Publications by authors named "Masaharu Ogura"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Validation Study of Fibrinogen and Albumin Score in Esophageal Cancer Patients Who Underwent Esophagectomy: Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Feb 31;28(2):774-784. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: To arrange multidisciplinary treatment for esophageal cancer, a simple and accurate predictive marker for prognosis is required. The current multicenter prospective study aims to validate the prognostic significance of fibrinogen and albumin score (FA score) for esophageal cancer patients.

Patients And Methods: Patients who were planned to undergo surgical resection for esophageal cancer at four participating institutions were enrolled in this study. Patient background, clinicopathological factors, and blood concentration of plasma fibrinogen and albumin were collected. Patients with elevated fibrinogen and decreased albumin levels were allocated a score of 2; those with only one of these abnormalities were allocated a score of 1; and those with neither of these abnormalities were allocated a score of 0. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated as a primary endpoint.

Results: From four participating institutions, 133 patients were registered for the current analysis. The distribution of FA score of 0/1/2 was 84 (63%)/34 (26%)/15 (11%), respectively. In the analysis of primary endpoint, the preoperative FA score significantly classified RFS (FA score 1/2: HR 2.546, p = 0.013/6.989, p < 0.001) and OS (FA score 1/2: HR 2.756, p = 0.010/6.970, p < 0.001). We further evaluated the prognostic significance of FA score under stratification by pStage. As a result, with increasing FA score, RFS and OS were significantly worse in both pStage 0-I and II-IV groups.

Conclusions: The prognostic impact of preoperative FA score was confirmed for esophageal cancer patients in the current multicenter prospective trial. FA score can be considered to predict postoperative survival and rearrange the treatment strategy before esophagectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08958-wDOI Listing
February 2021

Heterochronous Suture Line Recurrences in the Jejunal Pouch following Total Gastrectomy for Stage II Gastric Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Case Rep Oncol 2020 Jan-Apr;13(1):225-232. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Surgery, Tokyo Dental College Ichikawa General Hospital, Ichikawa, Japan.

We report the case of a 65-year-old male who developed heterochronous local recurrences of gastric cancer in the jejunal pouch (J-pouch) four times after total gastrectomy. He underwent total gastrectomy, J-pouch, and Roux-en-Y reconstruction for stage II gastric cancer in 2005. Four local recurrences appeared on the esophago-jejunal anastomosis, the suture line within the pouch, the esophago-jejunal anastomosis, and the anastomosis between the jejunum and Y-loop, which were resected by partial excision or endoscopic submucosal dissection. Suture line recurrence of gastric cancer is rare. The common features for each recurrence included the surgically negative resection margins, observation of the same histopathological subtype, absence of remote metastasis or peritoneal seeding, and the recurrence on the anastomotic suture line, suggesting that the cause of recurrence was the implantation of exfoliated cancer cells probably in the suture line. However, there is no established procedure for preventing implantation recurrence currently, the effectiveness of lumen lavage is suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000505392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7154264PMC
March 2020

Successful treatment of esophagopleural fistula following pulmonary resection for primary lung cancer: a case report.

Surg Case Rep 2019 May 14;5(1):78. Epub 2019 May 14.

Department of Surgery, Tokyo Dental College Ichikawa General Hospital, 5-11-13 Sugano, Ichikawa, Chiba, 272-8513, Japan.

Background: We report a rare case of esophagopleural fistula (EPF) developing during the postoperative period after pulmonary resection for primary lung cancer.

Case Presentation: A 71-year-old male who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic right lower lobectomy with lymph node dissection for primary lung cancer developed severe stabbing pain in his right shoulder and high fever 3 days after the operation. The fever persisted, the cough became more productive, and a plain chest X-ray showed slight a few infiltrative opacities in the right lung field. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was initiated. The patient developed a right pneumothorax 5 days after the operation, and contaminated discharge from the right chest tube was noted. A chest computed tomography showed right-sided empyema, while bronchoscopic examination revealed no evidence of a bronchopleural fistula. Open-window thoracostomy (OWT) was performed. Finally, 2 days after the OWT, the patient was diagnosed as having an EPF, because the right chest cavity was found to be contaminated with food materials. Ample purification of the right chest cavity was achieved by repeated dressing changes, and the EPF was finally closed by omentopexy. The post-surgical course was uneventful. Five weeks after the omentopexy, an esophagogram revealed no leakage of the contrast medium from the esophageal wall. The patient was discharged 13 weeks after the omentopexy.

