Publications by authors named "Masafumi Taniwaki"

289 Publications

Pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (KEYNOTE-183): subgroup analysis in Japanese patients.

Int J Hematol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.

The global, randomized, open-label KEYNOTE-183 phase 3 study was closed early after an interim analysis showed unfavorable risk-benefit when pembrolizumab was added to pomalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM). This subgroup analysis reported outcomes in 27 Japanese patients randomly assigned to receive pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone (n = 15) or pomalidomide and dexamethasone alone (n = 12). Co-primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). After a median (range) follow-up of 9.6 (1.4-15.3) months in Japanese patients, median PFS [6.5 vs 2.8 months; hazard ratio (HR) 0.16 (95% CI 0.03-0.83)] and OS [not reached vs 14.8 months; HR 0.46 (95% CI 0.05-4.20)] seemed to favor the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone arm. Objective response rate was numerically higher in this group (47%) than in the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group (25%). The safety profile was consistent with that of the overall study population. No deaths were attributed to a study drug by the investigators. Although adding pembrolizumab to pomalidomide and dexamethasone did not show unfavorable risk-benefit in the Japanese subgroup of KEYNOTE-183, the analysis is limited by short follow-up and small sample size, which affects the generalizability of the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03139-1DOI Listing
April 2021

A phase I, dose-escalation study of oral PIM447 in Japanese patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma.

Int J Hematol 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

PIM447, a pan-proviral integration site for Moloney leukemia (PIM) kinase inhibitor, has shown preclinical activity in multiple myeloma (MM). This phase I, open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended dose for expansion (RDE) of PIM447 in Japanese patients with relapsed and/or refractory (R/R) MM. The study included 13 patients (250 mg once daily (QD), [n = 7]; 300 mg QD, [n = 6]). The sole dose-limiting toxicity observed was grade 3 QTc prolongation in one patient from the 300 mg group, and the MTD and RDE was not determined. The most common suspected PIM447-related adverse events (AEs) included thrombocytopenia (76.9%), anemia (53.8%), and leukopenia (53.8%). All patients experienced at least one grade 3 or 4 AE, most frequently thrombocytopenia or leukopenia (61.5% each). The overall response rate was 15.4%, disease control rate 69.2%, clinical benefit rate 23.1%, and two patients had a partial response (one in each dose group). Two patients treated with 250 mg QD had a progression-free survival > 6 months. PIM447 250 mg or 300 mg QD was tolerated in Japanese patients with R/R MM. Further studies are required to evaluate clinical outcomes of PIM447 in combination with other drugs for the treatment of MM.Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov: (NCT02160951).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03096-9DOI Listing
February 2021

EWSR1 overexpression is a pro-oncogenic event in multiple myeloma.

Int J Hematol 2021 Mar 23;113(3):381-394. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto, 602-8566, Japan.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is cytogenetically, genetically and molecularly heterogenous even among subclones in one patient, therefore, it is essential to identify both frequent and patient-specific drivers of molecular abnormality. Following previous molecular investigations, we in this study investigated the expression patterns and function of the Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) gene in MM. The EWSR1 transcriptional level in CD138-positive myeloma cells was higher in 36.4% of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, in 67.4% of MM patients compared with normal plasma cells, and significantly higher in ten human myeloma-derived cell lines (HMCLs) examined. EWSR1 gene knockdown caused growth inhibition with an increase of apoptotic cells in NCI-H929 and KMS-12-BM cells. Gene expression profiling using microarray analysis suggested EWSR1 gene knockdown caused transcriptional modulation of several genes associated with processes such as cell proliferation, cell motility, cell metabolism, and gene expression. Of particular, EWSR1 gene knockdown caused upregulation of let-7c and downregulation of its known targets K-RAS and AKT. Finally, our analysis using community database suggested that high EWSR1 expression positively associates with poor prognosis and advanced disease stage in MM. These findings suggest that EWSR1 overexpression is a pro-oncogenic molecular abnormality that may participate in MM progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-03027-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Elotuzumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone in RRMM: final overall survival results from the phase 3 randomized ELOQUENT-2 study.

Blood Cancer J 2020 09 4;10(9):91. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Prolonging overall survival (OS) remains an unmet need in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). In ELOQUENT-2 (NCT01239797), elotuzumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone (ERd) significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone (Rd) in patients with RRMM and 1-3 prior lines of therapy (LoTs). We report results from the pre-planned final OS analysis after a minimum follow-up of 70.6 months, the longest reported for an antibody-based triplet in RRMM. Overall, 646 patients with RRMM and 1-3 prior LoTs were randomized 1:1 to ERd or Rd. PFS and overall response rate were co-primary endpoints. OS was a key secondary endpoint, with the final analysis planned after 427 deaths. ERd demonstrated a statistically significant 8.7-month improvement in OS versus Rd (median, 48.3 vs 39.6 months; hazard ratio, 0.82 [95.4% Cl, 0.68-1.00]; P = 0.0408 [less than allotted α of 0.046]), which was consistently observed across key predefined subgroups. No additional safety signals with ERd at extended follow-up were reported. ERd is the first antibody-based triplet regimen shown to significantly prolong OS in patients with RRMM and 1-3 prior LoTs. The magnitude of OS benefit was greatest among patients with adverse prognostic factors, including older age, ISS stage III, IMWG high-risk disease, and 2-3 prior LoTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00357-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7474076PMC
September 2020

