Publications by authors named "Masahisa Katsuno"

312 Publications

Blockade of CHRNB2 signaling with a therapeutic monoclonal antibody attenuates the aggressiveness of gastric cancer cells.

Oncogene 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Surgery II), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of antibodies (Abs) targeting cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 2 subunit (CHRNB2) in gastric cancer. To investigate the effects of these Abs on malignant phenotypes in vitro and in mouse xenograft models, we generated gene knockouts through genome editing, performed RNA interference-mediated knockdown of gene expression, and ectopically expressed CHRNB2 in gastric cancer cells. The effects of anti-CHRNB2 Abs on the proliferation of cancer cells were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We determined the effects of Chrnb2 deficiency on mice and the clinical significance of CHRNB2 expression in gastric cancer clinical specimens. Knockdown of CHRNB2 attenuated gastric cancer cell proliferation, whereas forced overexpression of CHRNB2 increased cell proliferation. Knockout of CHRNB2 significantly influenced cell survival and functions associated with metastasis. The effects of polyclonal Abs targeting the C- and N-termini of CHRNB2 guided the development of anti-CHRNB2 monoclonal Abs that inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Pathway analysis revealed that CHRNB2 interfered with signaling through the PI3K-AKT and JAK-STAT pathways. Chrnb2-deficient mice exhibited normal reproduction, organ functions, and motor functions. CHRNB2 regulates multiple oncological phenotypes associated with metastasis, and blockade of CHRNB2 expression using specific Abs shows promise for controlling metastasis in gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01945-9DOI Listing
July 2021

The hot cross bun sign in corticobasal degeneration.

Neuropathology 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Neuropathology, Institute for Medical Science of Aging, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Japan.

The hot cross bun (HCB) sign encompasses a cross-shaped hyperintensity area in the pons on axial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The HCB sign is characteristic of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and has occasionally been observed in other neurological disorders. Here, we report an autopsied case of corticobasal degeneration (CBD) that showed the HCB sign. A female patient presented with progressive gait disturbance and cognitive impairment at the age of 60 years. A neurological examination revealed dysarthria, muscle rigidity of the limbs, akinesia, truncal ataxia, urinary incontinence, and dementia. The HCB sign was observed on a brain MRI at the age of 65 years, and a clinical diagnosis of possible MSA was made. She died of pneumonia at the age of 67 years. A postmortem observation, provided neuropathological findings characteristic of CBD, including the presence of astrocytic plaques, pretangles, neuropil threads, and ballooned neurons in association with four-repeat-tau aggregation. Interestingly, the pons displayed severe neuronal loss and astrogliosis that were prominent in the pontine and raphe nuclei. Myelin sheath depletion was prominent in the transverse fibers of the pontine base and the myelinated fibers of the pontine tegmentum in contrast to relative sparing of the pontine corticospinal tract and medial lemniscus. The cerebellar dentate nucleus exhibited neuronal loss and grumose degeneration. Western blot analysis of sarkosyl-insoluble fractions from brain tissue lysates using an anti-phosphorylated tau antibody identified immunoreactive signal bands in approximately 37-40, 43, 64, and 68 kDa, consistent with CBD. Genetic analysis did not reveal any known pathogenic mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT). Our case was characterized by the HCB sign and concordant neuropathological changes in the pons. CBD should be considered an underlying pathology of the HCB sign, even though the pontocerebellar changes would be unusual in CBD cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/neup.12745DOI Listing
July 2021

Multiple system atrophy variant with severe hippocampal pathology.

Brain Pathol 2021 Jul 13:e13002. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Neuropathology, Institute for Medical Science of Aging, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Japan.

The striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar systems are known to be vulnerable in multiple system atrophy (MSA), showing neuronal loss, astrogliosis, and alpha-synuclein-immunoreactive inclusions. MSA patients who displayed abundant neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) in the regions other than the striatonigral or olivopontocerebellar system have occasionally been diagnosed with variants of MSA. In this study, we report clinical and pathologic findings of MSA patients characterized by prominent pathologic involvement of the hippocampus. We assessed 146 consecutively autopsied MSA patients. Semi-quantitative analysis of anti-alpha-synuclein immunohistochemistry revealed that 12 of 146 patients (8.2%) had severe NCIs in two or more of the following areas: the hippocampal granule cells, cornu ammonis areas, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdala. In contrast, the remaining 134 patients did not show severe NCIs in any of these regions. Patients with severe hippocampal involvement showed a higher representation of women (nine women/three men; Fisher's exact test, p = 0.0324), longer disease duration (13.1 ± 5.9 years; Mann-Whitney U-test, p = 0.000157), higher prevalence of cognitive impairment (four patients; Fisher's exact test, p = 0.0222), and lower brain weight (1070.3 ± 168.6 g; Mann-Whitney U-test, p = 0.00911) than other patients. The hippocampal granule cells and cornu ammonis area 1/subiculum almost always showed severe NCIs. The NCIs appeared to be ring-shaped or neurofibrillary tangle-like, fibrous configurations. Three of 12 patients also had dense, round-shaped NCIs that were morphologically similar to pick bodies. The patients with Pick body-like inclusions showed more severe atrophy of the medial temporal lobes and broader spreading of NCIs than those without. Immunohistochemistry for hyperphosphorylated tau and phosphorylated TDP-43 revealed minimal aggregations in the hippocampus of the hippocampal MSA patients. Our observations suggest a pathological variant of MSA that is characterized by severe involvement of hippocampal neurons. This phenotype may reinforce the importance of neuronal alpha-synucleinopathy in the pathogenesis of MSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.13002DOI Listing
July 2021

Emerging infectious diseases, vaccines and Guillain-Barré syndrome.

Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Neurology Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine Nagoya Japan.

