Publications by authors named "Masahiro Murakami"

433 Publications

Reduced High-Dose Radiation-Induced Residual Genotoxic Damage by Induction of Radioadaptive Response and Prophylactic Mild Dietary Restriction in Mice.

Dose Response 2021 Jan-Mar;19(1):1559325820982166. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Safety Administration, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Chiba, Japan.

Radioadaptive response (RAR) describes a phenomenon in a variety of in vitro and in vivo systems that a low-dose of priming ionizing radiation (IR) reduces detrimental effects of a subsequent challenge IR at higher doses. Among in vivo investigations, studies using the mouse RAR model (Yonezawa Effect) showed that RAR could significantly extenuate high-dose IR-induced detrimental effects such as decrease of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells, acute radiation hematopoietic syndrome, genotoxicity and genomic instability. Meanwhile, it has been demonstrated that diet intervention has a great impact on health, and dietary restriction shows beneficial effects on numerous diseases in animal models. In this work, by using the mouse RAR model and mild dietary restriction (MDR), we confirmed that combination of RAR and MDR could more efficiently reduce radiogenotoxic damage without significant change of the RAR phenotype. These findings suggested that MDR may share some common pathways with RAR to activate mechanisms consequently resulting in suppression of genotoxicity. As MDR could also increase resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in normal cells, we propose that combination of MDR, RAR, and other cancer treatments (i.e., chemotherapy and radiotherapy) represent a potential strategy to increase the treatment efficacy and prevent IR risk in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1559325820982166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7883164PMC
February 2021

Dry fabrication of poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres incorporating a medium molecular drug by a ball mill method.

Drug Discov Ther 2021 Mar 24;15(1):20-27. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Laboratory of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Osaka Ohtani University, Osaka, Japan.

Poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) microspheres is a useful carrier for controlled drug release. However, the organic solvents used in their conventional manufacturing process may affect the chemical structure of a macromolecular drug. Thus, we investigated the applicability of a dry fabrication method for PLGA microspheres. Cyanocobalamin (MW = 1,355) (VB) was used as a model drug, and it formed agglomerates under mild conditions with powdered PLGA in a generic ball milling system. Light and scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of PLGA microspheres and few agglomerates. The obtained microspheres had the particle size injectable as suspensions, namely smaller than 150 μm specified for subcutaneous and intramuscular injections by the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. The observed and theoretical drug contents were consistent. PLGA microspheres fabricated using a combination of small (ϕ3 mm) and large (ϕ10 mm) balls showed low initial burst of cyanocobalamin release in vitro. The in vitro drug release profile was equivalent with that of the microspheres fabricated by a conventional oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method, while the drug release profile was influenced by the brand of the PLGA used. To prevent drug loss during fabrication, the dry fabrication method using a ball mill should be applied to prepare PLGA microspheres containing a medium macromolecular drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/ddt.2021.01004DOI Listing
March 2021

Sustainable System for Hydrogenation Exploiting Energy Derived from Solar Light.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Feb 29;143(5):2217-2220. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8510, Japan.

Herein described is a sustainable system for hydrogenation that uses solar light as the ultimate source of energy. The system consists of two steps. Solar energy is captured and chemically stored in the first step; exposure of a solution of azaxanthone in ethanol to solar light causes an energy storing dimerization of the ketone to produce a sterically strained 1,2-diol. In the second step, the chemical energy stored in the vicinal diol is released and used for hydrogenation; the diol offers hydrogen onto alkenes and splits back to azaxanthone, which is easily recovered and reused repeatedly for capturing solar energy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c13332DOI Listing
February 2021

Preparation and in vitro tumor growth inhibitory effect of oligo (L-lactate) nanoparticles.

Drug Discov Ther 2020 ;14(6):296-303

Laboratory of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Osaka Ohtani University, Osaka, Japan.