Second primary malignancy after rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy for diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 12 27;61(14):3378-3386. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Extended post-therapy long-term survival of patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) may also lead to an increase of late adverse events. We retrospectively investigated the frequency and clinical manifestation of second primary malignancy (SPM) after rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy in patients with DLBCL treated at seven institutes belonging to the Kyoto Clinical Hematology Study Group (KOTOSG) from the perspective of the existence of past or synchronous cancer history. In a median follow-up period of 899 days, 69 SPMs were observed in 58 of 809 patients. The most frequent SPM was gastric cancer, followed by lung cancer and colorectal cancer. The cumulative incidence of SPM increased steadily over time and was not significantly influenced by the presence or absence of past or synchronous cancer history. Our study suggests the need for careful attention to SPM in patients with DLBCL in daily practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1811862DOI Listing
December 2020

Aberrant BUB1 Overexpression Promotes Mitotic Segregation Errors and Chromosomal Instability in Multiple Myeloma.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Aug 6;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan.

Chromosome instability (CIN), the hallmarks of cancer, reflects ongoing chromosomal changes caused by chromosome segregation errors and results in whole chromosomal or segmental aneuploidy. In multiple myeloma (MM), CIN contributes to the acquisition of tumor heterogeneity, and thereby, to disease progression, drug resistance, and eventual treatment failure; however, the underlying mechanism of CIN in MM remains unclear. Faithful chromosomal segregation is tightly regulated by a series of mitotic checkpoint proteins, such as budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1 (BUB1). In this study, we found that BUB1 was overexpressed in patient-derived myeloma cells, and BUB1 expression was significantly higher in patients in an advanced stage compared to those in an early stage. This suggested the involvement of aberrant BUB1 overexpression in disease progression. In human myeloma-derived cell lines (HMCLs), BUB1 knockdown reduced the frequency of chromosome segregation errors in mitotic cells. In line with this, partial knockdown of BUB1 showed reduced variations in chromosome number compared to parent cells in HMCLs. Finally, BUB1 overexpression was found to promote the clonogenic potency of HMCLs. Collectively, these results suggested that enhanced BUB1 expression caused an increase in mitotic segregation errors and the resultant emergence of subclones with altered chromosome numbers and, thus, was involved in CIN in MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464435PMC
August 2020

Lenalidomide and pomalidomide potently interfere with induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in multiple myeloma.

Br J Haematol 2020 12 19;191(5):784-795. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

An increase in immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is associated with disease progression and treatment resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). We investigated the mechanisms underlying MDSC induction, and sought to discover a strategy for prevention of MDSC induction in MM. Using a transwell co-culture system, four of nine examined human myeloma-derived cell lines (HMCLs) were potent in inducing monocytic (M)-MDSCs from normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). As the results, we identified that secretion of C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by myeloma cells is a prerequisite for induction of MDSCs in MM. The immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) compounds, such as lenalidomide (LEN) and pomalidomide (POM), were identified as potent inhibitors of MDSC induction through bidirectional molecular effects of cereblon (CRBN)-dependent and -independent downregulation of CCL5 and MIF in myeloma cells; and downregulation of C-C motif chemokine receptor 5, a receptor for CCL5, and induction of interferon regulatory factor 8, a critical transcription factor for monocytic differentiation, in PBMCs. In the present study of the molecular mechanisms underlying MDSC induction, we identified a novel effect of LEN and POM of inhibiting MDSC induction via overlapping regulatory effects in myeloma cells and normal PBMCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16881DOI Listing
December 2020

Serine-227 in the N-terminal kinase domain of RSK2 is a potential therapeutic target for mantle cell lymphoma.

Cancer Med 2020 07 18;9(14):5185-5199. Epub 2020 May 18.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

RSK2 is a serine/threonine kinase downstream signaling mediator in the RAS/ERK signaling pathway and may be a therapeutic target in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), an almost incurable disease subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In this study, serine-227 (RSK2 ) in the N-terminal kinase domain (NTKD) of RSK2 was found to be ubiquitously active in five MCL-derived cell lines and in tumor tissues derived from five MCL patients. BI-D1870, an inhibitor specific to RSK2-NTKD, caused RSK2 dephosphorylation, and thereby, induced dose-dependent growth inhibition via G /M cell cycle blockade and apoptosis in four of the five cell lines, while one cell line showed only modest sensitivity. In addition, RSK2 gene knockdown caused growth inhibition in the four BI-D1870-sensitive cell lines. Comparative gene expression profiling of the MCL-derived cell lines showed that inhibition of RSK2 by BI-D1870 caused downregulation of oncogenes, such as c-MYC and MYB; anti-apoptosis genes, such as BCL2 and BCL2L1; genes for B cell development, including IKZF1, IKZF3, and PAX5; and genes constituting the B cell receptor signaling pathway, such as CD19, CD79B, and BLNK. These findings show that targeting of RSK2 enables concomitant blockade of pathways that are critically important in B cell tumorigenesis. In addition, we found favorable combinatory growth inhibitory effects of BI-D1870 with inhibitors of BTK (ibrutinib), AKT (ipatasertib), and BCL2 (venetoclax) in cell characteristic-dependent manners. These results provide a rationale for RSK2 in the NTKD as a potential therapeutic target in MCL and for future development of a novel bioavailable RSK2 NTKD-specific inhibitor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367644PMC
July 2020

Tumor-specific transcript variants of cyclin D1 in mantle cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma with chromosome 11q13 abnormalities.

