Publications by authors named "Masakazu Toi"

407 Publications

Trends in adjuvant therapy after breast-conserving surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ of breast: a retrospective cohort study using the National Breast Cancer Registry of Japan.

Breast Cancer 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Surgery, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) and endocrine therapy (ET) are standard treatment options after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We investigated the national patterns of adjuvant therapy use after BCS for DCIS in Japan.

Methods: We obtained relevant data of patients diagnosed with DCIS undergoing surgery and treated with BCS between 2014 and 2016 from the Japanese Breast Cancer Registry database. The relationship between the clinicopathologic, institutional, and regional factors, and adjuvant treatment was examined using multivariable analyses.

Results: We identified 9516 patients who underwent BCS for DCIS. Overall, 23% received no adjuvant treatment, 71% received RT, 32% received ET, and 26% received combination therapy. The percentages of patients who received ET and combination therapy in 2016 were significantly lower [odds ratio (OR): 0.71, 0.77, respectively] than in 2014. The proportion of RT was low among young or elderly patients (OR: 0.75, 0.44, respectively) and in non-certified facilities (OR: 0.56). The proportion of ET was high in non-certified facilities (OR: 1.58) and among patients with positive margins (OR: 1.62). Combination therapy was higher among patients with positive margins (OR: 1.53).

Conclusions: Our study found a distinct adjuvant treatment pattern after BCS for DCIS depending on clinicopathologic factors, year, age, which indicate that physicians provide individualized treatment according to the background of the patients and the biology of DCIS. The facilities and regions remain significant factors of influencing adjuvant treatment pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-021-01307-zDOI Listing
October 2021

Japanese subgroup analysis of the phase 3 MONARCH 3 study of abemaciclib as initial therapy for patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer.

Breast Cancer 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Breast Cancer Unit, Kyoto University Hospital, Breast Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-Kawaracho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.

Background: This was a Japanese subpopulation analysis of MONARCH 3, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study of abemaciclib plus nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors (NSAIs) for initial therapy for advanced breast cancer (ABC).

Methods: Eligibility included postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative ABC who had no prior systemic therapy in the advanced disease setting. Patients (N = 493) were randomized 2:1 to receive abemaciclib or placebo (150 mg) plus either 1 mg anastrozole or 2.5 mg letrozole (physician's choice). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

Results: In Japan, 53 patients were randomized (abemaciclib, n = 38; placebo, n = 15). At final PFS analysis (November 3, 2017), median PFS was 29.1 and 14.9 months in the abemaciclib and placebo groups, respectively (hazard ratio 0.537; 95% confidence interval 0.224-1.289). ORR in measurable disease was 62.1 and 50.0% in the abemaciclib and placebo groups, respectively. The Japanese PK profile was comparable to that of the overall population. Consistent with prior studies, the most frequent adverse events reported were diarrhea (abemaciclib: any grade, 94.7%; grade ≥ 3, 10.5%; placebo: any grade, 46.7%; grade ≥ 3, 0%) and neutropenia (abemaciclib: any grade, 68.4%; grade ≥ 3, 21.1%; placebo: any grade, 0%). HRQoL outcomes were generally similar between treatments except for the diarrhea score, which favored placebo.

Conclusions: Consistent with findings in the overall population, abemaciclib plus NSAI was an effective initial treatment in the Japanese subpopulation, with a manageable safety profile.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02246621; U.S. National Library of Medicine: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02246621 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-021-01295-0DOI Listing
October 2021

A phase II study of sequential treatment with anthracycline and taxane followed by eribulin in patients with HER2-negative, locally advanced breast cancer (JBCRG-17).

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Surgery, Breast Oncology, NHO Osaka National Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

Purpose: The sequence of taxanes (T) followed by anthracyclines (A) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been the standard of care for almost 20 years for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Sequential administration of eribulin (E) following A/T could provide a greater response rate for women with LABC.

Methods: In this single-arm, multicenter, Phase II prospective study, the patients received 4 cycles of the FEC regimen and 4 cycles of taxane. After the A/T-regimen, 4 cycles of E were administered followed by surgical resection. The primary endpoint was the clinical response rate. Eligible patients were women aged 20 years or older, with histologically confirmed invasive breast cancer, clinical Stage IIIA (T2-3 and N2 only), Stage IIIB, and Stage IIIC, HER2-negative.

Results: A preplanned interim analysis aimed to validate the trial assumptions was conducted after treatment of 20 patients and demonstrated that clinical progressive disease rates in the E phase were significantly higher (30%) than assumed. Therefore, the Independent Data Monitoring Committee recommended stopping the study. Finally, 53 patients were enrolled, and 26 patients received the A/T/E-regimen. The overall observed clinical response rate (RR) was 73% (19/26); RRs were 77% (20/26) in the AT phase and 23% (6/26) in the E phase. Thirty percent (8/26) of patients had PD in the E phase, 6 of whom had achieved cCR/PR in the AT phase. Reported grade ≥ 3 AEs related to E were neutropenia (42%), white blood cell count decrease (27%), febrile neutropenia (7.6%), weight gain (3.8%), and weight loss (3.8%).

Conclusion: Sequential administration of eribulin after the A/T-regimen provided no additional effect for LABC patients. Future research should continue to focus on identifying specific molecular biomarkers that can improve response rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06396-0DOI Listing
September 2021

Long-Term Outcomes of a Randomized Study of Neoadjuvant Induction Dual HER2 Blockade with Trastuzumab and Lapatinib Followed by Weekly Paclitaxel Plus Dual HER2 Blockade for HER2-Positive Primary Breast Cancer (Neo-Lath Study).

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Aug 9;13(16). Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Breast Cancer Unit, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 606-8507, Kyoto, Japan.