Oligo L-lactates (oligolactates) that have low molecular weights less than 2000 have been reported to inhibit tumor growth and extend the survival of experimental animals. Because oligolactates are scarcely soluble in water, they require a solvent or a solubilizing agent, such as a surfactant, to be dissolved in water. However, these agents are generally cytotoxic, an in vitro assay appropriate to evaluate the inhibitory effect on tumor growth has not been developed yet. Here, we prepared a solid nanodispersion of oligolactates using an oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method to evaluate its tumor inhibitory activity in vitro without a solvent or surfactant. Polyol solutions containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as a continuous phase. The formation of nanoparticles depended on the concentrations of polyol and PVA in the continuous phase. The nanoparticles with a particle size of approximately 100 nm were obtained using 10-15% PVA and 60% propylene glycol. The obtained aqueous nanodispersion of oligolactates inhibited the growth of B16-BL6 melanoma cells in vitro, whereas the medium alone did not affect tumor cell growth. Therefore, oligo(L-lactate) nanoparticles may be useful in the research and development of oligolactates as a remedy for cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/ddt.2020.03118DOI Listing
January 2020

Are all wines made from various grape varieties beneficial in the prevention of myocardial infarction and stroke?

Future Sci OA 2020 Nov 9;7(2):FSO649. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Kobe Gakuin University (Professor Emeritus), Kobe 651-2180, Japan.

Aim: Epidemiologic studies support the assumption (French paradox hypothesis) that drinking red wine is beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Our recent works however cast doubt on such claim. Earlier we have shown that the antithrombotic activity of various fruits and vegetables mainly depends on their varieties. For this reason, several varieties of red and white grapes were tested for antithrombotic effect in animal experiments.

Results: Antithrombotic effect of 45 red and white grape varieties were assessed in the present study. Out of the 45, one red grape variety showed antithrombotic effect, while the majority of red and white grape varieties enhanced thrombosis.

Conclusion: Most red and white grape varieties enhanced thrombotic activity of blood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2144/fsoa-2020-0098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787155PMC
November 2020

Protective Effects of p53 Regulatory Agents Against High-LET Radiation-Induced Injury in Mice.

Front Public Health 2020 3;8:601124. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Medicinal and Life Science, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba, Japan.

Radiation damage to normal tissues is one of the most serious concerns in radiation therapy, and the tolerance dose of the normal tissues limits the therapeutic dose to the patients. p53 is well known as a transcription factor closely associated with radiation-induced cell death. We recently demonstrated the protective effects of several p53 regulatory agents against low-LET X- or γ-ray-induced damage. Although it was reported that high-LET heavy ion radiation (>85 keV/μm) could cause p53-independent cell death in some cancer cell lines, whether there is any radioprotective effect of the p53 regulatory agents against the high-LET radiation injury is still unclear. In the present study, we verified the efficacy of these agents on bone marrow and intestinal damages induced by high-LET heavy-ion irradiation in mice. We used a carbon-beam (14 keV/μm) that was shown to induce a p53-dependent effect and an iron-beam (189 keV/μm) that was shown to induce a p53-independent effect in a previous study. Vanadate significantly improved 60-day survival rate in mice treated with total-body carbon-ion ( < 0.0001) or iron-ion ( < 0.05) irradiation, indicating its effective protection of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury after high-LET irradiation over 85 keV/μm. 5CHQ also significantly increased the survival rate after abdominal carbon-ion ( < 0.02), but not iron-ion irradiation, suggesting the moderate relief of the intestinal damage. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of p53 regulators on acute radiation syndrome induced by high-LET radiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.601124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744379PMC
May 2021

Achievements of the Late Professor Teruaki Mukaiyama.

Chem Rec 2021 Jan 11;21(1):2-16. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Kyoto University Katsura, Kyoto, 615-8510, Japan.

This essay illuminates the quintessence of the life of the late Professor Teruaki Mukaiyama, the founding editor of The Chemical Record. It shares first-hand knowledge of his heartfelt and enlightening mentorship as well as his major scientific contributions to the chemical community. It will serve as an ever-lasting message of the didactic guidance and encouragement he provided for the future generations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tcr.202000105DOI Listing
January 2021

Stereo- and Enantioselective Synthesis of Propionate-Derived Trisubstituted Alkene Motifs.

Chemistry 2021 Feb 18;27(11):3861-3868. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto, 615-8510, Japan.