Conclusion: While EPF following pulmonary resection is a rare complication, it can lead to critical situations and the diagnosis is difficult. Prompt OWT and omentopexy were found to be effective treatment procedures for EPF following lung surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40792-019-0638-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6517458PMC
May 2019

Esophageal carcinosarcoma comprised of minimally invasive squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma: A collision cancer?

Pathol Int 2018 Jun 22. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Surgery, Tokyo Dental College Ichikawa General Hospital, Ichikawa, Chiba-ken, Japan.

Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare neoplasm with components of squamous cell carcinoma and sarcomatous spindle cell stroma. The latter may show overt mesenchymal differentiation but is thought to be derived from carcinoma cells in most cases. Here, we report a case of esophageal carcinosarcoma that appeared to be comprised of different origins of epithelial and mesenchymal tumor cells. The sarcomatous component formed an intralumial pedunculated large mass lesion that consisted of pleomorphic atypical histiocyte-like cells. The squamous epithelium exhibited features of mostly dysplasia with minor foci of microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma. The invasive carcinoma was apart from the sarcoma, and no transitions were observed between the epithelial and sarcomatous cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that the sarcoma cells did not express any lineage-specific markers, including those for epithelial cells and histiocytes, which lead to the diagnosis of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. Although cyclin D1 was overexpressed in the carcinoma cells, it was nearly negative in the sarcoma cells. These findings indicate that the tumor may be a collision carcinosarcoma. It is highly likely that the patient's history of heavy smoking and alcohol consumption were relevant to the pathogenesis, at least for the epithelial component, of the tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pin.12689DOI Listing
June 2018

Development of Splice Variant-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Against Human α3 Integrin.

Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother 2016 Feb 20;35(1):12-7. Epub 2016 Jan 20.

Department of Microbiology, Hoshi University School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences , Tokyo, Japan .

Integrins are a major family of adhesion molecules, consisting of heterodimers (α and β subunits). Several reports have suggested the presence of splice variants in the cytoplasmic domain of certain integrin subunits. In the present study, we detected mRNA of integrin α3 splice variants (α3A and α3B) by RT-PCR using total RNA from the human brain as a template. The α3B variant lacks the sequence coded by exon 25 and appears to be generated by alternative splicing. We established mouse hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies (both of which are of IgG1 class) specific for each variant. Each antibody exhibited specific reactivity towards the corresponding integrin α3 variant in Western blotting and immunoprecipitation experiments, suggesting it to be a useful tool for detection of the respective integrin variant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mab.2015.0053DOI Listing
February 2016

Petersen hernia after open gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction: a report of two cases and literature review.

Springerplus 2015 2;4:753. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

Department of Surgery, Tokyo Dental College Ichikawa General Hospital, 5-11-13, Sugano, Ichikawa, Chiba 2728513 Japan.

Petersen hernia is a rare internal hernia that occurs after Roux-en-Y (R-Y) reconstruction. To our knowledge, there are a few reports on internal hernia, especially Petersen hernia after open gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Two rare cases of Petersen hernia are presented in this report. A man in his 70s was referred to our hospital due to a complaint of postprandial sudden abdominal pain. He had a history of open total gastrectomy with R-Y jejunal reconstruction through the antecolic route for gastric corpus cancer. On computed tomography (CT), bowel obstruction and strangulation of the small intestine were suspected. Emergency laparotomy was done, and an internal herniation of the small intestine through Petersen space was observed. A man in his 50s was referred to our hospital due to a complaint of severe sudden abdominal pain. He had a history of open gastrectomy and abdominal/lower intrathoracic esophageal resection with R-Y jejunal reconstruction of an antecolic jejunal limb for esophagogastric junction carcinoma. On CT, internal herniation of the small intestine was suspected. During emergency laparotomy, an internal herniation of the bowel through the Petersen space was observed. Though history of R-Y reconstruction surgery may be helpful, preoperative diagnosis of Petersen hernia is difficult to establish. Here we present two rare cases of this type of internal hernia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-015-1556-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4666877PMC
December 2015

CXCR2 expression and postoperative complications affect long-term survival in patients with esophageal cancer.

World J Surg Oncol 2015 Aug 1;13:232. Epub 2015 Aug 1.