We conducted the Neo-LaTH study in which patients were randomized to different lengths of neoadjuvant induction anti-HER2 therapy with lapatinib and trastuzumab followed by weekly paclitaxel plus the anti-HER2 therapy, and in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive patients, with or without concurrent endocrine therapy. The use of endocrine therapy did not affect the response; comprehensive pathological complete response (CpCR) plus ypN0 rate was 57.6% and 30.3% in ER-negative and ER-positive patients, respectively. After surgery, patients received an anthracycline-based regimen based on physician's choice, followed by trastuzumab for 1 year, and in ER-positive patients, endocrine therapy for 5 years. Here, we report the 5-year survival outcomes. Among the followed-up patients ( = 212), the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), distant DFS, and overall survival rates were 87.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 82.5-91.6%], 93.7% (95% CI, 89.3-96.3%), and 95.6% (95% CI, 91.7-97.7%), respectively, with no difference between ER-negative and ER-positive patients. The 5-year DFS rate was significantly higher in patients who had a CpCR plus ypN0 after neoadjuvant treatment than in those who did not (91.7% vs. 85.1%; = 0.0387). The stratified analysis showed better survival outcomes in patients who had CpCRypN0 than in those who did not after neoadjuvant treatment, regardless of use of adjuvant anthracycline therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8394774PMC
August 2021

Abemaciclib plus fulvestrant in hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer in premenopausal women: subgroup analysis from the MONARCH 2 trial.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 08 23;23(1):87. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: In MONARCH 2, abemaciclib plus fulvestrant significantly improved median progression-free survival (PFS, 16.4 vs 9.3 months, hazard ratio [HR] 0.553) and overall survival (OS, 46.7 vs 37.3 months; HR 0.757) compared with placebo plus fulvestrant in hormone receptor-positive (HR-positive), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-negative) advanced breast cancer (ABC) patients who were endocrine therapy (ET) resistant, regardless of menopausal status. Here, we report findings in the premenopausal subgroup of the MONARCH 2 trial.

Methods: The premenopausal subgroup included patients with natural menstrual bleeding who received a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist at least 4 weeks prior to study treatment start date and for the entire study duration. Of the 669 patients enrolled in the MONARCH 2 trial, 114 were premenopausal (abemaciclib plus fulvestrant, n = 72; placebo plus fulvestrant, n = 42), and were included in this analysis. The primary objective was investigator-assessed PFS and secondary objectives were OS, objective response rate, and safety and tolerability. Exploratory analyses included time to second disease progression (PFS2), time to chemotherapy (TTC), and chemotherapy-free survival (CFS).

Results: At the primary objective cutoff (February 14, 2017), median PFS was not reached for the abemaciclib plus fulvestrant arm versus 10.52 months for the placebo plus fulvestrant arm (HR 0.415; 95% CI 0.246-0.698). At the pre-specified OS interim cutoff (20-June-2019), median PFS was 28.6 months in the abemaciclib plus fulvestrant arm compared with 10.26 months in the placebo plus fulvestrant arm (HR 0.477; 95% CI 0.302-0.755). A numerical OS benefit was observed with abemaciclib plus fulvestrant compared to fulvestrant alone (HR 0.689; 95% CI 0.379-1.252, median, not reached vs 47.3 months). Improvements were also observed for the exploratory outcomes of PFS2 (HR 0.599), TTC (HR 0.674), and CFS (HR 0.642) with the addition of abemaciclib to fulvestrant. The safety profile was generally consistent with results disclosed previously.

Conclusions: Results of the premenopausal subgroup in the MONARCH 2 trial were consistent with the improved clinical outcomes observed in the intent-to-treat population. The analysis provides support for the use of abemaciclib plus fulvestrant (with ovarian suppression) as an effective treatment option for premenopausal patients with HR+, HER2- ABC who are ET-resistant.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02107703. Registered April 08, 2014- Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02107703 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-021-01463-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381581PMC
August 2021

A Novel Real-time Navigation System for Lymphaticovenular Anastomosis Using Projection Mapping with Indocyanine Green Fluorescence.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2021 Aug 16;9(8):e3758. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000003758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8367030PMC
August 2021

MONARCH 2: Subgroup Analysis of Patients Receiving Abemaciclib Plus Fulvestrant as First-Line and Second-Line Therapy for HR, HER2-Advanced Breast Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Purpose: In MONARCH 2, abemaciclib plus fulvestrant significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) versus placebo plus fulvestrant in patients with hormone receptor positive (HR), HER2 advanced breast cancer. This exploratory analysis assessed the efficacy of abemaciclib plus fulvestrant across subgroups of patients receiving study therapy as first- or second-line treatment for metastatic disease.

Patients And Methods: Improvements were estimated using Cox models, and a test of interactions of subgroups with treatment was performed.

Results: The benefit in PFS [first-line, HR, 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45-0.73; second-line, HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.36-0.64] and OS (first-line, HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.64-1.14; second-line, HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46-0.94) was observed across both subgroups, consistent with the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. In first-line patients (abemaciclib arm, = 265; placebo arm, = 133), the numerically largest effect on PFS and OS was observed in patients with primary resistance to endocrine therapy (ET; PFS, HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.26-0.63; OS, HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.97) and visceral disease (PFS, HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.39-0.73; OS, HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.58-1.20). In second-line patients (abemaciclib arm, = 170; placebo arm, = 86), a numerical benefit in PFS and OS was observed across primary and secondary ET resistance, with numerically more pronounced effects observed in patients with visceral disease (PFS, HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.27-0.57; OS, HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.33-0.81). Prolongation of time to second disease progression, time to chemotherapy, and chemotherapy-free survival was observed in both subgroups.

Conclusions: Consistent with the ITT population, a benefit in PFS and OS was observed across the first- and second-line subgroups in MONARCH 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4685DOI Listing
August 2021

A Proposed Dedicated Breast PET Lexicon: Standardization of Description and Reporting of Radiotracer Uptake in the Breast.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Jul 15;11(7). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-City 606-8507, Kyoto, Japan.