Exp Hematol 2020 04 5;84:45-53.e1. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Cyclin D1 (CCND1) overexpression is an early and unifying oncogenic event in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and multiple myeloma (MM) with chromosome 11q13 abnormalities. Herein, we report newly discovered transcript variants of the CCND1 gene in MCL and MM cells with chromosome 11q13 abnormalities. These transcript variants, designated CCND1.tv., covered the full-length coding region of CCND1 with longer 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs) of CCND1 and occasionally contained a novel exon. CCND1.tv. was specifically detectable in patient-derived primary MCL or MM cells with chromosomal translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32), but not in t(11;14)-negative cells. The lengths of the 5'-UTR sequences of CCND1.tv. differed among patients and cell lines. Introduction of CCND1.tv. led to increased expression of normal-sized CCND1 protein in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, mTOR inhibition by rapamycin or serum starvation reduced ectopic expression of CCND1.tv.-derived CCND1 protein, but not 5'-UTR less CCND1-derived CCND1 protein in HEK293 cells, suggesting that the protein expression of CCND1.tv. is regulated by the mTOR pathway. Our results suggest that the aberrant expression of CCND1.tv. may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of MCL and MM with 11q13 abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2020.02.004DOI Listing
April 2020

BRD4-Regulated Molecular Targets in Mantle Cell Lymphoma: Insights into Targeted Therapeutic Approach.

Cancer Genomics Proteomics 2020 Jan-Feb;17(1):77-89

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto, Japan

Background: Since bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) facilitates the transcription of genes important for neoplastic cells in a cancer-type specific manner, BRD4-regulated molecules may also include therapeutic targets for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a treatment-refractory subtype of malignant lymphoma.

Materials And Methods: In order to uncover direct BRD4-regulated targets in MCL, we performed integrated analysis using the pathway database and the results of both gene-expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation with parallel sequencing for BRD4.

Results: Treatment with BRD4 inhibitor I-BET151 exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell proliferation in MCL cell lines. BRD4 was found to directly regulate series of genes involved in the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway, including B-cell linker (BLNK), paired box 5 (PAX5), and IKAROS family zinc finger 3 (IKZF3), and several oncogenes, such as MYB. Indeed, the combinatory inhibition of BCR pathway and IKZF showed an additive antitumor effect.

Conclusion: Concomitant targeting multiple BRD4-regulated molecules may constitute a rational therapeutic strategy for MCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/cgp.20169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6937128PMC
June 2020

Endoscopic findings in a patient with  idiopathic/immune thrombocytopenic purpura: Gastrointestinal bleeding caused by Dieulafoy's lesion.

Indian J Gastroenterol 2020 02 5;39(1):102-103. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Departments of Hematology and Laboratory Medicine, General Incorporated Association Aiseikai Yamashina Hospital, 19-4 Takehana-Shichouno-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, 607-8086, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12664-019-01001-1DOI Listing
February 2020

Sequential therapy of four cycles of bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisolone followed by continuous lenalidomide and dexamethasone for transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

Ann Hematol 2020 Jan 25;99(1):137-145. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

The combinations of melphalan, bortezomib, and prednisolone (VMP) and of lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) are standard treatment strategies for transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). To make the most of these two strategies, we investigated the efficacy and feasibility of first-line treatment with 4 cycles of VMP followed by continuous Rd therapy in a multi-institutional phase 2 study in Japanese patients with transplant-ineligible NDMM. Thirty-six patients of median age 74 years old with NDMM initially received 35-day cycles of VMP: oral melphalan (6 mg/m) and prednisolone (60 mg/m) on days 1 to 4 and bortezomib (1.3 mg/m) on days 1, 8, 15, and 22. After 4 cycles of VMP, treatment was switched to 28-day cycles of Rd, which was continued until disease progression or emergence of an unacceptable adverse event (AE) in 33 patients, while one patient who achieved CR after VMP continued VMP at the physician's discretion. The overall response rates after VMP and after Rd were 66.7% and 86.1%, including CR rates of 5.6% and 36.1%, respectively. In a median follow-up period of 34.3 months, the progression-free survival and overall survival rates at 3 years were 43.2% and 81.3%, respectively. Grade 3-4 hematological AEs included neutropenia (39% with VMP and 24% with Rd) and thrombocytopenia (11% with VMP and 3% with Rd). There was no death due to an AE. In conclusion, sequential therapy with VMP followed by Rd is effective and mostly feasible for transplant-ineligible NDMM. The study is registered as UMIN000034815.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-019-03859-9DOI Listing
January 2020

Corrosive injury of upper gastrointestinal tract by calcium oxide.

