [w/v]). A. niger APC-9319 alpha-galactosidase was not inhibited even in high substrate concentration, and effectively catalyzed the reverse reaction. The yield of the reaction product, alpha-linked galactooligosaccharide (alpha-GOS), increased greatly as the initial concentration of galactose increased to 90% (w/v), and was more than 50%. Furthermore, the half life of enzyme activity was about three times as long as that using 60% galactose (w/v). alpha-GOS (1.4 g) was prepared from galactose (3.0 g) by reverse reaction of A. niger APC-9319 alpha-galactosidase. The alpha-GOS contained 58% alpha-galactobiose (alpha-Gal2), 28% alpha-galactotriose, and 14% oligosaccharides larger than alpha-galactotriose. The main component of positional isomers in alpha-Gal2 was alpha-1,6Gal2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.69.1381DOI Listing
July 2005

Radioligand binding properties and pharmacological characterization of 6-amino-N-cyclohexyl-N,3-dimethylthiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazole-2-carboxamide (YM-298198), a high-affinity, selective, and noncompetitive antagonist of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005 Oct 23;315(1):163-9. Epub 2005 Jun 23.

Neuroscience Research, Pharmacology Laboratories, Institute for Drug Discovery Research, Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 21 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, 305-8585, Japan.

Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 (mGluR1) is thought to play important roles in the neurotransmission and pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. Here, we describe the radioligand binding properties and pharmacological effects of a newly synthesized, high-affinity, selective, and noncompetitive mGluR1 antagonist, 6-amino-N-cyclohexyl-N,3-dimethylthiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazole-2-carboxamide (YM-298198). YM-298198 inhibited glutamate-induced inositol phosphate production in mGluR1-NIH3T3 cells with an IC50 of 16 +/- 5.8 nM in a noncompetitive manner. Its radiolabeled form, [3H]YM-298198, bound to mGluR1-NIH3T3 cell membranes with a KD of 32 +/- 8.5 nM and a Bmax of 2297 +/- 291 fmol/mg protein. In ligand displacement experiments using rat cerebellum membrane, an existing noncompetitive mGluR1 antagonist 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclo-propa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester (CPCCOEt) competitively displaced [3H]YM-298198 binding, although glutamate and other mGluR1 ligands acting on a glutamate site failed to inhibit [3H]YM-298198 binding, suggesting that YM-298198 binds to CPCCOEt (allosteric) binding sites but not to glutamate (agonist) binding sites. Specificity was demonstrated for mGluR1 over mGluR subtypes 2 to 7, ionotropic glutamate receptors, and other receptor, transporter, and ion channel targets. In in vivo experiments, orally administered YM-298198 showed a significant analgesic effect in streptozotocin-induced hyperalgesic mice at doses (30 mg/kg) that did not cause Rotarod performance impairment, indicating that it is also useful even for in vivo experiments. In conclusion, YM-298198 is a newly synthesized, high-affinity, selective, and noncompetitive antagonist of mGluR1 that will be a useful pharmacological tool due to its highly active properties in vitro and in vivo. Its radiolabeled form [3H]YM-298198 will also be a valuable tool for future investigation of the mGluR1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.105.087171DOI Listing
October 2005

Allergic airway eosinophilia is suppressed in ovalbumin-sensitized Brown Norway rats fed raffinose and alpha-linked galactooligosaccharide.

J Nutr 2005 Mar;135(3):538-43

Division of Applied Bioscience, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589, Japan.

We recently found that dietary raffinose suppressed allergic airway eosinophilia in ovalbumin-sensitized Brown Norway rats. Using this model in the present study, we compared the efficacy of other oligosaccharides with that of raffinose. Brown Norway rats were immunized s.c. with ovalbumin on d 0 and exposed to aerosolized ovalbumin on d 20; broncho-alveolar lavage fluid was obtained on d 21. In Expt. 1, rats were fed a control diet or diets supplemented with different oligosaccharides (50 g/kg diet, raffinose, alpha-linked galactooligosaccharide, fructooligosaccharide, and xylooligosaccharide). The number of eosinophils in the fluid was significantly lower in rats fed raffinose and alpha-linked galactooligosaccharide diets than in those fed the control diet. Dietary fructooligosaccharide and xylooligosaccharide did not affect airway eosinophilia. In Expt. 2, i.p. administration of raffinose and alpha-linked galactooligosaccharide, but not fructooligosaccharide and xylooligosaccharide, suppressed airway eosinophilia in rats fed the control diet. In Expt. 3, suppression of airway eosinophilia by dietary alpha-linked galactooligosaccharide occurred in cecectomized rats administered neomycin. Reduced levels of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 mRNA in lung tissue were associated with the suppression of airway eosinophilia. We propose that indigestible oligosaccharides differ in their suppressive effect on allergic airway eosinophilia in ovalbumin-sensitized Brown Norway rats and that the effect appears not to be mediated by intestinal microflora.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/135.3.538DOI Listing
March 2005

Exclusive association and simultaneous appearance of congophilic plaques and AT8-positive dystrophic neurites in Tg2576 mice suggest a mechanism of senile plaque formation and progression of neuritic dystrophy in Alzheimer's disease.