Dedicated breast positron emission tomography (dbPET) is a new diagnostic imaging modality recently used in clinical practice for the detection of breast cancer and the assessment of tumor biology. dbPET has higher spatial resolution than that of conventional whole body PET systems, allowing recognition of detailed morphological attributes of radiotracer accumulation within the breast. F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) accumulation in the breast may be due to benign or malignant entities, and recent studies suggest that morphology characterization of F-FDG uptake could aid in estimating the probability of malignancy. However, across the world, there are many descriptors of breast F-FDG uptake, limiting comparisons between studies. In this article, we propose a lexicon for breast radiotracer uptake to standardize description and reporting of image findings on dbPET, consisting of terms for image quality, radiotracer fibroglandular uptake, breast lesion uptake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11071267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306936PMC
July 2021

Abemaciclib as initial therapy for advanced breast cancer: MONARCH 3 updated results in prognostic subgroups.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2021 Jun 22;7(1):80. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

In MONARCH 3, continuous dosing of abemaciclib with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) conferred significant clinical benefit to postmenopausal women with HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer. We report data for clinically prognostic subgroups: liver metastases, progesterone receptor status, tumor grade, bone-only disease, ECOG performance status, and treatment-free interval (TFI) from an additional 12-month follow-up (after final progression-free survival [PFS] readout). In the intent-to-treat population, after median follow-up of approximately 39 months, the updated PFS was 28.2 versus 14.8 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.525; 95% confidence interval, 0.415-0.665) in abemaciclib versus placebo arms, respectively. Time to chemotherapy (HR, 0.513), time to second disease progression (HR, 0.637), and duration of response (HR, 0.466) were also statistically significantly prolonged with the addition of abemaciclib to AI. Treatment benefit was observed across all subgroups, as evidenced by objective response rate change from the addition of abemaciclib to AI, with the largest effects observed in patients with liver metastases, progesterone receptor-negative tumors, high-grade tumors, or TFI < 36 months. Extended follow-up in the MONARCH 3 trial further confirmed that the addition of abemaciclib to AI conferred significant treatment benefit to all subgroups, including those with poorer prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-021-00289-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219718PMC
June 2021

Usefulness and Prospects of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Patients With Breast Cancer Using the Medical Imaging Projection System.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:674419. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Surgery (Breast Surgery), Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: The Medical Imaging Projection System (MIPS) projects indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence images directly on the surgical field using a projection mapping technique. We conducted an observational study of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy using the prototype MIPS; we found a high identification rate. However, the number of SLN-positive cases was small, and the sensitivity could not be evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of the MIPS assisted ICG fluorescence method using commercially available equipment.

Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. Patients with primary breast cancer who underwent SLN biopsy using the MIPS at Kyoto University Hospital from April to December 2020 were included in the study. The primary endpoints were the identification rate of SLNs and detection of positive SLNs by the MIPS. The secondary endpoint was the number of SLNs excised using the MIPS per patient. We also conducted a questionnaire survey focused on the utility of the MIPS; it involved doctors with an experience in using the MIPS.

Results: Seventy-nine patients (84 procedures) were included in the study. In 60 (71%) procedures, both the radioisotope (RI) method and MIPS were used. At least one SLN could be detected by the MIPS in all the procedures, with an identification rate of 100% (95% confidence interval 95.6-100%). A total of 19 (7%) positive SLNs were removed, which were identifiable by the MIPS. Among 57 patients in whom the MIPS and RI methods were used, there was no positive SLN only identified by the RI method. The results of the questionnaire survey showed that the MIPS enabled the operator and assistant to share the ICG fluorescence image in the surgical field and to communicate with each other easily.

Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that the identification rate of SLNs using the MIPS was high, and the MIPS can be used for detecting positive SLNs. It was suggested that the MIPS will be useful in learning SLN biopsy procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.674419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187896PMC
May 2021

Optimization of prediction methods for risk assessment of pathogenic germline variants in the Japanese population.

Cancer Sci 2021 Aug 28;112(8):3338-3348. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Predicting pathogenic germline variants (PGVs) in breast cancer patients is important for selecting optimal therapeutics and implementing risk reduction strategies. However, PGV risk factors and the performance of prediction methods in the Japanese population remain unclear. We investigated clinicopathological risk factors using the Tyrer-Cuzick (TC) breast cancer risk evaluation tool to predict BRCA PGVs in unselected Japanese breast cancer patients (n = 1,995). Eleven breast cancer susceptibility genes were analyzed using target-capture sequencing in a previous study; the PGV prevalence in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 was 0.75%, 3.1%, and 0.45%, respectively. Significant associations were found between the presence of BRCA PGVs and early disease onset, number of familial cancer cases (up to third-degree relatives), triple-negative breast cancer patients under the age of 60, and ovarian cancer history (all P < .0001). In total, 816 patients (40.9%) satisfied the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for recommending multigene testing. The sensitivity and specificity of the NCCN criteria for discriminating PGV carriers from noncarriers were 71.3% and 60.7%, respectively. The TC model showed good discrimination for predicting BRCA PGVs (area under the curve, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.81). Furthermore, use of the TC model with an optimized cutoff of TC score ≥0.16% in addition to the NCCN guidelines improved the predictive efficiency for high-risk groups (sensitivity, 77.2%; specificity, 54.8%; about 11 genes). Given the influence of ethnic differences on prediction, we consider that further studies are warranted to elucidate the role of environmental and genetic factors for realizing precise prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8353892PMC
August 2021

Supplementation with Fermented Barley Extract Prevents Mammary Epithelial Cell Invasion in an Early Breast Cancer Model.

Acta Histochem Cytochem 2021 Apr 27;54(2):73-78. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Breast Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.

Diet-based prevention of malignant transformation contributes to the maintenance of quality of life by avoiding a battle against cancer. Invasion is one of the features of malignant breast cancer, and the prevention of invasion may reduce breast cancer malignancy. A recently established early breast cancer model system showed mammary ductal dysplasia with invasion in mice. This study utilized the model system and investigated the effect of fermented barley extract (FBE), a food material. The elastic fiber layer is the outermost layer of the mammary duct. A reduction in the elastic fiber layer was observed in the mammary glands of the model system, whereas supplementation with 8% FBE containing water prevented this reduction. Moreover, we found that FBE supplementation prevented mammary epithelial cell invasion. Based on our findings, FBE might be a candidate material for a diet-based prevention of early breast cancer invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1267/ahc.20-00029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116617PMC
April 2021

Next-Generation Clinical Trials and Research with Successful Collaborations.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1187:613-622

Japan Breast Cancer Research Group, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

While clinical trials have evolved and improved over time, fundamental changes are needed to reflect the outcomes of great relevance to the institutions where they are performed, by integrating scientific rationale and society's movement to increase efficiency, accountability, and transparency by fast integrating the next-generation advances offered by omics technology and artificial intelligence. Several global clinical and exploratory collaborative studies that achieved successful outcomes in terms of patients' survival, drug toxicity, efficacy, safety, biomarkers, and consensus reached to improve good clinical practices are addressed in this article. Going forward, through collaborations, cooperation, and intellectual curiosity many more advances can be made in clinical trial approaches that can bring transparency, accountability, best outcomes, and develop friendship with trust among all the involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-32-9620-6_33DOI Listing
May 2021

Kinetic information from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI enables prediction of residual cancer burden and prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer: a retrospective study.