Department of Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Background: Esophagectomy is one of the most invasive surgical treatments for digestive tract cancer, and the blood levels of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 are increased for several hours after surgery or in patients experiencing postoperative complications. CXCR2, an interleukin-8 receptor, is reportedly expressed in several carcinomas, and interleukin-8 signaling promotes cancer cell proliferation. The impact of postoperative complications following esophagectomy on long-term survival is controversial. In this study, we demonstrate the significance of CXCR2 expression and validate the effects of CXCR2 expression and postoperative complications on long-term prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using resected specimens.

Methods: Eighty-two specimens were sectioned from archived, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues obtained from patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent esophagectomy and extended lymphadenectomy for complete resection of cancer in our institute between 1997 and 2002. Immunohistochemistry was performed using a polyclonal antibody to CXCR2, and the correlation of stainability with clinicopathological factors and long-term survival was examined.

Results: CXCR2 was expressed in 33 of 82 (40.2 %) specimens. In the CXCR2-positive group, the recurrence-free survival and overall survival rates of patients who developed postoperative complications were both significantly lower than those for patients who did not develop any complications. In contrast, in the CXCR2-negative group, there was no significant difference in long-term prognosis between patients with and without complications. CXCR2 positivity combined with postoperative complications was an independent risk factor for subsequent tumor recurrence, showing the highest hazard ratio.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the patients with CXCR2-positive esophageal cancer who develop postoperative complications have a poor prognosis and should be carefully followed.

Trial Registration: This study was approved by Keio University School of Medicine Ethics Committee with a trial registration number of 2011-241.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12957-015-0658-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4522106PMC
August 2015

A Prospective Randomized Trial of Enteral Nutrition After Thoracoscopic Esophagectomy for Esophageal Cancer.

Ann Surg Oncol 2015 12 29;22 Suppl 3:S802-9. Epub 2015 Jul 29.

Department of Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Several studies have reported that postoperative enteral nutrition (EN) reduced complications and decreased weight loss and hospital stay periods; however, the majority of patients analyzed in these studies underwent open thoracic surgery. No studies have been conducted regarding EN in patients after thoracoscopic esophagectomy as a less invasive surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of EN after thoracoscopic esophagectomy.

Methods: Fifty patients who underwent thoracoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal cancer were divided into two groups: parenteral nutrition (PN; n = 25) and EN (n = 25). The rate of weight loss at postoperative day (POD) 14, levels of prealbumin at POD 10, postoperative complications until POD 14, and other perioperative data were collected for each group.

Results: This study analyzed data for 47 patients. The rate of weight loss at POD 14 was significantly lower in the EN group (3.0 ± 3.2 %) than in the PN group (5.1 ± 3.7 %; p = 0.020). Prealbumin levels were 21.0 ± 7.5 mg/dL in the PN group and 18.4 ± 5.8 mg/dL in the EN group at POD 10, with no significant differences between the groups. However, the incidence of postoperative pneumonia was higher in the PN group (30.4 %) than in the EN group (12.5 %).

Conclusions: EN could suppress weight loss and reduce the incidence of pneumonia after thoracoscopic esophagectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-015-4767-xDOI Listing
December 2015

Factors affecting cytokine change after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer.

Ann Surg Oncol 2015 Sep 9;22(9):3130-5. Epub 2015 Jan 9.

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Esophagectomy for esophageal cancer is one of the most invasive operative procedures. Surgical stress induces the release of proinflammatory cytokines, and overproduction induces a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which may lead to acute lung injury and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. In addition, surgical stress may cause immunosuppression, which may affect not only perioperative mortality but also long-term survival.

Methods: Between 2006 and 2013, levels of perioperative serum cytokines were evaluated in 90 patients who underwent esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma. The serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We reviewed and assessed medical records, including cytokine profiles, and determined the factors affecting postoperative serum cytokine levels.

Results: These cytokine levels peaked on postoperative day 1 and decreased gradually. Of the clinicopathologic factors, a thoracoscopic approach was a significant factor in attenuating IL-6 and IL-8 levels on postoperative day 1 in multivariate analysis, and a longer operative time was a significant factor in increasing these levels. During postoperative days 3-7, the thoracoscopic approach and early enteral nutrition were significant factors in attenuating serum cytokine changes in multivariate analysis, and postoperative infectious complications were significant factors in increasing these levels.