Acta Neuropathol 2004 Nov 14;108(5):435-42. Epub 2004 Sep 14.

Neuroscience Research, Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Company Limited, 21 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, 305-8585 Ibaraki, Japan.

Progression of neuritic dystrophy is a histological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in addition to amyloid deposition and neurofibrillary tangle formation. Dystrophic neurites (DNs) are abnormal neurites, and are closely associated with amyloid deposits. To clarify the process of DN formation, we immunohistochemically investigated phosphorylated tau (AT8 and Ser396)-positive DNs and plaques in Tg2576 mice overexpressing human beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the Swedish type mutation (K670N/M671L). AT8-positive DNs were exclusively associated with the Congo red-positive plaques examined, and all Abeta(1-40)-positive plaques appeared to be associated with AT8-positive DNs, whereas there were no AT8-positive DNs with Abeta(1-42)-positive/Abeta(1-40)-negative plaques. Since we have previously shown that Abeta(1-42)-positive plaque precede Abeta(1-40) deposition, the appearance of congophilic structures is also late. Quantitative analyses were performed on AT8-positive DNs that were associated with congophilic plaques in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus (more than 1,000 plaques). The number of congophilic plaques increased dramatically with age. The area of DNs in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus increased 120- and 60-fold from 11-13 to 20.5 months of age, respectively. Interestingly, the mean ratio of DN area to congophilic plaque area in every plaque was unchanged, approximately 10%, through the ages examined. The mean plaque size was stable with age in both the cortex and hippocampus. These data suggest that the formation of AT8-positive DNs is simultaneous with Congo red-positive plaque development, and that the event may be closely related in the pathological progression of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-004-0907-2DOI Listing
November 2004

Effect of YM928, a novel AMPA receptor antagonist, on seizures in EL mice and kainate-induced seizures in rats.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2004 Aug 31;370(2):99-105. Epub 2004 Jul 31.

Institute for Drug Discovery Research, Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 21 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8585, Japan.

Kainate-induced seizures and seizures induced by tossing stimulation in epilepsy-prone EL mice are considered as models of complex partial seizures. We used these models to evaluate the anticonvulsive effects of 2-[ N-(4-chlorophenyl)- N-methylamino]-4 H-pyrido[3.2-e]-1,3-thiazin-4-one (YM928), a novel alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist. In the kainate-induced seizure test in rats, wet-dog shakes (WDS) were reduced by oral administration of YM928 at doses of 7.5 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg. YM928 (15 mg/kg) reduced the number of WDS within the first 80 min, but then prolonged the time of occurrence compared with the other groups. Significant reduction in kainate-induced motor seizure was observed with 4-30 mg/kg. YM928 did not induce apparently abnormal behaviour at doses of 2-15 mg/kg but did induce sedation at 30 mg/kg. Carbamazepine (40 or 80 mg/kg), valproate (600 mg/kg), diazepam (2.5 mg/kg), and phenobarbital (20 or 40 mg/kg) exerted anticonvulsant effects against motor seizures, but only valproate, at a dose that also caused sedation, suppressed WDS. Phenytoin and ethosuximide did not show significant anti-kainate effects. In the tossing stimulation test in EL mice, i.p. injection of YM928 at 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg significantly increased the number of stimulations required to elicit generalized seizure. Carbamazepine (4 or 8 mg/kg), phenytoin (8 or 16 mg/kg), valproate (100-400 mg/kg), diazepam (0.5 mg/kg), phenobarbital (1.3 or 2.5 mg/kg) and ethosuximide (75-300 mg/kg) exerted significant anticonvulsant effects against these seizures. These results indicate that YM928 has anticonvulsant effects on seizure models that are characteristic of partial onset seizures in humans. YM928 is expected to have beneficial effects against human complex partial seizure with secondary generalization or temporal lobe epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-004-0953-2DOI Listing
August 2004

Suppression of fully kindled seizure and retardation of kindling acquisition by YM928 in the rat kindling model of epilepsy.

Eur J Pharmacol 2004 Jun;494(2-3):147-54

Institute for Drug Discovery Research, Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. 21 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8585, Japan.