Sci Rep 2021 05 12;11(1):10112. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Breast Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.

This study aimed to evaluate the predictions of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), especially with residual disease (RD) after preoperative chemotherapy. This retrospective analysis included 74 TNBC patients who received preoperative chemotherapy. DCE-MRI findings from three timepoints were examined: at diagnosis (MRI), at midpoint (MRI) and after chemotherapy (MRI). These findings included cancer lesion size, washout index (WI) as a kinetic parameter using the difference in signal intensity between early and delayed phases, and time-signal intensity curve types. Distant disease-free survival was analysed using the log-rank test to compare RD group with and without a fast-washout curve. The diagnostic performance of DCE-MRI findings, including positive predictive value (PPV) for pathological responses, was also calculated. RD without fast washout curve was a significantly better prognostic factor, both at MRI and MRI (hazard ratio = 0.092, 0.098, p < 0.05). PPV for pathological complete remission at MRI was 76.7% by the cut-off point at negative WI value or lesion size = 0, and 66.7% at lesion size = 0. WI and curve types derived from DCE-MRI at the midpoint of preoperative chemotherapy can help not only assess tumour response but also predict prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89380-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8115642PMC
May 2021

Evaluation of the Association of Polymorphisms With Palbociclib-Induced Neutropenia: Pharmacogenetic Analysis of PALOMA-2/-3.

Oncologist 2021 07 7;26(7):e1143-e1155. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: The most frequently reported treatment-related adverse event in clinical trials with the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor palbociclib is neutropenia. Allelic variants in ABCB1 and ERCC1 might be associated with early occurrence (i.e., end of week 2 treatment) of grade 3/4 neutropenia. Pharmacogenetic analyses were performed to uncover associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes, patient baseline characteristics, and early occurrence of grade 3/4 neutropenia.

Materials And Methods: ABCB1 (rs1045642, rs1128503) and ERCC1 (rs3212986, rs11615) were analyzed in germline DNA from palbociclib-treated patients from PALOMA-2 (n = 584) and PALOMA-3 (n = 442). SNP, race, and cycle 1 day 15 (C1D15) absolute neutrophil count (ANC) data were available for 652 patients. Univariate and multivariable analyses evaluated associations between SNPs, patient baseline characteristics, and early occurrence of grade 3/4 neutropenia. Analyses were stratified by Asian (n = 122) and non-Asian (n = 530) ethnicity. Median progression-free survival (mPFS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The effect of genetic variants on palbociclib pharmacokinetics was analyzed.

Results: ABCB1 and ERCC1_rs11615 SNP frequencies differed between Asian and non-Asian patients. Multivariable analysis showed that low baseline ANC was a strong independent risk factor for C1D15 grade 3/4 neutropenia regardless of race (Asians: odds ratio [OR], 6.033, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.615-13.922, p < .0001; Non-Asians: OR, 6.884, 95% CI, 4.138-11.451, p < .0001). ABCB1_rs1128503 (C/C vs. T/T: OR, 0.57, 95% CI, 0.311-1.047, p = .070) and ERCC1_rs11615 (A/A vs. G/G: OR, 1.75, 95% CI, 0.901-3.397, p = .098) were potential independent risk factors for C1D15 grade 3/4 neutropenia in non-Asian patients. Palbociclib mPFS was consistent across genetic variants; exposure was not associated with ABCB1 genotype.

Conclusion: This is the first comprehensive assessment of pharmacogenetic data in relationship to exposure to a CDK4/6 inhibitor. Pharmacogenetic testing may inform about potentially increased likelihood of patients developing severe neutropenia (NCT01740427, NCT01942135).

Implications For Practice: Palbociclib plus endocrine therapy improves hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer outcomes, but is commonly associated with neutropenia. Genetic variants in ABCB1 may influence palbociclib exposure, and in ERCC1 are associated with chemotherapy-induced severe neutropenia. Here, the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in these genes and baseline characteristics with neutropenia were assessed. Low baseline absolute neutrophil count was a strong risk factor (p < .0001) for grade 3/4 neutropenia. There was a trend indicating that ABCB1_rs1128503 and ERCC1_rs11615 were potential risk factors (p < .10) for grade 3/4 neutropenia in non-Asian patients. Pharmacogenetic testing could inform clinicians about the likelihood of severe neutropenia with palbociclib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265363PMC
July 2021

Clinical usefulness of eribulin as first- or second-line chemotherapy for recurrent HER2-negative breast cancer: a randomized phase II study (JBCRG-19).

Int J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 23;26(7):1229-1236. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Breast Oncology Center, The Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Anthracycline (A) or taxane T-based regimens are the standard early-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (BC). A previous study has shown a survival benefit of eribulin in heavily pretreated advanced/recurrent BC patients. The present study aimed to compare the benefit of eribulin with treatment of physician's choice (TPC) as first- or second-line chemotherapy for recurrent HER2-negative BC.

Methods: Patients with recurrent HER2-negative BC previously receiving anthracycline and taxane AT-based chemotherapy in the adjuvant or first-line setting were eligible for this open-label, randomized, parallel-group study. Patients were randomized 1:1 by the minimization method to receive either eribulin (1.4 mg/m on day one and eight of each 21-day cycle) or TPC (paclitaxel, docetaxel, nab-paclitaxel or vinorelbine) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included time to treatment failure (TTF), overall response rate (ORR), duration of response, and safety (UMIN000009886).