Conclusions: The thoracoscopic approach and early enteral nutrition could attenuate the cytokine change after esophagectomy, and a longer operative time and postoperative infectious complication could increase it. We should undertake strategies to minimize the surgical stress to reduce potential short-term and long-term consequences for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-014-4348-4DOI Listing
September 2015

Clinical significance of CXCL-8/CXCR-2 network in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Surgery 2013 Sep;154(3):512-20

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: CXCL-8, known as proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8, and its receptor, CXCR-2, are expressed in various cancer cells. CXCL-8/CXCR-2 network is believed to be involved in angiogenesis, growth, and invasion of tumor cells. To date, the clinical significance of CXCL-8/CXCR-2 network in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of CXCL- 8/CXCR-2 network in ESCC.

Methods: The subjects included 78 patients with primary ESCC. We examined CXCL-8 and CXCR-2 expression in surgically resected specimens using immunohistochemistry. The association between CXCL-8/CXCR-2 expression and level of preoperative serum cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), coagulation factors, clinicopathologic background factors, and survival of ESCC patients was assessed.

Results: Thirty-seven (47%) and 36 (46%) patients were positive for CXCL-8 and CXCR-2 expression, respectively. Both CXCL-8 and CXCR-2 were expressed in 26 patients (33%). We compared the results of these 26 patients [CXCL-8(+)/CXCR-2(+) group] with those of the other group (n = 52). The depth of invasion (pT factor; P < .001), lymph node metastasis (pN factor; P = .001), pathologic stage (P < .001), lymphatic invasion (P = .010), and venous invasion (P = .001) were significantly more advanced in the CXCL-8(+)/CXCR-2(+) group compared with the other group. Preoperative IL-6, IL-8, CRP, fibrin/fibrinogen degradation product, and fibrinogen levels in the CXCL-8(+)/CXCR-2(+) group were also significantly higher than those in the other group (P = .046, .009, .029, .010, and <.001, respectively). The CXCL-8(+)/CXCR-2(+) group also showed a significantly lower recurrence-free survival (RFS; P < .001) and disease-specific survival (P = .008). As per Cox's hazards model, CXCL-8/CXCR-2 expression (hazard ratio, 2.89; P = .008) was independent predictive factor for RFS.

Conclusion: Increased expression of both CXCL-8 and CXCR-2 correlated with tumor progression, metastasis, higher preoperative levels of proinflammatory cytokines, CRP, activation of exogenous coagulation factors, and poor prognosis in ESCC patients. These results indicate that overexpression of both CXCL-8 and CXCR-2 may be a useful marker for predicting the outcome in ESCC patients, and more important, has potential in becoming a critical diagnostic marker for selection of appropriate treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2013.06.013DOI Listing
September 2013

[A case of long-term survival after undergoing S-1 treatment and splenectomy for liver, lung and splenic metastases following curative distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer].

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2010 Jun;37(6):1125-9

Department of Surgery, Asahi General Hospital.

A 7 0-year-old female underwent distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer in November 2001. She did not wish to receive postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. In May 2002, her serum carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA)level rose. CT demonstrated liver(S5/6)and lung(S9)metastases in August 2002. We started to treat her with S-1(100mg/day day 1-14 orally), and restaging CT showed complete regression of liver and lung metastases in August 2003. In spite her complete response(CR), we continued S-1 treatment for the successive two years. No adverse reaction to chemotherapy occurred. Although CR was maintained for about 4 years, she was found to have a 9-mm solitary lesion in the upper pole of the spleen in June 2007. After 6 months, this tumor increased to 15mm in size, and we considered it as a solitary metastasis to the spleen from gastric cancer. S-1 chemotherapy was restarted, but tumor size gradually increased. Tumor size finally reached 25mm in December 2008. She underwent splenectomy in January 2009. From then until now, she has not received any chemotherapy, and has been followed well without any recurrence.
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June 2010

Changes in adhesive and migratory characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells induced by expression of alpha3beta1 integrin.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2008 Mar 25;1780(3):564-70. Epub 2007 Sep 25.

Department of Microbiology, Hoshi University School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8501, Japan.