We investigated the effects of 2-[N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-methylamino]-4H-pyrido[3.2-e]-1,3-thiazin-4-one (YM928), a selective alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist, in the rat kindling model of complex partial seizures. YM928 (10 and 30 mg/kg p.o.) markedly suppressed the motor seizures and afterdischarge induced by electrical stimulation of the amygdala at generalized seizure-triggering threshold intensity. YM928 (10 mg/kg p.o.) did not induce apparent abnormal behavior, but did induce sedation at a dose of 30 mg/kg p.o. YM928 (30 mg/kg p.o.) showed a similar anticonvulsant effect at twice the threshold intensity as it did at threshold intensity. Diazepam (10 mg/kg p.o.) and phenobarbital (60 mg/kg p.o.) also exerted anticonvulsant activities. Diazepam (10 mg/kg) showed a similar effect at twice the threshold as at threshold, but the anticonvulsant effect of phenobarbital (60 mg/kg p.o.) was reversed when the stimulus was doubled. When YM928 (10 mg/kg p.o.) was administered 60 min before daily stimulation of the amygdala, the development of kindling seizure was significantly retarded. These results indicate that YM928 has anticonvulsant effects and suppresses kindling acquisition without sedative effects, and may be suitable as an antiepileptic drug for the treatment of complex partial seizures in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2004.04.052DOI Listing
June 2004

Effects of 2-[N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-methylamino]-4H-pyrido[3.2-e]-1,3-thiazin-4-one (YM928), an orally active alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist, in models of generalized epileptic seizure in mice and rats.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004 Jan 20;308(1):127-33. Epub 2003 Oct 20.

Institute for Drug Discovery Research, Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

The anticonvulsant activity of 2-[N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-methylamino]-4H-pyrido[3.2-e]-1,3-thiazin-4-one (YM928), a novel alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist, was studied in animal models of generalized seizure. YM928 exerted significant anticonvulsant effects in the maximal electroshock (MES) seizure test (ED50 = 7.4 mg/kg p.o.), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure test (ED50 = 9.6 mg/kg p.o.), AMPA-induced seizure test (ED50 = 5.5 mg/kg p.o.), and strychnine-induced seizure test (ED50 = 14.0 mg/kg p.o.) in mice. Effects in rats were detected in the MES seizure test (ED50 = 4.0 mg/kg p.o.) and PTZ-induced seizure test (ED50 = 6.2 mg/kg p.o.). The profile of YM928 was compared with that of established antiepileptics. Valproate showed beneficial effects in all tests used. In contrast, carbamazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, diazepam, ethosuximide, and gabapentin were not active against seizures induced by at least one stimulant. In the rotarod test, YM928 impaired motor coordination (TD50 = 22.5 mg/kg p.o.). The protective index (TD50 value of the rotarod test/ED50 value of MES seizure) was 3.0, suggesting that YM928 can exert antiepileptic effects with only minor motor disturbances. YM928 at doses of 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg p.o. did not significantly affect the threshold of electroshock seizure in rats after 16 days of repeated administration. These data indicate that YM928 does not induce tolerance after subchronic administration. These results indicate that YM928 is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant that would prove useful for the treatment of generalized seizure in human epileptic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.058495DOI Listing
January 2004

Allodynia and hyperalgesia in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats: time course of progression and efficacy of analgesics.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003 Aug 1;306(2):490-7. Epub 2003 May 1.

Neuroscience Research, Pharmacology Laboratories, Institute for Drug Discovery Research, Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co Ltd, Ibaraki 305-8585, Japan.

The complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritic rat model has extensively served as a laboratory model in the study of arthritic pain. However, the time courses of allodynia and hyperalgesia and the efficacies of different analgesics have not fully been analyzed in this model. Mechanical allodynia, thermal and joint hyperalgesia, and other disease development parameters (body weight, mobility, paw volume, and joint stiffness) were measured on postinoculation days (PIDs) 0 to 28 in rats. Acute analgesic efficacies of drugs were evaluated on PID 9 when degrees of allodynia, hyperalgesia, and joint stiffness in the ipsilateral paw reached almost the maximum, although those in the contralateral paw changed only slightly. In the ipsilateral paw, thermal hyperalgesia reached the maximum on PID 1, whereas mechanical allodynia and joint hyperalgesia progressively developed during the first 7 or 8 days, being tuned in to arthritis development. In the contralateral paw, thermal hyperalgesia never occurred, whereas mechanical allodynia and joint hyperalgesia developed after PID 11. Morphine and tramadol had full efficacies for all the pain parameters tested at sedation-inducing doses. Indomethacin and diclofenac significantly but partially improved thermal and joint hyperalgesia. Amitriptyline significantly reduced thermal and joint hyperalgesia only at sedation-inducing dose. Acetaminophen, carbamazepine, and gabapentin had, at the most, very small efficacies. In conclusion, the present study provided integrated information about the time course of pain and other disease development parameters in the CFA-induced arthritic rats, and clarified acute efficacies of different categories of analgesics for the allodynia and hyperalgesia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.050781DOI Listing
August 2003

Functional characterization of YM928, a novel moncompetitive alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003 Jul 26;306(1):66-72. Epub 2003 Mar 26.