Indian J Gastroenterol 2019 10;38(5):460-461

Departments of Hematology and Laboratory Medicine, General Incorporated Association Aiseikai Yamashina Hospital, 19-4 Takehana-Shichouno-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, 607-8086, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12664-019-00992-1DOI Listing
October 2019

Recurrent intragenic exon rearrangements of SOBP and AUTS2 in non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma.

Int J Hematol 2020 Jan 4;111(1):75-83. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Center for Molecular Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Expression of intragenic exon rearrangements (IERs) has reportedly been detected in both normal and cancer cells. However, there have been few reports of occurrence of these rearrangements specific to neoplasms including malignant lymphoma. In this study, we detected IERs of ten genes (NBPF8, SOBP, AUTS2, RAB21, SPATA13, ABCC4, WDR7, PHLPP1, NFATC1 and MAGED1) in non-Hodgkin B cell lymphoma (B-NHL) cell line KPUM-UH1 using a high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using reversely directed divergent primers within exons involved in genomic intragenic gains followed by sequencing analysis. Among them, the IERs involved in SOBP (6q21) exon 2 and 3 and AUTS2 (7q11.22) exon 2-4 were the molecular lesions specific to tumors and were frequently detected in B-NHL samples. These IERs constitute novel genetic alterations of B-NHL, which might be associated with tumorigenesis and be useful as genetic biological markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-019-02766-zDOI Listing
January 2020

A case of AL amyloidosis associated with follicular lymphoma with plasmacytic differentiation.

Int J Hematol 2020 Feb 21;111(2):317-323. Epub 2019 Sep 21.

Department of Hematology, Aiseikai Yamashina Hospital, Kyoto, Japan.

A 58-year-old woman underwent emergency surgical resection of the small intestine for intussusception as diagnosed at our hospital. Histopathological diagnosis of the resected specimen of the ileum was amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis. The colonoscopy after the surgical resection and following histopathological analysis of the biopsied specimens of the colon revealed follicular lymphoma (FL) grade 1 with plasmacytic differentiation. Histological findings of these ileal and colonic lesions were characteristic. In the ileum, CD10-positive lymphoid follicles and CD38-positive interfollicular plasma cell infiltration into villi were detected. The amyloid deposition was localized to the ileum and was adjacent to lymphoid follicles and interfollicular plasma cells. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for paraffin-embedded tissue sections (tissue-FISH) revealed that both the B cells in follicular lesions and the interfollicular plasma cells showed IGH/BCL2 fusion signals, which means the interfollicular plasma cells were originated from the differentiated neoplastic follicular B cells. The patient was treated with six courses of lymphoma chemotherapy and attained complete remission without any symptoms associated with amyloidosis. Further case analyses are needed to clarify the clinicopathological findings and to establish therapeutic strategy of AL amyloidosis associated with FL and FL with plasmacytic differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-019-02734-7DOI Listing
February 2020

Carfilzomib monotherapy in Japanese patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: A phase 1/2 study.

Cancer Sci 2019 Sep 10;110(9):2924-2932. Epub 2019 Aug 10.

Department of Hematology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

This multicenter, open-label phase 1/2 study evaluated single-agent carfilzomib in 50 heavily pretreated Japanese patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (median of five prior treatments). In phase 1, patients were dosed at three levels: 15, 20, or 20/27 mg/m . Maximum tolerated dosage was not reached at the tolerability evaluation. Patients in phase 2 were treated with 20/27 mg/m carfilzomib. Median duration of exposure to carfilzomib in the 20/27 mg/m group at this final analysis was 4.7 months (range: 0.3-39.4). Overall response rate in the 20/27 mg/m group, primary endpoint of the study, was 22.5% (n = 9) (95% confidence interval, 12.3-37.5) with 2.5% (n = 1) stringent complete response. Median progression-free survival and overall survival in the 20/27 mg/m group were 5.1 months (95% CI, 2.8-13.6) and 22.9 months (95% CI, 14.1-not estimable), respectively. Frequently occurring grade ≥3 adverse events in the 20/27 mg/m group included lymphopenia (72.5%), neutropenia (40.0%), and leukopenia (32.5%). Giving long-term carfilzomib monotherapy led to long-term overall survival for heavily pretreated multiple myeloma patients with a favorable safety profile. Carfilzomib monotherapy can be a good option for heavily pretreated multiple myeloma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6726678PMC
September 2019

Combined rituximab, bendamustine, and dexamethasone chemotherapy for relapsed or refractory indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma: a multicenter phase II study.