The recent outbreak of Zika virus infection increased the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Following the first reported case of GBS after Zika virus infection in 2013, there has been a considerable increase in the incidence of GBS in endemic countries, such as French Polynesia and Latin American countries. The association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and GBS is another emerging research hotspot. Electrophysiological studies have suggested that GBS patients associated with Zika virus infection or COVID-19 tend to manifest acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, rather than acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN). Causative autoantibodies, such as anti-ganglioside antibodies in AMAN associated with infection, have not been identified in GBS associated with these emerging infectious diseases. Nevertheless, recent studies suggested molecular mimicry between these viruses and human proteins related to GBS. Recent studies have shown the efficacy of new vaccines, containing artificial messenger RNA encoding the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, against. These vaccines are now available in many countries and massive vaccination campaigns are currently ongoing. Although there are long-standing concerns about the increased risk of GBS after inoculation of conventional vaccines, the risk of GBS is not considered a legitimate reason to limit administration of currently available vaccines, because the benefits outweigh the risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen3.12644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8250889PMC
May 2021

Randomized phase 2 study of perampanel for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

J Neurol 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Central Coordinating Unit, Clinical Research Support Center, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of perampanel in patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS).

Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, phase 2 clinical study was conducted at 12 sites. Patients with probable or definite ALS as defined by revised El Escorial criteria were enrolled. Sixty-six patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive placebo, 4 mg perampanel, or 8 mg perampanel daily for 48 weeks. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the trial period. The primary efficacy outcome was the change in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) score after 48 weeks of treatment.

Results: One patient withdrew before starting the treatment. Of 65 patients included, 18 of 22 patients randomized to placebo (82%), 14 of 22 patients randomized to 4 mg perampanel (64%), and 7 of 21 patients randomized to 8 mg perampanel (33%) completed the trial. There was a significant difference in the change of ALSFRS-R scores [- 8.4 (95% CI - 13.9 to - 2.9); p = 0.015] between the placebo and the perampanel 8 mg group, primarily due to worsening of the bulbar subscore in the perampanel 8 mg group. Serious AEs were more frequent in the perampanel 8 mg group than in the placebo group (p = 0.0483).

Conclusions: Perampanel was associated with a significant decline in ALSFRS-R score and was linked to worsening of the bulbar subscore in the 8 mg group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10670-yDOI Listing
June 2021

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Successfully Treated with Aripiprazole in a Patient with Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms Including Irritability.

Intern Med 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Neurology, National Hospital Organization Suzuka Hospital, Japan.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, and patients often present with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We herein report a case of DMD accompanied by ASD that was successfully treated with aripiprazole, an atypical antipsychotic that has been used for treating irritability in child and early adolescent patients with ASD. The patient was diagnosed as having DMD at 3 years of age. Although he developed severe psychotic symptoms including irritability, insomnia, hallucinations, and delusions at 17 years of age, all the symptoms were successfully treated with aripiprazole without any detectable side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.7248-21DOI Listing
June 2021

DNA damage in embryonic neural stem cell determines FTLDs' fate via early-stage neuronal necrosis.

Life Sci Alliance 2021 07 15;4(7). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neuropathology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan

The early-stage pathologies of frontotemporal lobal degeneration (FTLD) remain largely unknown. In VCP-KI mice carrying VCP gene mutation linked to FTLD, insufficient DNA damage repair in neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) activated DNA-PK and CDK1 that disabled MCM3 essential for the G1/S cell cycle transition. Abnormal neural exit produced neurons carrying over unrepaired DNA damage and induced early-stage transcriptional repression-induced atypical cell death (TRIAD) necrosis accompanied by the specific markers pSer46-MARCKS and YAP. In utero gene therapy expressing normal VCP or non-phosphorylated mutant MCM3 rescued DNA damage, neuronal necrosis, cognitive function, and TDP43 aggregation in adult neurons of VCP-KI mice, whereas similar therapy in adulthood was less effective. The similar early-stage neuronal necrosis was detected in PGRN-KI, CHMP2B-KI, and TDP-KI mice, and blocked by embryonic treatment with AAV-non-phospho-MCM3. Moreover, YAP-dependent necrosis occurred in neurons of human FTLD patients, and consistently pSer46-MARCKS was increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of these patients. Collectively, developmental stress followed by early-stage neuronal necrosis is a potential target for therapeutics and one of the earliest general biomarkers for FTLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26508/lsa.202101022DOI Listing
July 2021

Emerging Infection, Vaccination, and Guillain-Barré Syndrome: A Review.

Neurol Ther 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disorder of the peripheral nervous system that typically develops within 4 weeks after infection. In addition to conventional infectious diseases with which we are familiar, emerging infectious diseases, such as Zika virus infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), have also been suggested to be associated with GBS. GBS is mainly categorized into a demyelinating subtype known as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and an axonal subtype known as acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN). Most patients who develop GBS after Zika virus infection or COVID-19 have AIDP. The concept of molecular mimicry between pathogens and human peripheral nerve components was established through studies of AMAN with anti-ganglioside GM1 antibodies occurring after Campylobacter jejuni infection. Although such mimicry between specific pathogens and myelin or Schwann cell components has not been clearly demonstrated in AIDP, a similarity of Zika virus and SARS-CoV-2 proteins to human proteins has been suggested. With the development of global commerce and travel, emerging infectious diseases will continue to threaten public health. From this viewpoint, the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs is important to prepare for and control emerging infectious diseases. Although a decrease in the number of patients after the 2015-2016 Zika epidemic increased the difficulty in conducting phase 3 trials for Zika virus vaccines, the efficacy and safety of new vaccines have recently been demonstrated for COVID-19. In general, vaccines can decrease the risk of infectious disease by stimulating the immune system, and discussions regarding an increased risk of autoimmune disorders, such as GBS, have been ongoing for many years. However, the risk of GBS is not considered a legitimate reason to limit the administration of currently available vaccines, as only a trivial association or no association with GBS has been demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40120-021-00261-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196284PMC
June 2021

Multidisciplinary Approaches for Transthyretin Amyloidosis.