We report a new method for constructing propionate-derived trisubstituted alkene motifs in a stereoselective manner. 1-Substituted 1,1-di(pinacolatoboryl)-(E)-alk-2-enes are generated in situ from 1-substituted 1,1-di(pinacolatoboryl)alk-3-enes through ruthenium(II)-catalyzed double-bond transposition. These species undergo a chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed allylation reaction of aldehydes to produce the E isomers of anti-homoallylic alcohols. On the other hand, the corresponding Z isomers of anti-homoallylic alcohols are obtained when a dimeric palladium(I) complex is employed as the catalyst for this double-bond transposition. Thus, both E and Z isomers can be synthesized from the same starting materials. A B-C(sp ) bond remaining with the allylation product undergoes the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction to furnish a propionate-derived trisubstituted alkene motif in a stereo-defined form. The present method to construct the motifs with (E)- and (Z)-alkenes are successfully applied to the syntheses of (+)-isotrichostatic acid, (-)-isotrichostatin RK, and (+)-trichostatic acid, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202004930DOI Listing
February 2021

Photoinduced Dearomatizing Three-Component Coupling of Arylphosphines, Alkenes, and Water.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 02 21;60(7):3551-3555. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto, 615-8510, Japan.

A unique photoinduced reaction that couples a triarylphosphine, an alkene, and water to produce 2-(cyclohexa-2,5-dienyl)ethylphosphine oxide is reported herein. The alkene inserts into a C(aryl)-P bond of the arylphosphine, the aryl ring is dearomatized into the cyclohexadienyl ring, and the phosphorus is oxidized. The three components are all readily available, and their intermolecular coupling significantly increases molecular complexity. The products formed are applicable to the Wittig olefination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202013215DOI Listing
February 2021

Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon σ-Bonds of Four-Membered Rings.

Chem Rev 2021 01 23;121(1):264-299. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8510, Japan.

This article reviews synthetic transformations involving cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a four-membered ring, with a particular focus on the examples reported during the period from 2011 to the end of 2019. Most significant is the progress of catalytic reactions involving oxidative addition of carbon-carbon bonds onto transition metals or β-carbon elimination of transition metal alkoxides. When they are looked at from synthetic perspectives, they offer unique and efficient methods to build complex natural products and structures that are difficult to construct by conventional methods. On the other hand, β-scission of radical intermediates has also attracted increasing attention as an alternative elementary step to cleave carbon-carbon bonds. Its site-selectivity is often complementary to that of transition metal-catalyzed reactions. In addition, Lewis acid-mediated and thermally induced ring-opening of cyclobutanone derivatives has garnered renewed attention. On the whole, these examples demonstrate unique synthetic potentials of structurally strained four-membered ring compounds for the construction of organic skeletons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.0c00569DOI Listing
January 2021

Chiral Macrocycles Having C Symmetry Resulting from Orientation of Thiophene Rings.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 Nov 15;59(46):20475-20479. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto, 615-8510, Japan.

An chiral Rh -catalyzed cyclooligomerization reaction of thiophenes having triazolyl and vinyl substituents at the 2- and 4-positions was studied. Structurally interesting cyclic trimers, having chirality that is ascribed only to the orientation of the 2,4-disubstituted thiophene rings, are obtained. The 2,4-disubstitution of the starting thiophene monomer allows production of each of the enantiomers. The observed electronic circular-dichroism spectra are in accord with those simulated by density-functional theory calculations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202009781DOI Listing
November 2020

Photoinduced Specific Acylation of Phenolic Hydroxy Groups with Aldehydes.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 10 18;59(41):18267-18271. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto, 615-8510, Japan.

A convenient method is reported to specifically acylate phenolic hydroxyl groups through a radical pathway. When a mixture of an aldehyde and a phenol in ethyl acetate is irradiated with blue light in the presence of iridium and nickel bromide catalysts at ambient temperature, phenoxyl and acyl radicals are transiently generated in situ and cross-couple to furnish an ester. Aliphatic hydroxy groups remain untouched under the reaction conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202008897DOI Listing
October 2020

Ultrasonographic features and prevalence of presumed gastric wall edema in dogs with hypoalbuminemia.

J Vet Intern Med 2020 Sep 1;34(5):1867-1871. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Comparative Pathobiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.

Background: Ultrasonographic features of gastric wall edema have not been reported in dogs with hypoalbuminemia.

Objectives: To describe the prevalence and ultrasonographic features of gastric wall thickening in dogs with hypoalbuminemia and analyze correlation with serum albumin concentrations.