The invasive and metastatic potentials of hepatocellular carcinoma are positively correlated with the expression level of alpha3beta1 integrin, a high-affinity adhesion receptor for laminin isoforms including laminin-5. In this study, we investigated changes in the adhesive and invasive behaviors of human HCC HepG2 cells after transfection with cDNA for alpha3 integrin in order to elucidate the direct involvement of this integrin in these cellular processes. We introduced cDNA for splice variants of alpha3 integrin (alpha3A and alpha3B) into the cells, and selected two transfectant clones (HepG2-3A and HepG2-3B), which express the alpha3A and alpha3B integrins, respectively. Both transfectant cells adhered almost equally to laminin-5-coated plates in an alpha3 integrin-dependent manner, indicating that transfected alpha3Abeta1 and alpha3Bbeta1 integrins were functionally active in these cells. The migratory and invasive potentials of the transfectant cells were assessed by scratch wound assay and in vitro chemoinvasion assay. The results demonstrated that the migration of HepG2-3A and HepG2-3B cells but not of mock transfectant (HepG2-M) cells was stimulated on the plates coated with laminin-5. Furthermore, HepG2-3A and HepG2-3B cells were found to be more invasive into laminin-5-containing matrices than were HepG2-M cells. These results strongly suggest that enhanced expression of alpha3beta1 integrin on HCC cells is directly involved in their malignant phenotypes such as invasion and metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2007.09.007DOI Listing
March 2008

Transforming growth factor-beta1 upregulates transcription of alpha3 integrin gene in hepatocellular carcinoma cells via Ets-transcription factor-binding motif in the promoter region.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2005 11;22(7):539-48. Epub 2006 Feb 11.

Department of Microbiology, Hoshi University School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.

The invasive and metastatic potentials of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are positively correlated with the expression level of alpha3beta1 integrin, a high-affinity adhesion receptor for laminin isoforms. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 stimulates non-invasive HCC cells to acquire invasive phenotypes in association with the enhanced expression of alpha3 integrin. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the upregulation of alpha3beta1 integrin by TGF-beta1 in non-invasive HepG2 HCC cells. The treatment of HepG2 cells with TGF-beta1 induced the expression of alpha3 integrin and potentiated these cells to adhere to laminin-5 and to migrate through laminin-5-coated membranes. The promoter activity was measured by luciferase assay with a series of deletion constructs of the 5'-flanking region of the mouse alpha3 integrin gene, and the results showed that the -260/-119 region (relative to the major transcription start site) contained elements responsive to TGF-beta1 stimulation. The introduction of mutations into the putative consensus binding sequence for the Ets-family of transcription factors located at -133 greatly decreased the promoter activity responding to TGF-beta1 stimulation. The nuclear proteins extracted from TGF-beta1-stimulated HepG2 cells yielded a larger amount of DNA-nuclear protein complexes than did those extracted from unstimulated cells, as determined by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay using an oligonucleotide containing the Ets-site as a probe. These results suggest that TGF-beta1 stimulates HepG2 cells to express a higher level of alpha3 integrin by transcriptional upregulation via Ets transcription factors and to exhibit a more invasive phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10585-005-5260-xDOI Listing
May 2006

Characterization of the promoter for the alpha3 integrin gene in various tumor cell lines: roles of the Ets- and Sp-family of transcription factors.

J Cell Biochem 2006 Feb;97(3):530-43

Department of Microbiology, Hoshi University School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8501, Japan.

The alpha3beta1 integrin is an adhesion receptor for extracellular matrix proteins, including laminin isoforms, and plays crucial roles in the organization of epithelial and endothelial tissues. The aberrant expression of this adhesion molecule on tumor cells is associated with their invasive and metastatic potentials. In the present study, we analyzed the elements essential for alpha3 integrin gene expression in various tumor cell lines with different tissue origins by luciferase assay. An approximately 0.3 kb fragment of the 5'-flanking region of the mouse alpha3 integrin gene (-260/+84, relative to the major transcription start site) showed strong promoter activity in all six examined tumor cell lines. However, we found that these cell lines could be divided into two groups according to the level of dependency on the putative Ets-transcription factor binding motif located at -133. This motif was previously shown to be crucial for alpha3 integrin expression in MKN1 gastric carcinoma cells. The gene expression in one group of cell lines was upregulated mainly by the Ets motif, whereas that in the other group was less dependent on the Ets motif. We then postulated that additional regulatory elements were responsible for the expression of alpha3 integrin, and found that a GC-rich motif at -69 was another important element. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay using specific antibodies and a Western blot analysis of nuclear proteins revealed that the Sp3-transcription factor bound to this GC-rich motif. These results suggest that the Sp3 and Ets transcription factors cooperatively regulate alpha3 integrin gene expression and that the contribution of each element depends on the type of tumor cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.20663DOI Listing
February 2006
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