Cardiol Ther 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Amyloidosis caused by systemic deposition of transthyretin (TTR) is called ATTR amyloidosis and mainly includes hereditary ATTR (ATTRv) amyloidosis and wild-type ATTR (ATTRwt) amyloidosis. Until recently, ATTRv amyloidosis had been considered a disease in the field of neurology because neuropathic symptoms predominated in patients described in early reports, whereas advances in diagnostic techniques and increased recognition of this disease revealed the presence of patients with cardiomyopathy as a predominant feature. In contrast, ATTRwt amyloidosis has been considered a disease in the field of cardiology. However, recent studies have suggested that some of the patients with ATTRwt amyloidosis present tenosynovial tissue complications, particularly carpal tunnel syndrome, as an initial manifestation of amyloidosis, necessitating an awareness of this disease among neurologists and orthopedists. Although histopathological confirmation of amyloid deposits has traditionally been considered mandatory for the diagnosis of ATTR amyloidosis, the development of noninvasive imaging techniques in the field of cardiology, such as echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear imaging, enabled nonbiopsy diagnosis of this disease. The mechanisms underlying characteristic cardiac imaging findings have been deciphered by histopathological studies. Novel disease-modifying therapies for ATTR amyloidosis, such as TTR stabilizers, short interfering RNA, and antisense oligonucleotides, were initially approved for ATTRv amyloidosis patients with polyneuropathy. However, the indications for the use of these disease-modifying therapies gradually widened to include ATTRv and ATTRwt amyloidosis patients with cardiomyopathy. Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, occurred, the minimization of hospital visits and telemedicine have become increasingly important. As older age and cardiovascular disease are major factors associated with increased disease severity and mortality of COVID-19, many ATTR amyloidosis patients are at increased risk of disease aggravation when they are infected with SARS-CoV-2. From this viewpoint, close interspecialty communication to determine the optimal interval of evaluation is needed for the management of patients with ATTR amyloidosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40119-021-00222-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8177037PMC
June 2021

Macrophages and Autoantibodies in Demyelinating Diseases.

Cells 2021 Apr 8;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.

Myelin phagocytosis by macrophages has been an essential feature of demyelinating diseases in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and multiple sclerosis (MS). The discovery of autoantibodies, including anti-ganglioside GM1 antibodies in the axonal form of GBS, anti-neurofascin 155 and anti-contactin 1 antibodies in typical and distal forms of CIDP, and anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies in neuromyelitis optica, contributed to the understanding of the disease process in a subpopulation of patients conventionally diagnosed with demyelinating diseases. However, patients with these antibodies are now considered to have independent disease entities, including acute motor axonal neuropathy, nodopathy or paranodopathy, and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, because primary lesions in these diseases are distinct from those in conventional demyelinating diseases. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying demyelination caused by macrophages remain unclear. Electron microscopy studies revealed that macrophages destroy myelin as if they are the principal players in the demyelination process. Recent studies suggest that macrophages seem to select specific sites of myelinated fibers, including the nodes of Ranvier, paranodes, and internodes, for the initiation of demyelination in individual cases, indicating that specific components localized to these sites play an important role in the behavior of macrophages that initiate myelin phagocytosis. Along with the search for autoantibodies, the ultrastructural characterization of myelin phagocytosis by macrophages is a crucial step in understanding the pathophysiology of demyelinating diseases and for the future development of targeted therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10040844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068327PMC
April 2021

Pathway from TDP-43-Related Pathology to Neuronal Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 8;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology, Nagoya University, Nagoya 744-8550, Japan.

Transactivation response DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) is known to be a pathologic protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). TDP-43 is normally a nuclear protein, but affected neurons of ALS or FTLD patients exhibit mislocalization of nuclear TDP-43 and cytoplasmic inclusions. Basic studies have suggested gain-of-neurotoxicity of aggregated TDP-43 or loss-of-function of intrinsic, nuclear TDP-43. It has also been hypothesized that the aggregated TDP-43 functions as a propagation seed of TDP-43 pathology. However, a mechanistic discrepancy between the TDP-43 pathology and neuronal dysfunctions remains. This article aims to review the observations of TDP-43 pathology in autopsied ALS and FTLD patients and address pathways of neuronal dysfunction related to the neuropathological findings, focusing on impaired clearance of TDP-43 and synaptic alterations in TDP-43-related ALS and FTLD. The former may be relevant to intraneuronal aggregation of TDP-43 and exocytosis of propagation seeds, whereas the latter may be related to neuronal dysfunction induced by TDP-43 pathology. Successful strategies of disease-modifying therapy might arise from further investigation of these subcellular alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068029PMC
April 2021

Clinicoradiological features in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with olfactory dysfunction.

Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 2021 05;22(3-4):260-266

Brain and Mind Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor neuron involvement. Although olfactory dysfunction has been described in ALS, clinicoradiological features associated with the olfactory dysfunction remain poorly understood. : We enrolled 30 patients with ALS and age- and sex-matched 53 healthy controls (HCs). All participants underwent the odor stick identification test for Japanese (OSIT-J) and clinical assessments, including disease duration, ALSFRS-R, site of onset, forced vital capacity, and cognitive examinations that reflected the general, executive, memory and language function. We investigated the associations between OSIT-J score and clinical features and examined atrophic changes by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis to MRI. : The OSIT-J score was significantly lower in ALS patients than HCs (6.9 ± 3.2 vs. 9.8 ± 1.9, p < 0.001). In ALS, there were significant relationships between OSIT-J score and age at examination, frontal assessment battery, word fluencies, digit span forward, and ADAS-Jcog recognition, but not education, disease type, duration, ALSFRS-R and, %VC. Multiple regression analysis with stepwise method showed the only ADAS-Jcog recognition substantially predicted OSIT-J score. VBM analysis with age, sex, total intracranial volume, and ADAS-Jcog recognition as covariates showed OSIT-J scores were substantially correlated with atrophic changes of left orbital cortex consisting of gyrus rectus and medial orbital gyrus and right hippocampus in ALS. : ALS patients could show substantial olfactory dysfunction in association with orbital cortex and hippocampus involvements. The olfactory examination could be a useful marker for screening of frontotemporal alteration in ALS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21678421.2020.1859544DOI Listing
May 2021

Association between neurosarcoidosis with autonomic dysfunction and anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies.

J Neurol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Molecular Neurology and Therapeutics, Kumamoto University Hospital, 1-1-1, Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8556, Japan.

Objective: To determine whether autonomic dysfunction in neurosarcoidosis is associated with anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (gAChR) antibodies, which are detected in autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy.

Methods: We retrospectively extracted cases of sarcoidosis from 1787 serum samples of 1,381 patients between 2012 and 2018. Anti-gAChR antibodies against the α3 and β4 subunit were measured by luciferase immunoprecipitation to confirm the clinical features of each case. We summarized literature reviews of neurosarcoidosis with severe dysautonomia to identify relevant clinical features and outcomes.

Results: We extracted three new cases of neurosarcoidosis with severe dysautonomia, among which two were positive for anti-gAChR antibodies: Case 1 was positive for antibodies against the β4 subunit, and Case 2 was positive for antibodies against both the α3 and β4 subunits. We reviewed the cases of 15 patients with neurosarcoidosis and severe dysautonomia, including the three cases presented herein. Orthostatic hypotension and orthostatic intolerance were the most common symptoms. Among the various types of neuropathy, small fiber neuropathy (SFN) was the most prevalent, with seven of nine cases exhibiting definite SFN. Six of eight cases had impaired postganglionic fibers, of which the present three cases revealed abnormality of I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. Of the 11 cases, 10 were responsive to immunotherapy, except one seropositive case (Case 2).

Conclusions: The presence of gAChR antibodies may constitute one of the mechanisms by which dysautonomia arises in neurosarcoidosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10551-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Association of serum neurofilament light chain levels with clinicopathology of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, including NF155 reactive patients.

J Neurol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

Objectives: To clarify whether serum neurofilament light chains (NfLs) serve as a biomarker of axonal damage in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), especially in patients with anti-neurofascin 155 (NF155) antibodies.

Methods: The Simoa system was used to examine serum NfL levels from 58 patients with CIDP, including 13 anti-NF155 antibody-positive patients, and from 14 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Serum NfL levels were evaluated before and after treatment in eight patients with anti-NF155 antibodies. Clinical features, electrophysiological findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein levels, were evaluated. The pathological features of sural nerves from 40 patients were also examined.

Results: Serum NfL levels were significantly higher in patients with CIDP than in healthy individuals (median 29.63 vs. 7.71 pg/mL, p < 0.001) and were correlated with both modified Rankin Scale scores (r = 0.584, p < 0.001) and CSF protein levels (r = 0.432, p = 0.001). The NfL levels of anti-NF155 antibody-positive patients were higher than those of antibody-negative patients (p = 0.005). Serum NfL levels were negatively correlated with compound muscle action potential amplitudes of the tibial nerves (r =  - 0.404, p = 0.004) and positively correlated with the degree of active axonal degeneration in the pathological findings (r = 0.485, p = 0.001). In the antibody-positive group, NfL levels and antibody titers decreased after treatment in all examined patients.

Conclusion: Serum NfL correlated with pathological indices of axonal degeneration, and may serve as a biomarker that reflects active axonal damage of CIDP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10537-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Selective suppression of polyglutamine-expanded protein by lipid nanoparticle-delivered siRNA targeting CAG expansions in the mouse CNS.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Jun 15;24:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Syowa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan.

Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are inherited neurodegenerative disorders caused by expansion of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG)-trinucleotide repeats in causative genes. These diseases include spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), Huntington's disease, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, and spinocerebellar ataxias. Targeting expanded CAG repeats is a common therapeutic approach to polyQ diseases, but concomitant silencing of genes with normal CAG repeats may lead to toxicity. Previous studies have shown that CAG repeat-targeting small interfering RNA duplexes (CAG-siRNAs) have the potential to selectively suppress mutant proteins in cell models of polyQ diseases. However, application of these siRNAs has not yet been investigated. In this study, we demonstrate that an unlocked nucleic acid (UNA)-modified CAG-siRNA shows high selectivity for polyQ-expanded androgen receptor (AR) inhibition in cell models and that lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-mediated delivery of the CAG-siRNA selectively suppresses mutant AR in the central nervous system of an SBMA mouse model. In addition, a subcutaneous injection of the LNP-delivered CAG-siRNA efficiently suppresses mutant AR in the skeletal muscle of the SBMA mouse model. These results support the therapeutic potential of LNP-delivered UNA-modified CAG-siRNAs for selective suppression of mutant proteins in SBMA and other polyQ diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.02.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937577PMC
June 2021

Ratio of urinary N-terminal titin fragment to urinary creatinine is a novel biomarker for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan

Objective: We aimed to investigate the validity of urinary N-terminal titin fragment as a biomarker for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Methods: We consecutively enrolled patients with ALS (n=70) and healthy controls (HC) (n=43). We assessed the urinary titin N-terminal fragment, urinary neurotrophin receptor p75 extracellular domain, serum neurofilament light chain (NfL), motor functional measurements and prognosis. We used urinary creatinine (Cr) levels to normalise the urinary levels of titin fragment.