Animals: Forty-two dogs with abdominal ultrasound and diagnosis of hypoalbuminemia (<2.3 g/dL).

Methods: Retrospective search in the medical records from 2018 to 2019 was performed. Ultrasound studies were reviewed and >5 mm were considered gastric wall thickening. The gastric wall changes such as thickness, layering appearance, echogenicity, echotexture, distribution of lesions, and presence of peritoneal effusion were recorded. Serial ultrasonographic examination and histopathological findings were recorded if available. Mean serum albumin concentration of dogs with and without gastric wall thickening was compared.

Results: Prevalence of gastric wall thickening in dogs with hypoalbuminemia was 21.4% (95% confidence intervals 7.4-35.4%). Mean gastric wall thickness was 10.0 ± 2.0 mm. Preserved mucosal layer and thickening of submucosal layer were observed in all 9 dogs. Five dogs had 3-layer appearance in thickened submucosal layer. Diffuse wall thickening was observed in 6 dogs. All 9 dogs had peritoneal effusion. Subsequent changes of gastric wall thickening were observed in 3 dogs (range 4-70 days). Gastric wall edema was confirmed histopathologically in 2 dogs via necropsy. There was no correlation between serum albumin concentration of the dogs and gastric wall thickness.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: Findings indicated that gastric wall edema is a common finding in dogs with hypoalbuminemia. However, serum albumin concentrations did not correlate with the gastric wall thickness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7517500PMC
September 2020

Dehydrative Allylation of α C(sp)-H Bonds of Alkylamines with Allylic Alcohols.

Org Lett 2020 06 20;22(11):4467-4470. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8510, Japan.

Herein reported is a dehydrative coupling reaction of alkyl amines with allylic alcohols promoted by co-operation of photoredox and palladium catalysts. A range of homoallylic amines are efficiently synthesized. A mechanistic study suggests that an in situ generated carboxylic acid activates an allylic alcohol to facilitate its oxidative addition onto palladium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c01464DOI Listing
June 2020

A One-Pot Reaction of α-Imino Rhodium Carbenoids and Halohydrins: Access to 2,6-Substituted Dihydro-2-1,4-oxazines.

Org Lett 2020 May 13;22(9):3490-3494. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia (M310), 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.

Herein, we report a Rh(II)-catalyzed reaction between 1-tosyl-1,2,3-triazoles and halohydrins to provide 2,6-substituted 3,4-dihydro-2-1,4-oxazines under basic conditions. The reaction is proposed to undergo a rhodium carbenoid 1,3-insertion into O-H followed by an annulation. The scope includes phenyl or alkenyl C4-substituted triazoles and a range of halohydrins using catalytic RhOct and KCO. A synthesis of the antimicrobial natural product (±)-chelonin C is also reported using this novel methodology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c00947DOI Listing
May 2020

The safety of omitting prophylactic abdominal drainage after laparoscopic liver resection: Retrospective analysis of 100 consecutive cases.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2020 May 2;53:12-15. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Surgery, Osaka Rosai Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

Introduction: Whether prophylactic abdominal drainage after laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) is necessary remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of omitting prophylactic abdominal drainage after LLR.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 100 consecutive patients who underwent LLR at Osaka Rosai Hospital from April 2011 to November 2018 was performed. During this period, prophylactic abdominal drainage was routinely omitted during LLR without biliary anastomosis. The primary endpoint was the frequency of additional abdominal drainage. The secondary endpoint was the rate of postoperative complications.

Results: Ninety-six patients (96%) underwent partial resection or lateral segmentectomy, and 89 patients (89%) were Child-Pugh grade A. The median operative time was 102 (range, 31-274) minutes. The median blood loss was minimal (range, 0-280 ml), and blood transfusion was performed for one patient (1%). One case (1%) was converted to open surgery. Additional abdominal drainage was required for one patient (1%) with an intraabdominal abscess. Postoperative complications were seen in 5 patients (5%). High-grade complications (≥grade III according to the Clavien-Dindo classification) were seen in two patients (2%). There were no cases of reoperation or perioperative death. The median postoperative hospital stay was 8 (range, 4-65) days.

Conclusions: Prophylactic abdominal drainage could be safely omitted for selected patients and operative procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2020.03.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136585PMC
May 2020

[The Current Status of Palliative Care for Cancer on a Questionnaire Survey].