Neuroscience Research, Pharmacology Laboratories, Institute for Drug Discovery Research, Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 21 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba 305-8585, Japan.

The alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders as well as normal brain function. The search for AMPA receptor antagonists as potential therapeutics is ongoing. Here, we describe the functional characterization of a novel noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist, 2-[N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-methylamino]-4H-pyrido[3,2-e]-1,3-thiazin-4-one (YM928). This compound inhibited AMPA receptor-mediated toxicity in primary rat hippocampal cultures with an IC50 of 2 micro M. Its manner of inhibition was noncompetitive as the agonist concentration was increased. YM928 blocked AMPA-induced intracellular calcium influx with an IC50 of 3 micro M and antagonized AMPA-induced inward currents with an IC50 of 1 micro M in cultured cells. YM928 displaced neither [3H]AMPA binding nor other existing glutamate receptor-related ligand binding in rat brain membranes. In terms of in vivo activity, YM928 had an anticonvulsant effect in sound-induced seizures in DBA/2 mice 45 min after oral administration at 3 mg/kg. Thus, YM928 has potential as an oral therapeutic drug for various types of neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.049973DOI Listing
July 2003

YM872: a selective, potent and highly water-soluble alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor antagonist.

CNS Drug Rev 2002 ;8(4):337-52

Neuroscience Research, Institute for Drug Discovery Research, Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, 21 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8585, Japan.

This review focuses on the in vitro and in vivo neuropharmacology of YM872, a potential neuroprotective agent currently undergoing clinical trials in the United States (trial name: AMPA Receptor Antagonist Treatment in Ischemic Stroke - ARTIST). Its neuroprotective properties in rats and cats with induced focal cerebral ischemia are described. YM872, [2,3-dioxo-7-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoxalin-1-yl]-acetic acid monohydrate, is a selective, potent and highly water-soluble competitive alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist. YM872 has a potent inhibitory effect on [(3)H]AMPA binding with a K(i) value of 0.096 microM. In contrast, YM872 has very low affinity for other ionotropic glutamate receptors. The solubility of YM872 is approximately 500 to 1000 times higher than that of the other competitive AMPA antagonists: YM90K, NBQX, or CNQX. The neuroprotective efficacy of YM872 was investigated in rats and cats subjected to permanent occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. The animals were assessed either histologically or neurologically following ischemia. In rats with occluded middle cerebral artery (MCAO) YM872, by i.v. infusion, significantly reduced infarct volume measured at 24 h and 1 week after ischemia. Significant neuroprotection was maintained even when drug administration was delayed for up to 2 h after ischemia. In addition, YM872 significantly improved neurological deficit measured at 1 week after ischemia. In cats with MCAO YM872, by i.v. infusion, dose-dependently reduced infarct volume at 6 h after ischemia. YM872 produced no behavioral abnormalities and was not nephrotoxic. The evidence for the neuroprotective efficacy of YM872 suggests its therapeutic potential in the treatment of acute stroke in humans.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6741659PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-3458.2002.tb00232.xDOI Listing
March 2003

Isolation and characterization of a beta-primeverosidase-like endo-manner beta-glycosidase from Aspergillus fumigatus AP-20.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2002 Apr;66(4):801-7

Amano Enzyme Inc. Gifu R&D Center, Kakamigahara, Japan.

A novel beta-glycosidase-producing microorganism was isolated from soil and identified as Aspergillus fumigatus AP-20 based on its taxonomical characteristics. The enzyme was found to be an extracellular protein in the culture of the isolated fungus and was purified 88-fold by fractionation with ammonium sulfate followed by successive column chromatographies on phenyl-Sepharose HP and Mono P HR. The molecular mass was estimated to be 47 kDa by SDS-PAGE and the isoelectric point to be pH 6.0 by isoelectric focusing. The purified enzyme was highly specific for a substrate, p-nitrophenyl beta-primeveroside (6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside), which was cleaved in an endo-manner into primeverose and p-nitrophenol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.66.801DOI Listing
April 2002
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