Results: Compared with HC, patients with ALS had significantly increased urinary levels of titin N-terminal fragment normalised with Cr (titin/Cr) (ALS, 27.2 pmol/mg/dL; HC, 5.8 pmol/mg/dL; p<0.001), which were correlated with the scores of the Revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (=-0.422, p<0.001). A Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated that the high urinary level of titin/Cr was a survival predictor in patients with ALS. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors showed that the urinary titin/Cr and serum NfL were independent factors for poor prognosis.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that urinary N-terminal titin fragment is a non-invasive measure of muscle damage in ALS, which could be applied in disease monitoring and prediction of disease progression, in combination with serum NfL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2020-324615DOI Listing
March 2021

Case Report: Severe Osteoporosis and Preventive Therapy in RNA Polymerase III-Related Leukodystrophy.

Front Neurol 2021 26;12:622355. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Neurology, Toyota Memorial Hospital, Toyota, Japan.

RNA polymerase III (POLR3)-related leukodystrophy is an autosomal recessive form of leukodystrophy caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations of the RNA polymerase III subunit genes, including subunit A (). With respect to the manifestation triad, hypomyelination, hypodontia, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, it is also known as 4H leukodystrophy. Here, we report a 41-year-old woman of POLR3-related leukodystrophy by carrying compound heterozygous pathogenic variants of c.2554A>G (p.M852V) and c.2668G>T (p.V890F) in the gene. She was amenorrheic and became a wheelchair user from the age of 15 years and suffered from multiple episodes of pathologic fractures, starting with a subtrochanteric fracture of the right femur after a tonic seizure at age 30 years. Head magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated hypomyelination and atrophies of the cerebellum, brainstem, and corpus callosum. Laboratory examination revealed a marked decrease of gonadotropins and estrogen, low bone density, and high bone resorption markers. Administration of anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand monoclonal antibody restored bone resorption markers to a normal level and prevented further pathological bone fractures. Our case emphasizes that osteoporosis should be recognized as a potential but serious complication in POLR3-related leukodystrophy. It may be feasible to prevent pathologic fractures by intensive osteoporosis therapy after endocrinological examinations and evaluation of bone metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.622355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952608PMC
February 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Bimagrumab in Sporadic Inclusion Body Myositis: Long-term Extension of RESILIENT.

Neurology 2021 03 17;96(12):e1595-e1607. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

From the Department of Neurology (A.A.A.), Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases (M.G.H., P.M.M.) and Institute of Neurology, Department of Neuromuscular Diseases & Centre for Rheumatology (P.M.M.), University College London; Department of Rheumatology & Queen Square Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases (P.M.M.), University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust; Department of Rheumatology (P.M.M.), Northwick Park Hospital, London North West University Healthcare NHS Trust, UK; Department of Neurology (U.A.B.), Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands; National Institute for Health Research Manchester Biomedical Research Centre (H.C.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, UK; Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology (O.B.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France; Novartis Healthcare Pvt. Ltd. (K.A.K), Hyderabad, India; Novartis Pharmaceuticals (M.W., D.A.P.), East Hanover, NJ; Novartis Pharma AG (L.B.T., A.A.S-T.), Basel, Switzerland; Department of Neurology (T.E.L.), The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; Institute for Immunology & Infectious Diseases (M.N.), Fiona Stanley Hospital, Murdoch University and Notre Dame University, Perth; Department of Neurology (C.L.), Royal North Shore Hospital, New South Wales; Calvary Health Care Bethlehem (K.A.R.), Caulfield South, Australia; Department of Neurology (M.d.V), Amsterdam University Medical Centre, the Netherlands; Department of Medicine (D.P.A.), University of Miami, FL; Department of Neurology (R.J.B., M.M.D.), University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City; Department of Neurology (J.A.L.M.), Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK; Department of Neurology (J.T.K.), The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus; Neuromuscular Research Center (B.O., N.C.J.), UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA; Department of Neurology (P.V.d.B.), University Hospital Saint-Luc, University of Louvain, Brussels; Neuromuscular Reference Centre, Department of Neurology (J.B.), Antwerp University Hospital; Institute Born-Bunge (J.B.), University of Antwerp; Department of Neurology (J.L.d.B.), Ghent University Hospital, Belgium; Department of Neurology (C.K.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; Department of Neurology (W.S.D.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Neuromuscular Diagnostic Center and Electromyography Laboratory, Boston; Department of Neurology (M.M.), Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (M.M.), Rome, Italy; Department of Neurology (S.P.N.), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas; Department of Neurology (H.H.J.), University Hospital and University of Zurich, Switzerland; Department of Neurosciences (E.P.), University of Padova School of Medicine; Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta (L.M.), Milan; Unit of Neurology and Neuromuscular Disorders (C.R.), Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Policlinico G Martino, University of Messina; Center for Neuromuscular Diseases (M.F.), Unit of Neurology, ASST Spedali Civili and University of Brescia, Italy; Nerve and Muscle Center of Texas (A.I.S.), Houston; Neuromuscular Research Center (K.S.), Phoenix, AZ; Department of Neurology (N.A.G.), ALS & Neuromuscular Center, University of California Irvine, Orange; Department of Neurology (M.M.-Y.), National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo; Department of Neurology (S.Y.), Kumamoto University Hospital; Department of Neurology (N.S.), Tohoku University Hospital, Miyagi; Department of Neurology (M.A.), Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Nagoya University Hospital, Aichi; Department of Neurology (H.M.), Osaka City General Hospital; Wakayama Medical University Hospital (K.M.); Tokushima University Hospital (H.N.); Department of Neuromuscular Research (I.N.), National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan; RTI Health Solutions (C.D.R., V.S.L.W.), Research Triangle Park, NC; Copenhagen Neuromuscular Center (J.V.), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; and UCB (L.Z.A.), Bulle, Switzerland. H.N. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa, Japan. B.O. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Objective: To assess long-term (2 years) effects of bimagrumab in participants with sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM).