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2019 Dec;46(13):2273-2275

Dept. of Surgery, Itami City Hospital.

We evaluated the current status of palliative care for cancer by questionnaire survey in 34 medical institutions belonging to the Hyogo Society for Oncology of the Colon and Rectum. Although 29 institutions(85%)had palliative care teams, the profiles of team members differed between the institutions. The inclusion rates of psychiatrists, nutritionists, medical social workers, clinical psychologists, and rehabilitation therapists was half or less. Ten institutions had some positive screening systems for objective patients. Consultation from a surgical or medical oncologist to a palliative care doctor was most frequently performed at the end of chemotherapy(46%)but was widely distributed from the beginning of chemotherapy to the period of best supportive care. Most institutes positively adopted surgical palliation and palliative radiotherapy as non-pharmacological options. While palliative care teams were prevalent in this survey, the systematic supply of palliative care may be under development with limited resources.
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December 2019

[A Case of Successful Surgical Treatment for Paraaortic Lymph Nodes Recurrence of Gallbladder Cancer].

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2019 Dec;46(13):2261-2263

Dept. of Surgery and Gastrointestinal Surgery, Itami City Hospital.

Cholecystectomy with gallbladder bed resection and regional lymphadenectomy was performed in a 75-year-old man with advanced gallbladder cancer. Pathological examination revealed adenocarcinoma in the gallbladder with regional lymph node metastases. Cancer recurrence was found in paraaortic lymph nodes behind the duodenum 9 months after the surgery. Although chemotherapy using S-1 was initiated, the lymph nodes remained the same size after 2 courses without any new recurrent regions. Lymphadenectomy was then performed as a curative surgery. The patient has remained alive without recurrence for 46 months after the second surgery.
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December 2019

Dehydrogenative Coupling of Benzylic and Aldehydic C-H Bonds.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 02 6;142(7):3366-3370. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry , Kyoto University , Katsura , Kyoto 615-8510 , Japan.

A photoinduced dehydrogenative coupling reaction between benzylic and aldehydic C-H bonds is reported. When a solution of an alkylbenzene and an aldehyde in ethyl acetate is irradiated with visible light in the presence of iridium and nickel catalysts, a coupled α-aryl ketone is formed with evolution of dihydrogen. An analogous C-C bond forming reaction occurs between a C-H bond next to the nitrogen of an -methylamide and an aldehydic C-H bond to produce an α-amino ketone. These reactions provide a straightforward pathway from readily available materials leading to valued structural motifs of pharmacological relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b13920DOI Listing
February 2020

Janus microspheres for enhanced enteral drug delivery: Preparation and orientated attachment to a Caco-2 monolayer.

Drug Discov Ther 2019 ;13(6):343-353

Laboratory of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Osaka Ohtani University, Tondabayashi, Osaka, Japan.

Conventional oral preparations generally release incorporated drugs omnidirectionally, including into the lumen, leading to a low bioavailability of drugs that are unstable in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we designed Janus microspheres for efficient mucosal drug delivery as single-sided-release microspheres with the oriented attachment to mucus and evaluated their attachment to and orientation on a Caco-2 (human Caucasian colon adenocarcinoma cell line) monolayer. The microspheres comprised a mucus-oriented hemisphere of an ammonioalkyl methacrylate copolymer and a protective hemisphere of a hard fat. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran with an average molecular weight of 3,000-5,000 Da (FD4) was used as a model hydrophilic drug. A water-in-oil emulsion-type solvent evaporation method was employed for fabrication of the Janus microspheres. The yield of Janus microspheres was found to be dependent on the polymer-to-hard fat ratio, with a maximum yield of over 90% being obtained at a ratio of 1:2, whereas lower and higher ratios resulted in monolithic or star-shaped microspheres. FD4 was specifically localized in the polymeric hemisphere. A cell culture study revealed that the Janus microspheres attached to a Caco-2 monolayer via their polymeric hemispheres with the hard fat hemisphere providing a protective sealing. This may lead to the development of an effective enteral drug delivery system for biomedicines, such as polypeptides and nucleic acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/ddt.2019.01090DOI Listing
May 2020

A Comparative Finite Element Analysis of Two Surgical Methods for Cryptotia.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2019 Jul 26;7(7):e2315. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Nippon Medical School Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Cryptotia is an auricular muscle abnormality that causes the superior and posterior auricular area to be buried under the temporal skin. Surgical treatment approaches can be divided into skin grafts and local flaps. Complex cases also require cartilage/muscle modification. In this study, we treated one case each with the Square flap method and the Cat's Ear flap method. The aim was to help surgeons select the most appropriate surgical procedure on a case-by-case basis.