Int J Hematol 2019 Jul 24;110(1):77-85. Epub 2019 May 24.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

This multicenter phase II study (UMIN000008145) aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of six cycles of combination therapy (RBD) comprising rituximab, bendamustine, and dexamethasone (DEX) for relapsed or refractory (RR) indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Although the initial study protocol comprised 20 mg/body DEX on days 1 and 2, and 10 mg/body on days 3-5 [high-dose (HD-) DEX group], the dose of DEX was later decreased to 8 mg/body on days 1 and 2 [low-dose (LD-) DEX group] due to frequent cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia and recurrent retinitis. We enrolled 33 patients, and LD-DEX and HD-DEX were administered in 15 and 18 patients, respectively. The overall response and the 3-year progression-free survival rates were 88% and 75.5%, respectively. The leading adverse event was myelosuppression. Incidence of grade 3-4 leukocytopenia, neutropenia, and lymphocytopenia was 55%, 67%, and 91%, respectively. The most frequent nonhematological adverse events were CMV antigenemia and rash (33% and 30%, respectively). Incidence of CMV antigenemia over 10/100,000 white blood cells was significantly lower with LD-DEX than that with HD-DEX (P = 0.0127). In conclusion, RBD showed significant effectiveness for RR indolent B-NHL and MCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-019-02650-wDOI Listing
July 2019

A novel method of amplified fluorescent in situ hybridization for detection of chromosomal microdeletions in B cell lymphoma.

Int J Hematol 2019 May 4;109(5):593-602. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto, 602-8566, Japan.

Chromosomal microdeletions frequently cause loss of prognostically relevant tumor suppressor genes in hematologic malignancies; however, detection of minute deletions by conventional methods for chromosomal analysis, such as G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), is difficult due to their low resolution. Here, we describe a new diagnostic modality that enables detection of chromosomal microdeletions, using CDKN2A gene deletion in B cell lymphomas (BCLs) as an example. In this method, which we refer to as amplified-FISH (AM-FISH), a 31-kb fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated DNA probe encoding only CDKN2A was first hybridized with the chromosome, and then labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated anti-FITC secondary antibody to increase sensitivity. CDKN2A signals were equally identifiable by AM-FISH and conventional FISH in normal mononuclear blood cells. In contrast, when two BCL cell lines lacking CDKN2A were analyzed, CDKN2A signals were not detected by AM-FISH, whereas conventional FISH yielded false signals. Furthermore, AM-FISH detected CDKN2A deletions in two BCL patients with 9p21 microdeletions, which were not detected by conventional FISH. These results suggest that AM-FISH is a highly sensitive, specific, and simple method for diagnosis of chromosomal microdeletions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-019-02617-xDOI Listing
May 2019

Immunosuppressive therapy with rabbit antithymocyte globulin therapy for acquired aplastic anemia: a multi-institutional retrospective study in Japanese adult patients.

Int J Hematol 2019 Mar 9;109(3):278-285. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto, 602-8566, Japan.

We retrospectively analyzed efficacy and safety of therapy with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) in combination with cyclosporine A (CsA) in 30 Japanese adult patients with acquired aplastic anemia (AA) in the Kyoto Clinical Hematology Study Group. The median observation period was 31 months and the median age of the patients was 54 years. The objective response rates (ORRs) to rATG plus CsA increased over time until 18 months after the start of treatment; the rate of achievement of better than partial response at 18 months was 66.7%. The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 79% in all patients. In eight patients aged ≥ 75 years old, the ORR was 62.5% and the 2-year OS rate of 50% was not significantly inferior to that in patients aged ≤ 74 years old. The overall mortality rate was 16.7% in our cohort, while the mortality rate in patients aged ≥ 75 years old was 37.5%, which was higher than that in patients aged ≤ 74 years old (9.1%), although the difference was not statistically significant. Collectively, rATG combined with CsA is an effective and feasible treatment for AA, while patients should be appropriately selected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-018-02583-wDOI Listing
March 2019

Establishment and characterization of a novel vincristine-resistant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line containing the 8q24 homogeneously staining region.

FEBS Open Bio 2018 Dec 20;8(12):1977-1991. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Division of Hematology Department of Internal Medicine Aichi Medical University Japan.

Chromosome band 8q24 is the most frequently amplified locus in various types of cancers. has been identified as the primary oncogene at the 8q24 locus, whereas a long noncoding gene, , which lies adjacent to , has recently emerged as another potential oncogenic regulator at this position. In this study, we established and characterized a novel cell line, AMU-ML2, from a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), displaying homogeneously staining regions at the 8q24 locus. Fluorescence hybridization clearly detected an elevation in copy numbers corresponding to the homogenously staining region. In addition, a comparative genomic hybridization analysis using high-resolution arrays revealed that the 8q24 amplicon size was 1.4 Mb, containing the entire and regions. We also demonstrated a loss of heterozygosity for at 17p13 in conjunction with a frameshift mutation. Notably, AMU-ML2 cells exhibited resistance to vincristine, and cell proliferation was markedly inhibited by -shRNA-mediated knockdown. Furthermore, genes involved in cyclin D, mTOR, and Ras signaling were downregulated following knockdown, suggesting that expression was closely associated with tumor cell growth. In conclusion, AMU-ML2 cells are uniquely characterized by homogenously staining regions at the 8q24 locus, thus providing useful insights into the pathogenesis of DLBCL with 8q24 abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.12538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6275272PMC
December 2018

Outcomes after R-CHOP in patients with newly diagnosed advanced follicular lymphoma: a 10-year follow-up analysis of the JCOG0203 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2018 Nov;5(11):e520-e531

Department of Haematology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Standard treatment for untreated advanced-stage follicular lymphoma is rituximab plus chemotherapy. The incidence of histological transformation of follicular lymphoma has been reported only in heterogeneously treated populations and rarely with long-term follow-up. Additionally, the incidence of secondary malignancies after treatment, without high-dose therapy for follicular lymphoma, is largely unknown. The aim of our study was to assess progression-free survival, overall survival, incidence of secondary malignancies, and incidence of histological transformation in a 10-year follow-up analysis of the JCOG0203 trial.