Results: Between May 2013 and January 2017, 58 patients were randomized, 57 of whom (26 eribulin and 31 TPC) were analyzed for efficacy. The median PFS was 6.6 months with eribulin versus 4.2 months with TPC (hazard ratio: 0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40-1.30], p = 0.276). Median TTF was 6.0 months with eribulin versus 3.6 months with TPC (hazard ratio: 0.66 [95% CI, 0.39-1.14], p = 0.136). Other endpoints were also similar between groups. The most common grade ≥ 3 adverse event was neutropenia (22.2% with eribulin versus 16.1% with TPC).

Conclusions: Eribulin seemed to improve PFS or TTF compared with TPC without statistical significance. Further validation studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10147-021-01920-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213561PMC
July 2021

Japanese subpopulation analysis of MONARCH 2: phase 3 study of abemaciclib plus fulvestrant for treatment of hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer that progressed on endocrine therapy.

Breast Cancer 2021 Sep 1;28(5):1038-1050. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Breast Cancer Unit, Breast Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-Kawaracho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.

Background: This was a Japanese subpopulation analysis of MONARCH 2, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study of abemaciclib plus fulvestrant in patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC).

Methods: Eligible women had progressed on (neo)adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET), ≤ 12 months from end of adjuvant ET, or on first-line ET for ABC, and had not received chemotherapy for ABC. Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive abemaciclib or placebo plus fulvestrant. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), pharmacokinetics (PK), health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and safety.

Results: In Japan, 95 patients were randomized (abemaciclib, n = 64; placebo, n = 31). At final PFS analysis (February 14, 2017), median PFS was 21.2 and 14.3 months, respectively, in the abemaciclib and placebo groups (hazard ratio: 0.672; 95% confidence interval: 0.380-1.189). Abemaciclib had a higher objective response rate (37.5%) than placebo (12.9%). PK and safety profiles for Japanese patients were consistent with those of the overall population, without clinically meaningful differences across most HRQoL dimensions evaluated. The most frequent adverse events in the abemaciclib versus placebo groups were diarrhea (95.2 versus 25.8%), neutropenia (79.4 versus 0%), and leukopenia (66.7 versus 0%). At a second data cutoff (June 20, 2019), median OS was not reached with abemaciclib and 47.3 months with placebo (hazard ratio: 0.755; 95% confidence interval: 0.390-1.463).

Conclusions: Results of the Japanese subpopulation were consistent with the improved clinical outcomes and manageable safety profile observed in the overall population.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02107703; U.S. National Library of Medicine: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02107703 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-021-01239-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354907PMC
September 2021

Palbociclib for Residual High-Risk Invasive HR-Positive and HER2-Negative Early Breast Cancer-The Penelope-B Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2021 05 1;39(14):1518-1530. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

German Breast Group, Neu-Isenburg, Germany.

Purpose: About one third of patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer who have residual invasive disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) will relapse. Thus, additional therapy is needed. Palbociclib is a cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitor demonstrating efficacy in the metastatic setting.

Patients And Methods: PENELOPE-B (NCT01864746) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study in women with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative primary breast cancer without a pathological complete response after taxane-containing NACT and at high risk of relapse (clinical pathological staging-estrogen receptor grading score ≥ 3 or 2 and ypN+). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 13 cycles of palbociclib 125 mg once daily or placebo on days 1-21 in a 28-day cycle in addition to endocrine therapy (ET). Primary end point is invasive disease-free survival (iDFS). Final analysis was planned after 290 iDFS events with a two-sided efficacy boundary < .0463 because of two interim analyses.

Results: One thousand two hundred fifty patients were randomly assigned. The median age was 49.0 years (range, 19-79), and the majority were ypN+ with Ki-67 ≤ 15%; 59.4% of patients had a clinical pathological staging-estrogen receptor grading score ≥ 3. 50.1% received aromatase inhibitor, and 33% of premenopausal women received a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog in addition to either tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor. After a median follow-up of 42.8 months (92% complete), 308 events were confirmed. Palbociclib did not improve iDFS versus placebo added to ET-stratified hazard ratio, 0.93 (95% repeated CI, 0.74 to 1.17) and two-sided weighted log-rank test (Cui, Hung, and Wang) = .525. There was no difference among the subgroups. Most common related serious adverse events were infections and vascular disorders in 113 (9.1%) patients with no difference between the treatment arms. Eight fatal serious adverse events (two palbociclib and six placebo) were reported.

Conclusion: Palbociclib for 1 year in addition to ET did not improve iDFS in women with residual invasive disease after NACT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03639DOI Listing
May 2021

Updated results from the international phase III ALTTO trial (BIG 2-06/Alliance N063D).

Eur J Cancer 2021 05 23;148:287-296. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Institute Jules Bordet and l' Université Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B), Brussels, Belgium.

Aim: To present the pre-specified analyses of >5-years follow-up of the Phase III ALTTO trial.

Patients And Methods: 8381 patients with stage I-III HER2 positive breast cancer randomised to chemotherapy plus 1-year of trastuzumab (T), oral lapatinib (L; no longer evaluated), trastuzumab followed by lapatinib (T→L), and lapatinib + trastuzumab (L+T). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). A secondary analysis examined DFS treatment effects by hormone receptor status, nodal status and chemotherapy timing; time to recurrence; overall survival (OS) and safety (overall and cardiac).

Results: At a median follow-up of 6.9 years, 705 DFS events for L+T versus T were observed. Hazard Ratio (HR) for DFS was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.74-1.00) for L+T versus T and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.81-1.08) for T→L versus T. The 6-year DFS were 85%, 84%, and 82% for L+T, T→L, and T, respectively. HR for OS was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.70-1.06) for L+T versus T and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.71-1.08) for T→L versus T. The 6-year OS were 93%, 92%, and 91% for L+T, T→L, and T, respectively. Subset analyses showed a numerically better HR for DFS in favour of L+T versus T for the hormone-receptor-negative [HR 0.80 (95% CI, 0.64-1.00; 6-yr DFS% = 84% versus 80%)] and the sequential chemotherapy [HR 0.83 (95% CI, 0.69-1.00; 6-yr DFS% = 83% versus79%)] subgroups.