Methods: Participants (aged 36-85 years) who completed the core study (RESILIENT [Efficacy and Safety of Bimagrumab/BYM338 at 52 Weeks on Physical Function, Muscle Strength, Mobility in sIBM Patients]) were invited to join an extension study. Individuals continued on the same treatment as in the core study (10 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg bimagrumab or matching placebo administered as IV infusions every 4 weeks). The co-primary outcome measures were 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and safety.

Results: Between November 2015 and February 2017, 211 participants entered double-blind placebo-controlled period of the extension study. Mean change in 6MWD from baseline was highly variable across treatment groups, but indicated progressive deterioration from weeks 24-104 in all treatment groups. Overall, 91.0% (n = 142) of participants in the pooled bimagrumab group and 89.1% (n = 49) in the placebo group had ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse event (AE). Falls were slightly higher in the bimagrumab 3 mg/kg group vs 10 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, and placebo groups (69.2% [n = 36 of 52] vs 56.6% [n = 30 of 53], 58.8% [n = 30 of 51], and 61.8% [n = 34 of 55], respectively). The most frequently reported AEs in the pooled bimagrumab group were diarrhea 14.7% (n = 23), involuntary muscle contractions 9.6% (n = 15), and rash 5.1% (n = 8). Incidence of serious AEs was comparable between the pooled bimagrumab and the placebo group (18.6% [n = 29] vs 14.5% [n = 8], respectively).

Conclusion: Extended treatment with bimagrumab up to 2 years produced a good safety profile and was well-tolerated, but did not provide clinical benefits in terms of improvement in mobility. The extension study was terminated early due to core study not meeting its primary endpoint.

Clinical Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02573467.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with sIBM, long-term treatment with bimagrumab was safe, well-tolerated, and did not provide meaningful functional benefit. The study is rated Class IV because of the open-label design of extension treatment period 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011626DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8032371PMC
March 2021

Two distinct mechanisms of neuropathy in immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Feb 2;421:117305. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Although polyneuropathy in patients with immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis has been considered to be attributable to axonal degeneration resulting from amyloid deposition, patients with nerve conduction parameters indicating demyelination that mimics chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) have also been reported anecdotally.

Methods: We evaluated the electrophysiological and pathological features of 8 consecutive patients with AL amyloidosis who were referred for sural nerve biopsy.

Results: Although findings of axonal neuropathy predominantly in the lower limbs were the cardinal feature, all patients showed one or more abnormalities of nerve conduction velocities or distal motor latencies. In particular, 2 of these patients fulfilled the definite electrophysiological for CIDP defined by the European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society (EFNS/PNS). On electron microscopic examination of sural nerve biopsy specimens, Schwann cells apposed to amyloid fibrils became atrophic in all patients, suggesting that amyloid deposits directly affect neighboring tissues. Additionally, detachment of the neurilemma from the outermost compacted myelin lamella was seen where amyloid fibrils were absent in 4 patients. Electrophysiological findings suggestive of demyelination were more conspicuous in these patients compared with the other patients. The detachment of the neurilemma from the outermost compacted myelin lamella was particularly conspicuous in patients who fulfilled the definite EFNS/PNS electrophysiological criteria for CIDP.

Conclusion: Abnormalities of myelinated fibers unrelated to amyloid deposition may frequently occur in AL amyloidosis. Disjunction between myelin and the neurilemma may induce nerve conduction abnormalities suggestive of demyelination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.117305DOI Listing
February 2021

Impaired pain processing and its association with attention disturbance in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jan 4. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

Background: Cognitive dysfunction characterized by executive dysfunction and persistent attention function has been reported in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, it is unclear if this contributes to the pain processing deficits associated with the disease.

Objective: We clarified the relationship between pain processing and both cognitive function and sensory symptoms in patients with ALS.

Methods: We enrolled 23 patients with ALS and 14 healthy control subjects. We examined pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) using an intra-epidermal needle electrode. We evaluated cognitive function and the clinical characteristics of sensation and analyzed their relationships with pain-related SEPs.

Results: Pain-related SEP amplitudes were significantly lower, while the rate of amplitude attenuation due to habituation or change in attention was significantly greater in patients with ALS than in control subjects. There were no significant differences in pain-related SEP parameters between patients with or without sensory symptoms. Instead, pain-related SEP amplitude and its rate of attenuation were correlated with cognitive dysfunction, particularly with attention domains.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that attention deficit, but not sensory nerve involvement, is a major cause of the alterations in pain-related SEP in patients with ALS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-05028-7DOI Listing
January 2021

The wide-ranging clinical and genetic features in Japanese families with valosin-containing protein proteinopathy.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 04 14;100:120.e1-120.e6. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan. Electronic address:

Mutations in the valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene are known to cause various neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report 8 Japanese patients [6 men, 2 women; median age at onset: 49.5 (range, 35-58) years] from 5 unrelated families with VCP missense mutations. Although 7 of 8 patients were diagnosed with either inclusion body myopathy or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 1 patient showed demyelinating polyneuropathy, which was confirmed by longitudinal nerve conduction studies. Sural nerve biopsy of the patient revealed intranuclear ubiquitin staining in Schwann cells. Three known pathogenic VCP mutations (p.Arg191Gln, p.Arg155Cys, and p.Ile126Phe) were detected. A novel mutation, c.293 A>T (p.Asp98Val), was also identified in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. This mutation was predicted to be "deleterious" or "disease causing" using in silico mutation analyses. In conclusion, demyelinating polyneuropathy may be a novel phenotype caused by VCP mutations. The p.Asp98Val mutation was found to be a novel pathogenic mutation of VCP proteinopathy. We believe our cases represent a wide clinical spectrum of VCP mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2020.10.028DOI Listing
April 2021