Methods: In the phase 2-3 randomised JCOG0203 trial, previously untreated patients with stage III or IV indolent B-cell lymphoma, including grades 1-3 follicular lymphoma, from 44 hospital centres in Japan, were randomly assigned (1:1) by use of a minimisation method to receive six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab [375 mg/m], given on day 1, plus cyclophosphamide [750 mg/m], doxorubicin [50 mg/m], vincristine [1·4 mg/m, capped at 2·0 mg] given intravenously on day 3, and oral prednisone [100 mg once daily on days 3-7]) every 3 weeks (R-CHOP-21) or every 2 weeks (enabled by mandatory granulocyte-colony stimulating factor administration once daily for 6 days, starting on day 8; R-CHOP-14) without rituximab maintenance. Age, bulky disease (nodal or extranodal mass ≥10 cm in diameter on CT), and institution were used as adjustment factors. Investigators enrolled participants, and assignment to trial groups was done with a computer-assisted randomisation allocation sequence that took place centrally at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Data Center, without the intervention of investigators. Interventions were not masked for patients or investigators. Data were collected 10 years after enrolment of the last patient. The primary endpoint of the phase 3 part of the study was progression-free survival, and the primary endpoint of the phase 2 part of the study was the proportion of patients who achieved a complete response. Accrual was 4·5 years, and follow-up was 3 years after registration was closed. Data were updated on the cutoff date of Feb 28, 2017. Intention-to-treat analyses (ie, progression-free survival, overall survival, and incidence of secondary malignancies) were predefined, to be done at 10 years after the last patient was enrolled. An additional analysis of the incidence of histological transformation was defined 15 years after the protocol, on May 8, 2017, in a supplementary analysis plan, and assessed at 10 years after the last patient was enrolled. Follow-up is ongoing. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00147121.

Findings: Between Sept 1, 2002, and Feb 28, 2007, 300 patients were enrolled, and 149 (50%) were assigned to the R-CHOP-21 group and 151 (50%) were assigned to the R-CHOP-14 group. After eligibility was assessed, one patient was excluded from the R-CHOP-21 group. 10-year progression-free survival was not different between groups (R-CHOP-21 33%, 95% CI 25-41; R-CHOP-14 39%, 31-47; hazard ratio 0·89, 95% CI 0·67-1·17). In 248 patients with grade 1-3a follicular lymphoma, progression-free survival was 39% (33-45) at 8 years and 36% (30-42) at 10 years. The cumulative incidence of histological transformation was 3·2% (95% CI 1·5-6·0) at 5 years, 8·5% (5·4-12·4) at 8 years, and 9·3% (6·1-13·4) at 10 years after enrolment. At 10 years, the cumulative incidence of secondary malignancies was 8·1% (5·1-12·0) and the cumulative incidence of haematological secondary malignancies was 2·9% (1·3-5·5).

Interpretation: R-CHOP is a viable option for first-line treatment in patients with newly diagnosed advanced follicular lymphoma. Clinicians choosing a first-line treatment for patients with follicular lymphoma should be cautious of secondary malignancies caused by immunochemotherapy and severe complications of infectious diseases in the long-term follow-up-both of which could lead to death.

Funding: National Cancer Center and Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(18)30155-8DOI Listing
November 2018

Weekly carfilzomib and dexamethasone in Japanese patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: A phase 1 and PK/PD trial.

Cancer Sci 2018 Oct 5;109(10):3245-3252. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

This open-label multicenter phase 1 study evaluated the safety, tolerability, efficacy, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of weekly carfilzomib and dexamethasone (Cd) in Japanese patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Carfilzomib was administered by 30-minute intravenous infusion on Days 1, 8 and 15 in a 28-day cycle starting at 20 mg/m on Day 1/Cycle 1 and 70 mg/m thereafter until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity. Dexamethasone 40 mg was administered on Days 1, 8, 15 and 22 in Cycles 1-9 and on Days 1, 8 and 15 thereafter. Six patients were enrolled between March 2015 and June 2015. Patients had received a median of 4.5 (range, 4-8) prior regimens; all patients had previous therapies with bortezomib and immunomodulatory drugs. Of the 6 patients, 1 had a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and tolerability was confirmed. The DLT was grade 3 thrombotic microangiopathy, which was considered serious and occurred on Day 11/Cycle 1. All 6 patients (100%) experienced at least 1 grade ≥3 adverse event (AE). Two patients (33.3%) experienced AE (also considered adverse drug reactions) leading to study discontinuation: thrombotic microangiopathy (Day 11/Cycle 1) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (Day 6/Cycle 2). The overall response rate was 83.3% (95% confidence interval, 43.6-97.0). The weekly Cd regimen at a carfilzomib dose of 20/70 mg/m was well-tolerated among Japanese patients with RRMM. Our results could be the basis for the further development of carfilzomib treatment considering safety profiles including microangiopathy-related events and efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.13753DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6172054PMC
October 2018

Efficacy and safety of obinutuzumab in patients with previously untreated follicular lymphoma: a subgroup analysis of patients enrolled in Japan in the randomized phase III GALLIUM trial.