Conclusion: T+L did not significantly improve DFS and OS over T alone, both with chemotherapy, and, therefore, cannot be recommended for adjuvant treatment of early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT00490139.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.01.053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103014PMC
May 2021

Eribulin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy for triple-negative breast cancer patients stratified by homologous recombination deficiency status: a multicenter randomized phase II clinical trial.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jul 25;188(1):117-131. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Breast Cancer Unit, Kyoto University Hospital, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Purpose: To investigate clinical usefulness of eribulin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients.

Methods: Patients in group A (aged < 65 years with homologous recombination deficiency, HRD, score ≥ 42, or those at any age with germline BRCA mutation, gBRCAm) were randomized to 4 cycles of paclitaxel plus carboplatin (group A1) or eribulin plus carboplatin (group A2), followed by 4 cycles of anthracycline. Patients in group B (aged < 65 years with HRD score < 42, or aged ≥ 65 years without gBRCAm) were randomized to 6 cycles of eribulin plus cyclophosphamide (group B1) or eribulin plus capecitabine (group B2); non-responders to the first 4 cycles of the eribulin-based therapy received anthracycline. Primary endpoint was pCR rate (ypT0-is, ypN0; centrally confirmed). Main secondary endpoint was safety.

Results: The full analysis set comprised 99 patients. The pCR rate was 65% (90% CI, 46%-81%) and 45% (27%-65%) in groups A1 and A2, respectively, and 19% (8%-35%) in both groups B1 and B2. No major difference was seen in secondary endpoints, but peripheral neuropathy incidence was 74% in group A1, whereas it was 32%, 22%, and 26% in groups A2, B1, and B2, respectively.

Conclusions: In patients aged < 65 years with high HRD score or gBRCAm, weekly paclitaxel plus carboplatin and eribulin plus carboplatin followed by anthracycline resulted in a pCR rate of > 60% and > 40%, respectively, suggesting potential usefulness of patient stratification using HRD; pCR tended to be low in patients with HRD-negative tumors. Neurotoxicity was less frequent with the eribulin-based regimen.

Trial Registration: The study has been registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry ( http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index-j.htm ) with unique trial number UMIN000023162. The Japan Breast Cancer Research Group trial number is JBCRG-22.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06184-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233289PMC
July 2021

Abemaciclib in combination with endocrine therapy for East Asian patients with HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer: MONARCH 2 & 3 trials.

Cancer Sci 2021 Jun 1;112(6):2381-2392. Epub 2021 May 1.

Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

This post hoc analysis of MONARCH 2 and MONARCH 3 assesses the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of abemaciclib in combination with endocrine therapy (ET) in East Asian patients with hormone receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer. MONARCH 2 and MONARCH 3 are global, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 studies of abemaciclib/placebo + fulvestrant and abemaciclib/placebo + nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI, anastrozole or letrozole), respectively. The East Asian population comprised 212 (31.7%) of the 669 intent-to-treat (ITT) population in the MONARCH 2 trial and 144 (29.2%) of the 493 ITT patients in the MONARCH 3 trial. In the East Asian population, median progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly prolonged in the abemaciclib arm compared with placebo in both MONARCH 2 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.520; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.362 to 0.747; P < .001; median: 21.2 vs 11.6 months) and MONARCH 3 (HR, 0.326; 95% CI, 0.200 to 0.531, P < .001; median: not reached vs 12.82 months). Diarrhea (MONARCH 2: 90%; MONARCH 3: 88%) and neutropenia (MONARCH 2: 68%; MONARCH 3: 58%) were the most frequent adverse events observed in the East Asian populations. Abemaciclib exposures and PK were similar in East Asians and the non-East Asian populations of both trials. Abemaciclib in combination with ET in the East Asian populations of MONARCH 2 and MONARCH 3 provided consistent results with the ITT populations, demonstrating improvements in efficacy with generally tolerable safety profiles for patients with HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8177785PMC
June 2021

The Rate of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Change With Diffusion Time on Breast Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Depends on Breast Tumor Types and Molecular Prognostic Biomarker Expression.

Invest Radiol 2021 08;56(8):501-508

From the Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the variation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values with diffusion time according to breast tumor type and prognostic biomarkers expression.

Materials And Methods: A total of 201 patients with known or suspected breast tumors were prospectively enrolled in this study, and 132 breast tumors (86 malignant and 46 benign) were analyzed. Diffusion-weighted imaging scans with 2 diffusion times were acquired on a clinical 3-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner using oscillating and pulsed diffusion-encoding gradients (effective diffusion times, 4.7 and 96.6 milliseconds) and b values of 0 and 700 s/mm2. Diagnostic performances to differentiate malignant and benign breast tumors for ADC values at short and long diffusion times (ADCshort and ADClong), ΔADC (the rate of change in ADC values with diffusion time), ADC0-1000 (ADC value from a standard protocol), and standard reading including dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (BI-RADS) were investigated. The correlations of ADCshort, ADClong, and ΔADC values with hormone receptor expression and breast cancer subtypes were also analyzed.

Results: The ADC values were lower, and ΔADC was higher in malignant tumors compared with benign tumors. The specificity of ADC values at all diffusion times and ΔADC values for differentiating malignant and benign breast tumors was superior to that of BI-RADS (87.0%-95.7% vs 73.9%), whereas the sensitivity was inferior (87.2%-90.7% vs 100%). Lower ADCshort and ADC0-1000 in ER-positive compared with ER-negative cancers (false discovery rate [FDR]-adjusted P = 0.037 and 0.018, respectively) and lower ADCshort, ADClong, and ADC0-1000 in progesterone receptor-positive compared with progesterone receptor-negative cancers (FDR-adjusted P = 0.037, 0.036, and 0.018, respectively) were found. Ki-67-positive cancers had larger ΔADCs than Ki-67-negative cancers (FDR-adjusted P = 0.018).