Short-Chain Fatty Acid-Producing Gut Microbiota Is Decreased in Parkinson's Disease but Not in Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder.

mSystems 2020 Dec 8;5(6). Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Division of Neurogenetics, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan

Gut dysbiosis has been repeatedly reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) but only once in idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) from Germany. Abnormal aggregation of α-synuclein fibrils causing PD possibly starts from the intestine, although this is still currently under debate. iRBD patients frequently develop PD. Early-stage gut dysbiosis that is causally associated with PD is thus expected to be observed in iRBD. We analyzed gut microbiota in 26 iRBD patients and 137 controls by 16S rRNA sequencing (16S rRNA-seq). Our iRBD data set was meta-analyzed with the German iRBD data set and was compared with gut microbiota in 223 PD patients. Unsupervised clustering of gut microbiota by LIGER, a topic model-based tool for single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis, revealed four enterotypes in controls, iRBD, and PD. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria were conserved in an enterotype observed in controls and iRBD, whereas they were less conserved in enterotypes observed in PD. Genus and family were consistently increased in both iRBD in two countries and PD in five countries. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria were not significantly decreased in iRBD in two countries. In contrast, we previously reported that recognized or putative SCFA-producing genera , , and were consistently decreased in PD in five countries. In α-synucleinopathy, increase of mucin-layer-degrading genus is observed at the stage of iRBD, whereas decrease of SCFA-producing genera becomes obvious with development of PD. Twenty studies on gut microbiota in PD have been reported, whereas only one study has been reported on iRBD from Germany. iRBD has the highest likelihood ratio to develop PD. Our meta-analysis of iRBD in Japan and Germany revealed increased mucin-layer-degrading genus in iRBD. Genus may increase the intestinal permeability, as we previously observed in PD patients, and may make the intestinal neural plexus exposed to oxidative stress, which can lead to abnormal aggregation of prion-like α-synuclein fibrils in the intestine. In contrast to PD, SCFA-producing bacteria were not decreased in iRBD. As SCFA induces regulatory T (Treg) cells, a decrease of SCFA-producing bacteria may be a prerequisite for the development of PD. We propose that prebiotic and/or probiotic therapeutic strategies to increase the intestinal mucin layer and to increase intestinal SCFA potentially retard the development of iRBD and PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00797-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7771407PMC
December 2020

Longitudinal analysis of premotor anthropometric and serological markers of Parkinson's disease.

Sci Rep 2020 11 25;10(1):20524. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder in which nonmotor symptoms, such as constipation and hyposmia, precede the onset of motor symptoms by 20 years. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers at the premotor stage of PD. We assessed the differences in longitudinal changes in anthropometric and serological indices obtained from health check-up data before and after the onset of motor symptoms between male and female PD patients and healthy subjects. We enrolled 22 male and 23 female PD patients and 60 male and 60 female healthy controls. A mixed-effects model was used to estimate the trajectory of each clinical marker over the years before and after motor symptoms onset in the PD subjects, which were then compared with the trajectories of the healthy controls. The results showed a premotor blood pressure increase in female PD patients and premotor decreases in haematocrit, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the male patients. Our results indicated that blood pressure, haematocrit and serum cholesterol levels are potential premotor markers of PD. Additionally, the changes in anthropometric and serological indices before PD motor symptoms onset were sex specific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77415-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688961PMC
November 2020

Aging Impacts the Overall Connectivity Strength of Regions Critical for Information Transfer Among Brain Networks.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 28;12:592469. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Brain and Mind Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.

Recent studies have demonstrated that connector hubs, regions considered critical for the flow of information across neural systems, are mostly involved in neurodegenerative dementia. Considering that aging can significantly affect the brain's intrinsic connectivity, identifying aging's impact on these regions' overall connection strength is important to differentiate changes associated with healthy aging from neurodegenerative disorders. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from a carefully selected cohort of 175 healthy volunteers aging from 21 to 86 years old, we computed an intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC) metric, which quantifies a region's overall connectivity strength, for whole brain, short-range, and long-range connections and examined age-related changes of this metric over the adult lifespan. We have identified a limited number of hub regions with ICC values that showed significant negative relationship with age. These include the medial precentral/midcingulate gyri and insula with both their short-range and long-range (and thus whole-brain) ICC values negatively associated with age, and the angular, middle frontal, and posterior cingulate gyri with their long-range ICC values mainly involved. Seed-based connectivity analyses further confirmed that these regions are connector hubs with connectivity profile that strongly overlapped with multiple large-scale brain networks. General cognitive performance was not associated with these hubs' ICC values. These findings suggest that even healthy aging could negatively impact the efficiency of regions critical for facilitating information transfer among different functional brain networks. The extent of the regions involved, however, was limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.592469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7655963PMC
October 2020

Effects of Head Motion on the Evaluation of Age-related Brain Network Changes Using Resting State Functional MRI.

Magn Reson Med Sci 2020 Oct 27. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Brain & Mind Research Center, Nagoya University.

Purpose: The estimation of functional connectivity (FC) measures using resting state functional MRI (fMRI) is often affected by head motion during functional imaging scans. Head motion is more common in the elderly than in young participants and could therefore affect the evaluation of age-related changes in brain networks. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the influence of head motion in FC estimation when evaluating age-related changes in brain networks.