Int J Hematol 2018 Nov 19;108(5):499-509. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

School of Medicine, Tokai University, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa, Japan.

GALLIUM is a global phase III study that demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) with obinutuzumab plus chemotherapy (G-chemo) versus rituximab plus chemotherapy (R-chemo) in previously untreated patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). In this single-country subgroup analysis, we explored patterns of efficacy and safety in patients enrolled in the GALLIUM study in Japan (Japanese subgroup). Patients were randomized to open-label induction treatment with G-chemo or R-chemo. Responders received maintenance monotherapy with their randomized antibody for up to 2 years. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed PFS. Overall, 123 patients with FL were randomized in the Japanese subgroup (G-chemo, n = 65; R-chemo, n = 58). The majority of patients received cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy (82.9 vs 33.1% in the global GALLIUM FL population). PFS at 3 years was 89.9% (G-chemo) vs. 74.7% (R-chemo); hazard ratio 0.42; 95% confidence interval 0.15, 1.15; P = 0.08. Higher rates of grade 3-5 adverse events (96.9 vs. 89.7%) and serious adverse events (35.4 vs. 22.4%) were observed with G-chemo vs R-chemo, respectively. Neutropenia was frequent in the Japanese subgroup (92.3% G-chemo; 79.3% R-chemo). Overall, the results in the Japanese subgroup were consistent with those in the global GALLIUM population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-018-2497-0DOI Listing
November 2018

Multicenter phase 1/2 study of forodesine in patients with relapsed peripheral T cell lymphoma.

Ann Hematol 2019 Jan 5;98(1):131-142. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Department of Hematology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

Peripheral T cell lymphomas are an aggressive group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with poor outcomes for most subtypes and no accepted standard of care for relapsed patients. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of forodesine, a novel purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitor, in patients with relapsed peripheral T cell lymphomas. Patients with histologically confirmed disease, progression after ≥ 1 prior treatment, and an objective response to last treatment received oral forodesine 300 mg twice-daily. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. Forty-eight patients (median age, 69.5 years; median of 2 prior treatments) received forodesine. In phase 1 (n = 3 evaluable), no dose-limiting toxicity was observed during the first 28 days of forodesine treatment. In phase 2 (n = 41 evaluable), the ORR for the primary and final analyses was 22% (90% CI 12-35%) and 25% (90% CI 14-38%), respectively, including four complete responses (10%). Median PFS and OS were 1.9 and 15.6 months, respectively. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were lymphopenia (96%), leukopenia (42%), and neutropenia (35%). Dose reduction and discontinuation due to adverse events were uncommon. Secondary B cell lymphoma developed in five patients, of whom four were positive for Epstein-Barr virus. In conclusion, forodesine has single-agent activity within the range of approved therapies in relapsed peripheral T cell lymphomas, with a manageable safety profile, and may represent a viable treatment option for this difficult-to-treat population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-018-3418-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334730PMC
January 2019

R-High-CHOP/CHASER/LEED with autologous stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: JCOG0406 STUDY.

Cancer Sci 2018 Sep 28;109(9):2830-2840. Epub 2018 Jul 28.

Department of Hematology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Japan.

Although induction immunochemotherapy including high-dose cytarabine and rituximab followed by high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is recommended for younger patients (≤65 years old) with untreated mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), no standard induction and HDC regimen has been established. We conducted a phase II study of induction immunochemotherapy of R-High-CHOP/CHASER followed by HDC of LEED with ASCT in younger patients with untreated advanced MCL. Eligibility criteria included untreated MCL, stage II bulky to IV, and age 20-65 years. Patients received 1 cycle of R-High-CHOP followed by 3 cycles of CHASER every 3 weeks. Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) were harvested during CHASER. LEED with ASCT was delivered to patients who responded to R-High-CHOP/CHASER. Primary endpoint was 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). From June 2008 to June 2012, 45 patients (median age 59 years; range 38-65 years) were enrolled. PBSC were successfully harvested from 36 of 43 patients. Thirty-five patients completed ASCT. Two-year PFS was 77% (80% CI 68-84), which met the primary endpoint. Five-year PFS and overall survival were 52% (95% CI 34-68%) and 71% (95% CI 51-84%), respectively. Overall response and complete response rates after induction immunochemotherapy were 96% and 82%, respectively. The most common grade 4 toxicities were hematological. In younger patients with untreated MCL, R-High-CHOP/CHASER/LEED with ASCT showed high efficacy and acceptable toxicity, and it can now be considered a standard treatment option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.13719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6125440PMC
September 2018

Dual targeting of bromodomain-containing 4 by AZD5153 and BCL2 by AZD4320 against B-cell lymphomas concomitantly overexpressing c-MYC and BCL2.