Conclusions: The ADC values vary with different diffusion time and vary in correlation with molecular biomarkers, especially Ki-67. Those results suggest that the diffusion time, which should be reported, might be a useful parameter to consider for breast cancer management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000766DOI Listing
August 2021

Reply to K. Hashimoto and A. Shimomura.

J Clin Oncol 2021 05 25;39(13):1507-1508. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Stephen R. D. Johnston, MD, PhD, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom; Nadia Harbeck, MD, PhD, Breast Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, LMU University Hospital, Munich, Germany; Masakazu Toi, MD, PhD, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan; Miguel Martin, MD, PhD, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañon, Universidad Complutense, Ciberonc, GEICAM, Madrid, Spain; Joyce O'Shaughnessy, MD, Baylor University Medical Center, Texas Oncology, US Oncology, Dallas, TX; and Priya Rastogi, MD, University of Pittsburgh, NSABP Foundation, Pittsburgh, PA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03477DOI Listing
May 2021

Adjuvant Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab in Early HER2-Positive Breast Cancer in the APHINITY Trial: 6 Years' Follow-Up.

J Clin Oncol 2021 05 4;39(13):1448-1457. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.

Purpose: APHINITY, at 45 months median follow-up, showed that pertuzumab added to adjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy significantly improved invasive disease-free survival (IDFS) (hazard ratio 0.81 [95% CI, 0.66 to 1.00], = .045) for patients with early human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer (BC), specifically those with node-positive or hormone receptor (HR)-negative disease. We now report the preplanned second interim overall survival (OS) and descriptive updated IDFS analysis with 74 months median follow-up.

Methods: After surgery and central HER2-positive confirmation, 4,805 patients with node-positive or high-risk node-negative BC were randomly assigned (1:1) to either 1-year pertuzumab or placebo added to standard adjuvant chemotherapy and 1-year trastuzumab.

Results: This interim OS analysis comparing pertuzumab versus placebo did not reach the = .0012 level required for statistical significance ( = .17, hazard ratio 0.85). Six-year OS were 95% versus 94% with 125 deaths (5.2%) versus 147 (6.1%), respectively. IDFS analysis based on 508 events (intent-to-treat population) showed a hazard ratio of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.64 to 0.91) and 6-year IDFS of 91% and 88% for pertuzumab and placebo groups, respectively. The node-positive cohort continues to derive clear IDFS benefit from pertuzumab (hazard ratio 0.72 [95% CI, 0.59 to 0.87]), 6-year IDFS being 88% and 83%, respectively. Benefit was not seen in the node-negative cohort. In a subset analysis, IDFS benefit from pertuzumab showed a hazard ratio of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.92) for HR-positive disease and a hazard ratio of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.63 to 1.10) for HR-negative disease. Primary cardiac events remain < 1% in both the treatment groups. No new safety signals were seen.

Conclusion: This analysis confirms the IDFS benefit from adding pertuzumab to standard adjuvant therapy for patients with node-positive HER2-positive early BC. Longer follow-up is needed to fully assess OS benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01204DOI Listing
May 2021

Safety and efficacy of abemaciclib plus endocrine therapy in older patients with hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer: an age-specific subgroup analysis of MONARCH 2 and 3 trials.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Apr 3;186(2):417-428. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Purpose: Abemaciclib in combination with endocrine therapy (ET) has demonstrated significant efficacy benefits in HR+ , HER2- advanced breast cancer patients in the Phase 3 studies MONARCH 2 (fulvestrant as ET) and MONARCH 3 (letrozole or anastrozole as ET). Here, we report age-specific safety and efficacy outcomes.

Methods: Exploratory analyses of MONARCH 2 and 3 were performed for 3 age groups (<65, 65-74, and ≥75 years). For safety, data were pooled from both studies; for efficacy, a subgroup analysis of PFS was performed for each trial independently.

Results: Pooled safety data were available for 1152 patients. Clinically relevant diarrhea (Grade 2/3) was higher in older patients receiving abemaciclib + ET (<65, 39.5%; 65-74, 45.2%; ≥75, 55.4%) versus placebo + ET (<65, 6.8%; 65-74, 4.5%; ≥75, 16.0%). Nausea, decreased appetite, and venous thromboembolic events were all moderately higher in older patients. Neutropenia (Grade ≥ 3) did not differ as a function of age in the abemaciclib + ET arm (<65, 25.8%; 65-74, 27.4%; ≥75, 18.1%). Dose adjustments and discontinuation rates were slightly higher in older patients. Abemaciclib + ET improved PFS compared with placebo + ET independent of patient age, with no significant difference in abemaciclib treatment effect between the 3 age groups (MONARCH 2: interaction p-value, 0.695; MONARCH 3: interaction p-value, 0.634). Estimated hazard ratios ranged from 0.523-0.633 (MONARCH 2) and 0.480-0.635 (MONARCH 3).

Conclusions: While higher rates of adverse events were reported in older patients, they were manageable with dose adjustments and concomitant medication. Importantly, a consistent efficacy benefit was observed across all age groups.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02107703 (first posted April 8, 2014) and NCT02246621 (first posted September 23, 2014).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-06029-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990838PMC
April 2021

Adjuvant S-1 plus endocrine therapy for oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, primary breast cancer: a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 01;22(1):74-84

Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Oral fluoropyrimidines, such as S-1, have been shown to have a role in controlling disease progression in metastatic breast cancer. We examined adjuvant treatment with S-1 in patients with oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive and HER2-negative primary breast cancer.

Methods: We did a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial in 139 sites (137 hospitals and two clinics). Eligible patients were women aged 20-75 years with histologically diagnosed stage I to IIIB invasive breast cancer (intermediate to high risk of recurrence). Patients were temporarily registered at participating institutions and biopsy or surgical samples were collected and sent for central pathological assessment. Patients received 5 years of standard adjuvant endocrine therapy (selective oestrogen receptor modulators with or without ovarian suppression and aromatase inhibitors) with or without 1 year of S-1. Oral S-1 80-120 mg/day was administered twice a day for 14 days with 7 days off. Randomisation (1:1) using the minimisation method was done with six stratification factors (age, axillary lymph node metastasis at surgery or sentinel lymph node biopsy, preoperative or postoperative (neoadjuvant or adjuvant) chemotherapy, preoperative endocrine therapy, proportion of ER-positive cells, and study site). The primary endpoint was invasive disease-free survival, in the full analysis set (all randomly assigned patients, excluding those with significant protocol deviations). The safety analysis set consisted of all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. Here, we report the results from the interim analysis at the data cutoff date Jan 31, 2019. This trial is registered with Japan Registry of Clinical Trials, jRCTs051180057, and the University hospital Medical Information Network, UMIN000003969.