Methods: This study involved 132 healthy volunteers divided into 3 groups: elderly participants with high motion (OldHM, mean age (±SD) = 69.6 (±5.31), N = 44), elderly participants with low motion (OldLM, mean age (±SD) = 68.7 (±4.59), N = 43), and young adult participants with low motion (YugLM, mean age (±SD) = 27.6 (±5.26), N = 45). Head motion was quantified using the mean of the framewise displacement of resting state fMRI data. After preprocessing all resting state fMRI datasets, several resting state networks (RSNs) were extracted using independent component analysis (ICA). In addition, several network metrics were also calculated using network analysis. These FC measures were then compared among the 3 groups.

Results: In ICA, the number of voxels with significant differences in RSNs was higher in YugLM vs. OldLM comparison than in YugLM vs. OldHM. In network analysis, all network metrics showed significant (P < 0.05) differences in comparisons involving low vs. high motion groups (OldHM vs. OldLM and OldHM vs. YugLM). However, there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in the comparison involving the low motion groups (OldLM vs. YugLM).

Conclusion: Our findings showed that head motion during functional imaging could significantly affect the evaluation of age-related brain network changes using resting state fMRI data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2463/mrms.mp.2020-0081DOI Listing
October 2020

Association Between IL-5 Levels and the Clinicopathologic Features of Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis.

Neurology 2021 02 27;96(5):226-229. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

From the Department of Neurology (R.N., H.K., K.O., Y.F., M.I., M.K.), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (K.O.), Okazaki City Hospital; and Research Division of Dementia and Neurodegenerative Disease (G.S.), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011142DOI Listing
February 2021

Aggresome formation and liquid-liquid phase separation independently induce cytoplasmic aggregation of TAR DNA-binding protein 43.

Cell Death Dis 2020 10 23;11(10):909. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Neuroscience and Pathobiology, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601, Japan.

Cytoplasmic inclusion of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Recent studies have suggested that the formation of cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregates is dependent on a liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) mechanism. However, it is unclear whether TDP-43 pathology is induced through a single intracellular mechanism such as LLPS. To identify intracellular mechanisms responsible for TDP-43 aggregation, we established a TDP-43 aggregation screening system using a cultured neuronal cell line stably expressing EGFP-fused TDP-43 and a mammalian expression library of the inherited ALS/FTLD causative genes, and performed a screening. We found that microtubule-related proteins (MRPs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) co-aggregated with TDP-43. MRPs and RBPs sequestered TDP-43 into the cytoplasmic aggregates through distinct mechanisms, such as microtubules and LLPS, respectively. The MRPs-induced TDP-43 aggregates were co-localized with aggresomal markers and dependent on histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), suggesting that aggresome formation induced the co-aggregation. However, the MRPs-induced aggregates were not affected by 1,6-hexanediol, an LLPS inhibitor. On the other hand, the RBPs-induced TDP-43 aggregates were sensitive to 1,6-hexanediol, but not dependent on microtubules or HDAC6. In sporadic ALS patients, approximately half of skein-like TDP-43 inclusions were co-localized with HDAC6, but round and granular type inclusion were not. Moreover, HDAC6-positive and HDAC6-negative inclusions were found in the same ALS patient, suggesting that the two distinct pathways are both involved in TDP-43 pathology. Our findings suggest that at least two distinct pathways (i.e., aggresome formation and LLPS) are involved in inducing the TDP-43 pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03116-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585435PMC
October 2020

The neural network basis of altered decision-making in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2020 11 22;7(11):2115-2126. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Brain and Mind Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.

Objective: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a multisystem disorder associated with motor impairment and behavioral/cognitive involvement. We examined decision-making features and changes in the neural hub network in patients with ALS using a probabilistic reversal learning task and resting-state network analysis, respectively.

Methods: Ninety ALS patients and 127 cognitively normal participants performed this task. Data from 62 ALS patients and 63 control participants were fitted to a Q-learning model.

Results: ALS patients had anomalous decision-making features with little shift in choice until they thought the value of the two alternatives had become equal. The quantified parameters (Pαβ) calculated by logistic regression analysis with learning rate and inverse temperature well represented the unique choice pattern of ALS patients. Resting-state network analysis demonstrated a strong correlation between Pαβ and decreased degree centrality in the anterior cingulate gyrus and frontal pole.

Interpretation: Altered decision-making in ALS patients may be related to the decreased hub function of medial prefrontal areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664284PMC
November 2020

Severe myasthenia gravis with anti-LRP4 antibodies and Hodgkin lymphoma.

Muscle Nerve 2021 01 26;63(1):E2-E4. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.27079DOI Listing
January 2021

A multi-ethnic meta-analysis identifies novel genes, including ACSL5, associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Commun Biol 2020 09 23;3(1):526. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Division of Neurology, National Hospital Organization, Sagamihara National Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive motor neuron disease that affects people of all ethnicities. Approximately 90% of ALS cases are sporadic and thought to have multifactorial pathogenesis. To understand the genetics of sporadic ALS, we conducted a genome-wide association study using 1,173 sporadic ALS cases and 8,925 controls in a Japanese population. A combined meta-analysis of our Japanese cohort with individuals of European ancestry revealed a significant association at the ACSL5 locus (top SNP p = 2.97 × 10). We validated the association with ACSL5 in a replication study with a Chinese population and an independent Japanese population (1941 ALS cases, 3821 controls; top SNP p = 1.82 × 10). In the combined meta-analysis, the intronic ACSL5 SNP rs3736947 showed the strongest association (p = 7.81 × 10). Using a gene-based analysis of the full multi-ethnic dataset, we uncovered additional genes significantly associated with ALS: ERGIC1, RAPGEF5, FNBP1, and ATXN3. These results advance our understanding of the genetic basis of sporadic ALS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01251-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7511394PMC
September 2020
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