Invest New Drugs 2019 04 21;37(2):210-222. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto, 602-8566, Japan.

Despite the recent therapeutic progress, the prognoses of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) that concomitantly overexpress c-MYC and BCL2, i.e., double hit lymphoma (DHL) and double expressing lymphoma (DEL), remain poor. This study examined triple targeting of c-MYC, BCL2 and the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway for DHL and DEL. We first used AZD5153, a novel bivalent inhibitor for bromodomain-containing 4 (BRD4), in DHL- and DEL-derived cell lines, because BRD4 regulates disease type-oriented key molecules for oncogenesis. AZD5153 was more effective than conventional monovalent BRD4 inhibitors, JQ1 and I-BET151, in inhibiting cell proliferation of a DHL-derived cell line and two DEL-derived cell lines, with at least 10-fold lower half growth inhibitory concentrations. AZD5153 caused G1/S cell cycle blockade, while the apoptosis-inducing effect was relatively modest. At the molecular level, AZD5153 was potent in downregulating various molecules for oncogenesis, such as c-MYC, AKT2 and MAP3K; those involved in the BCR signaling pathway, such as CD19, BLNK and CD79B; and those associated with B-cell development, such as IKZF1, IKZF3, PAX5, POU2AF1 and EBF1. In contrast, AZD5153 did not decrease anti-apoptotic BCL2 proteins, and did not activate pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins, except BAD. To augment cell death induction, we added a novel BH3-mimicking BCL2 inhibitor AZD4320 to AZD5153, and found that these two agents had a mostly synergistic antitumor effect by increasing cells undergoing apoptosis in all three cell lines. These results provide a rationale for dual targeting of BRD4 and BCL2 using AZD5153 and AZD4320 as a therapeutic strategy against DHL and DEL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-018-0623-8DOI Listing
April 2019

Establishment and Characteristics of a Novel Mantle Cell Lymphoma-derived Cell Line and a Bendamustine-resistant Subline.

Cancer Genomics Proteomics 2018 May-Jun;15(3):213-223

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

Background/aim: Bendamustine hydrochloride (BH) is a key therapeutic agent for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), while the mechanism underlying BH-resistance has not been verified.

Materials And Methods: We compared molecular/biological characteristics of a newly-generated MCL-derived cell line KPUM-YY1 and its BH-resistant subline KPUM-YY1R.

Results: The growth-inhibitory IC for BH was 20 μM in KPUM-YY1 cells, while cell proliferation was not inhibited by up to 60 μM BH in KPUM-YY1R cells. Compared to KPUM-YY1 cells, gene expression profiling in KPUM-YY1R cells revealed up-regulation of 312 genes, including ABCB1 encoding P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1). Addition of either a P-gp inhibitor or a GST inhibitor, at least partly, restored sensitivity to BH in KPUM-YY1R cells. In addition, KPUM-YY1R cells showed cross-resistance against various anti-MCL chemotherapeutics.

Conclusion: BH resistance is mediated by overlapping mechanisms with overexpression of ABCB1 and MGST1, and is potentially accompanied by multidrug resistance in MCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/cgp.20080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5971014PMC
October 2018

Elotuzumab for the Treatment of Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma, with Special Reference to its Modes of Action and SLAMF7 Signaling.

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2018 15;10(1):e2018014. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Department of Hematology and Laboratory Medicine, General Incorporated Association Aiseikai Yamashina Hospital, Japan.

Elotuzumab, targeting signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family 7 (SLAMF7), has been approved in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (ELd) for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) based on the findings of the phase III randomized trial ELOQUENT-2 (NCT01239797). Four-year follow-up analyses of ELOQUENT-2 have demonstrated that progression-free survival was 21% in ELd versus 14% in Ld. Elotuzumab binds a unique epitope on the membrane IgC2 domain of SLAMF7, exhibiting a dual mechanism of action: natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and enhancement of NK cell activity. The ADCC is mediated through engagement between Fc portion of elotuzumab and FcgRIIIa/CD16 on NK cells. Enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity results from phosphorylation of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) that is induced elotuzumab binding and recruits the SLAM-associated adaptor protein EAT-2. The coupling of EAT-2 to the phospholipase Cg enzymes SH2 domain leads to enhanced Ca influx and MAPK/Erk pathway activation, resulting in granule polarization and enhanced exocytosis in NK cells. Elotuzumab does not stimulate the proliferation of MM cells due to a lack of EAT-2. The inhibitory effects of elotuzumab on MM cell growth are not induced by the lack of CD45, even though SHP-2, SHP-1, SHIP-1, and Csk may be recruited to phosphorylated ITSM of SLAMF7. ELd improves PFS in patients with high-risk cytogenetics, i.e. t(4;14), del(17p), and 1q21 gain/amplification. Since the immune state is paralytic in advanced MM, the efficacy of ELd with minimal toxicity may bring forward for consideration of its use in the early stages of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4084/MJHID.2018.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5841936PMC
February 2018