Methods: Two typical cryptotia cases were treated with the Square or Cat's Ear flap method. Finite element analysis was performed with ADINA v8.9 software, a PC (Windows 7, CPU: Core i7, Memory: 8 GB), and a hyperelastic skin model (skin diameter 20 cm; thickness 2 mm). The model scales were about 500 nodes and 500 elements (tetrahedron).

Results: The Square flap method involved advancing the square flap between the two triangular flaps. Switching then generated dog-ears that created a big valley. In the Cat's Ear flap method, the two triangular flaps were rotated in the same direction, whereas a square flap was advanced slightly on the opposite side. This created a large dog-ear.

Conclusions: This study suggested that the Cat's Ear flap method may be particularly useful for cryptotia patients whose posterior auricular groove is shallow when the buried helix is pulled out. The Square flap method may be suitable for other cases because it effectively extrudes the buried helix with comparatively small excision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000002315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6952124PMC
July 2019

A risk factor associated with subsequent new vertebral compression fracture after conservative therapy for patients with vertebral compression fracture: a retrospective observational study.

Arch Osteoporos 2020 01 3;15(1). Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Akita hospital, 2-6-12 Takara, Chiryu City, Aichi, 472-0056, Japan.

Lumbar BMD and functional recovery in the acute period were independently strongly associated with subsequent new VCF after hospital conservative therapy for patients with new fragility VCFs. Functional recovery was related with age, pain intensity during first month after hospitalization, VCF past history and multiple new VCFs.

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the factors independently associated with the subsequent vertebral compression fracture (VCF) after hospital conservative therapy in patients with new fragility VCFs and parameters related with functional recovery in the acute period.

Methods: Subsequent VCF (n = 37) was defined as patients who sustained a new VCF within 9 months after new VCF, whereas patients without a new VCF were classified as non-subsequent VCF (n = 179). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent factors associated with the subsequent VCF, including patients' characteristics, past histories, number of new VCFs, bone mineral density (BMD), lumbar sagittal alignment, fractured vertebral body height, spine muscle mass, pain intensity, corset types, medications for osteoporosis and pain relief, recovery ratio of functional independence measure (FIM) and bone union. Correlation coefficients were accessed between the FIM recovery ratio and continuous variable parameters, while intergroup comparisons or analysis of variance was conducted to examine significant differences in the FIM recovery ratio for categorical variable parameters.

Results: Lumbar BMD, FIM recovery ratio at the first month after hospitalization and segmental Cobb angle were significantly independently associated with subsequent VCF (odds ratio: 27.8, 9.6 and 1.1, respectively). The FIM recovery ratio was moderately negatively correlated with age and pain intensity and was significantly worse in patients with multiple new VCFs or past history of VCF.

Conclusions: Conservative therapies focused on lumbar BMD, functional recovery and pain relief in the acute period may be useful in preventing subsequent VCF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11657-019-0679-xDOI Listing
January 2020

C1 Oxidation/C2 Reduction Isomerization of Unprotected Aldoses Induced by Light/Ketone.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 02 16;59(7):2755-2759. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto, 615-8510, Japan.

Unprotected aldoses in water undergo an isomerization reaction via a radical pathway when irradiated with light in the presence of water-soluble benzophenone. Whereas its anomeric carbon (C1) is oxidized to a carboxy group, the hydroxy group on the C2 carbon is replaced by hydrogen. The generated 2-deoxy lactones are readily reduced to the corresponding 2-deoxy aldoses, which are often contained in bioactive compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201914242DOI Listing
February 2020

Carboxylation of Benzylic and Aliphatic C-H Bonds with CO Induced by Light/Ketone/Nickel.

J Am Chem Soc 2019 Dec 5;141(50):19611-19615. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry , Kyoto University , Katsura, Kyoto 615-8510 , Japan.