Findings: Between Feb 1, 2012, and Feb 1, 2016, 1930 patients were enrolled in the full analysis set, 957 (50%) received endocrine therapy plus S-1 and 973 (50%) received endocrine therapy alone. Median follow-up was 52·2 months (IQR 42·1-58·9). 155 (16%) patients in the endocrine therapy alone group and in 101 (11%) patients in the endocrine therapy plus S-1 group had invasive disease-free survival events (hazard ratio 0·63, 95% CI 0·49-0·81, p=0·0003). As the primary endpoint was met at interim analysis, the trial was terminated early. The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were decreased neutrophil count (72 [8%] of 954 patients in the endocrine therapy plus S-1 group vs seven [1%] of 970 patients in the endocrine therapy alone group), diarrhoea (18 [2%] vs none), decreased white blood cells (15 [2%] vs two [<1%]), and fatigue (six [<1%] vs none). Serious adverse events were reported in nine (1%) of 970 patients in the endocrine therapy alone group and 25 (3%) of 954 patients in the endocrine therapy plus S-1 group. There was one (<1%) possible treatment-related death in the endocrine therapy plus S-1 group due to suspected pulmonary artery thrombosis.

Interpretation: These data suggest that this combination of S-1 with endocrine therapy could be a potential treatment option for this intermediate and high-risk group of patients with ER-positive, HER2-negative primary breast cancer.

Funding: Public Health Research Foundation (Japan), Taiho Pharmaceutical.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30534-9DOI Listing
January 2021

[Ⅱ.POTENT, a Randomized Phase Ⅲ Trial].

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2020 Dec;47(12):1678-1680

Dept. of Breast Surgery, Kyoto University Hospital.

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December 2020

Current Status of Advance Care Planning and End-of-life Communication for Patients with Advanced and Metastatic Breast Cancer.

Oncologist 2021 04 2;26(4):e686-e693. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Breast Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: Advance care planning (ACP) is a process that supports adults in understanding and sharing their personal values, life goals, and preferences regarding future medical care. We examined the current status of ACP and end-of-life (EOL) communication between oncologists and patients with metastatic breast cancer.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a survey among 41 institutions that specialize in oncology by using an online tool in October 2019. Participants (118 physicians) from 38 institutions completed a 39-item questionnaire that measured facility type and function; physicians' background and clinical approach, education about EOL communication, and understanding about ACP; and the current situation of ACP and EOL discussions.

Results: Ninety-eight responses concerning physicians' engagement in ACP with patients were obtained. Seventy-one (72%) answered that they had engaged in ACP. Among these, 23 (33%) physicians used a structured format to facilitate the conversation in their institutions, and only 6 (8%) settled triggers or sentinel events for the initiation of ACP. In the multivariable analysis, only the opportunity to learn communication skills was associated with physicians' engagement with ACP (odds ratio: 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-7.0). The frequency and timing of communication about ACP and EOL care with patients substantially varied among the oncologists. Communication about patients' life expectancy was less frequent compared with other topics.

Conclusion: The opportunity to improve EOL communication skills promoted physicians' engagement with ACP among patients with metastatic/advanced breast cancer. However, there were still substantial variabilities in the method, frequency, and timing of ACP and EOL communication among the oncologists.

Implications For Practice: This study found that the opportunity to improve end-of-life (EOL) communication skills promoted physicians' engagement in advance care planning (ACP) among patients with metastatic/advanced breast cancer. All oncologists who treat said patients are encouraged to participate in effective education programs concerning EOL communication skills. In clinical practice, there are substantial variabilities in the method, frequency, and timing of ACP and EOL communication among oncologists. As recommended in several clinical guidelines, the authors suggest a system that identifies patients who require conversations about their care goals, a structured format to facilitate the conversations, and continuous measurement for improving EOL care and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018302PMC
April 2021

Overnight fasting before lapatinib administration to breast cancer patients leads to reduced toxicity compared with nighttime dosing: a retrospective cohort study from a randomized clinical trial.

Cancer Med 2020 12 23;9(24):9246-9255. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Breast Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: The bioavailability of lapatinib is affected by food, even following the 1 hour fast recommended by the package insert. We hypothesized that overnight fasting would minimize food-drug interactions. Here, we investigated if lapatinib administration timing is associated with its tolerability, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study utilizing the medical records of patients enrolled in the JBCRG-16/Neo-LaTH randomized phase 2 trial for breast cancer patients treated with lapatinib. Lapatinib administration timing was divided into three groups: before breakfast (BB), between meals (BM), and at bedtime (AB). Side effects (SE), treatment discontinuation rate (TDR), relative dose intensity (RDI), pathological complete response (pCR) rate, and lapatinib serum trough concentration were compared between groups.

Results: About 140 patients were included in this study: BB 15, BM 51, and AB 74. A reduced risk of diarrhea {adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27-0.89, p = 0.018}, and rash {adjusted HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.17-0.70, p = 0.002} was seen in BB versus AB. Fewer patients with low RDI (< 0.85/<0.6) were in the BB group (BB 13% / 0%, BM 22% / 3.9%, AB 24% / 14%, p = 0.70 / 0.11). pCR was not diminished (p = 0.75). BB group had the lowest serum lapatinib concentration and variability (mean ±SD were 0.35 ± 0.15, 0.65 ± 0.32, 0.96 ± 0.43 µg/ml).

Conclusions: Compared to bedtime administration, lapatinib administration after overnight fasting reduces its toxicity without diminishing its therapeutic efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774723PMC
December 2020
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