A photoinduced carboxylation reaction of benzylic and aliphatic C-H bonds with CO is developed. Toluene derivatives capture gaseous CO at the benzylic position to produce phenylacetic acid derivatives when irradiated with UV light in the presence of an aromatic ketone, a nickel complex, and potassium -butoxide. Cyclohexane reacts with CO to furnish cyclohexanecarboxylic acid under analogous reaction conditions. The present photoinduced carboxylation reaction provides a direct access from readily available hydrocarbons to the corresponding carboxylic acids with one carbon extension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b12529DOI Listing
December 2019

Synthesis of Tofisopam by Way of Photoinduced CO Fixation.

Chem Asian J 2019 Dec 28;14(23):4189-4192. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto, 615-8510, Japan.

Herein reported is a unique synthetic route of Tofisopam, an anxiolytic drug containing a 2,3-benzodiazepine core structure. 3,4-Dimethoxypropylbenzene and 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid, which are both of plant origin, and CO constitute its carbon skeleton. These three renewable substances are united by two C-C bond forming reactions, i.e., a Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction and a photoinduced carboxylation reaction to construct the major carbon framework. Finally, a methyl group is introduced by a Kumada-type cross-coupling reaction to furnish Tofisopam. Various analogs of Tofisopam are readily synthesized by introducing other substituents than a methyl group at the last C-C bond forming step.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.201901431DOI Listing
December 2019

Asymmetric Synthesis and Stereochemical Assignment of C/C Isotopomers.

J Am Chem Soc 2019 08 19;141(34):13341-13345. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry , Kyoto University , Katsura, Kyoto 615-8510 , Japan.

A synthesis of chiral hydrocarbons having axis and symmetry, which owe their chirality due to asymmetrical distribution of C/C isotopes, is reported. Their absolute configurations assigned using the vibrational circular dichroism technique conform with those deduced from the absolute configurations of the parent α-formyl cyclopropanes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b07181DOI Listing
August 2019

Diastereo- and Enantioselective Synthesis of (E)-δ-Boryl-Substituted anti-Homoallylic Alcohols in Two Steps from Terminal Alkynes.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2019 10 29;58(41):14620-14624. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto, 615-8510, Japan.

We report the highly diastereo- and enantioselective preparation of (E)-δ-boryl-substituted anti-homoallylic alcohols in two steps from terminal alkynes. This method consists of a cobalt(II)-catalyzed 1,1-diboration reaction of terminal alkynes with B pin and a palladium(I)-mediated asymmetric allylation reaction of the resulting 1,1-di(boryl)alk-1-enes with aldehydes in the presence of a chiral phosphoric acid. Propyne, which is produced as the byproduct during petroleum refining, could be used as the starting material to construct homoallylic alcohols that are otherwise difficult to synthesize with high stereocontrol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201908299DOI Listing
October 2019

Pneumoperitoneum should be investigated.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2019 11 30;60(6):753. Epub 2019 May 30.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12778DOI Listing
November 2019

Clinicopathological Features of Remnant Gastric Cancer (RGC): Detection of RGC after Five Years of Follow-Up Was Associated with a Poor Prognosis.

Am Surg 2019 Apr;85(4):384-389

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients who underwent surgery for remnant gastric cancer (RGC) during/after the regular five-year follow-up period after initial distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer that is recommended by the Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines. Between January 2007 and December 2017, 40 patients underwent surgery for RGC after distal gastrectomy. Twenty-eight of the 40 patients underwent initial gastrectomy for cancer. We divided the 28 patients into two groups: patients who were diagnosed with RGC during/after the five-year follow-up period after initial gastrectomy, and analyzed their retrospectively collected data. Among the 28 patients, 15 patients were diagnosed with RGC within five years and 13 patients were diagnosed with RGC after five years. There were significant differences in the reconstruction of the initial operation, curative resection, pathological depth of the tumor, and pathological stage of the two groups. Multivariate analyses revealed that the interval between initial gastrectomy and RGC and the pathological TNM stage were significant risk factors for shorter cancer-specific survival. Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated that patients with RGC after the five-year follow-up period had a significantly worse prognosis in terms of cancer-specific survival than those who developed RGC within five years. This study suggested surveillance by using the annual endoscopy might be necessary beyond the initial five-year period for patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
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April 2019