Publications by authors named "Masaaki Hashiguchi"

33 Publications

Fine-tuning of antigen-specific immune responses by regulatory T cells activated via antigen recognition-independent and humoral factor-dependent mechanisms.

Scand J Immunol 2021 Jan 4:e13020. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Tochigi, Japan.

CD4 CD25 Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) are highly sensitive to IL-2, one of the many cytokines produced during immune responses, for their development, survival and functions. Although the effects of IL-2 administration on Tregs in vivo are well characterized, the effects on Tregs elicited by IL-2 produced during an immune response have not been elucidated. Hence, in this study, Treg behaviour during IL-2-producing immune responses was explored using in vivo and in vitro murine systems. The use of murine mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) revealed that a large proportion of Tregs increased in size, accompanied by both cell death and proliferation status. Further, these large Tregs, which were found to not recognize specific antigens, were observed in MLCs as being functionally activated by various cytokines, including IL-2, produced by antigen-specific T cells. This 'bystander Treg activation' was also observed in mice with graft-versus-host reactions (GvHRs). Alternatively, effector cells from Treg-depleted MLCs exhibited lower antigen-specific responses or higher cross-reactivity as compared to control MLCs with Tregs. Taken together, these results suggest that Tregs are activated by cytokines, mainly IL-2, released from T cells that are activated by a specific antigen. Subsequently, these activated bystander Tregs contribute to the fine-tuning of highly antigen-specific immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sji.13020DOI Listing
January 2021

IL-21 and IL-5 coordinately induce surface IgA cells.

Immunol Lett 2020 08 31;224:21-27. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, 880 Kitakobayashi, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan.

Intestinal IgA is induced by microbes and food antigens. Peyer's patches (PPs) are known as one of the inductive sites for intestinal IgA production. However, the precise mechanism of IgA induction is as yet unknown. IgA secretion was induced from IgD B cells in vitro by stimulus with lipopolysaccharide in the presence of only retinoic acid (RA) and low doses of TGF-β1. Surface IgA cells were effectively induced from IgD B cells in vitro by the mixture of RA and the cytokines TGF-β1, APRIL, IL-5 and IL-21. rIL-21 upregulated surface IgA but impaired the proliferation of stimulated B cells in the presence of rTGF-β1, RA and rAPRIL, in vitro. The addition of rIL-5 restored the impaired proliferation by rIL-21, resulting in the expansion of IgA cells. rIL-21 induced the expression of Aicda and Prdm1, and impaired Rel in IgD B cells. Blockade of IL-21R signaling by a neutralizing mAb in vivo led to lower frequencies of IgA and IgG2b cells and lower germinal center B cells in PPs in a homeostatic condition. Although amounts of small intestinal IgA and titers of anti-dsDNA, the major target of intestinal IgA, in these mice were not altered, anti-OVA IgA titers induced by OVA drinking in OVA-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice were decreased. PP-deficient TCR transgenic mice showed diminished anti-OVA IgA induction. Blockade of IL-5R signaling in vivo led to similar results with relatively weaker effects than that of IL-21R mAb administration. These results suggest that IL-21 and IL-5 play cooperative roles in surface expression of IgA in PPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2020.05.004DOI Listing
August 2020

Peyer's patches contain abundant isotype-switched B cells with activated phenotypes and are inductive sites for T-independent anti-DNA IgA.

Immunol Lett 2019 07 27;211:53-59. Epub 2019 May 27.

Department of Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Japan.

Peyer's patches (PPs) are inductive sites for IgA production; however, the induction mechanism of IgA remains largely unknown. We found that the activated phenotypes of isotype-switched PP B cells were more abundant than those of splenic B cells. Immunoglobulins (Igs) from PP B cells reacted to several substances, including DNA and diet extract. Hybridomas established from PP B cells of untreated mice revealed that IgA mainly react with DNA. PP-deficient mice revealed that PPs were dispensable for a total intestinal IgA amount but were required for intestinal anti-diet extract and anti-DNA IgA. Antibiotic-treated mice and CD4 T cell-depleted mice demonstrated that the intestinal anti-DNA IgA was induced by microbiota in a T-independent manner. Interestingly, the oral administration of IgA led to the expansion of intestinal bacteria in a reactivity-independent manner. Our findings suggest that PPs are unique and efficient inductive sites for IgA, particularly against T-independent antigens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2019.05.015DOI Listing
July 2019

The exon 38-containing ARHGEF11 splice isoform is differentially expressed and is required for migration and growth in invasive breast cancer cells.

Oncotarget 2017 Nov 18;8(54):92157-92170. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan.

Breast cancer invasion involves the loss of cell-cell junctions and acquisition of an invasive, migratory phenotype, and breast cancer cells of the basal intrinsic subtype are more invasive and metastatic than breast cancer cells of other subtypes. ARHGEF11 is a RhoGEF that was previously shown to bind to the tight junction protein ZO-1 at perijunctional actomyosin ring (PJAR), a network of cortically organized actin and myosin filaments associated with junctional complexes that regulates cell-cell adhesion and polarization. We show here that ARHGEF11 shows splice isoform expression that differs according to the intrinsic subtype of breast cancer cells and that controls their invasive phenotype. Luminal subtype breast cancer cells express the isoform of ARHGEF11 lacking exon 38 (38-), which binds to ZO-1 at PJAR and is necessary for formation and maintenance of cell-cell junctions. Basal subtype breast cancer cells express the isoform of ARHGEF11 containing exon 38 (38+), which does not bind to ZO-1 and which drives cell migration and motility. Depletion of ARHGEF11 in basal subtype breast cancer cells is sufficient to alter cell morphology from a mesenchymal stellate form with extensive cell protrusions to a cobblestone-like epithelial form, and to suppress growth and survival both and . These findings show that the expression of the particular splice isoform of ARHGEF11 is critically linked to the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells, identifying ARHGEF11 exon 38(+) as a biomarker and target for therapy of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.20985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5696171PMC
November 2017

Tumor necrosis factor superfamily member (TNFSF) 13 (APRIL) and TNFSF13B (BAFF) downregulate homeostatic immunoglobulin production in the intestines.

Cell Immunol 2018 01 27;323:41-48. Epub 2017 Oct 27.

Department of Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Japan.

Intestinal immunoglobulins (Igs) protect against microbes. However, the regulation of intestinal Ig production is poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the roles of APRIL (tumor necrosis factor superfamily member [TNFSF] 13) and BAFF (TNFSF13B) in intestinal Ig induction. Peyer's patches (PPs) are, at least in part, an inductive site for Igs, including IgA. Introducing APRIL and BAFF in vivo lowered the frequency of IgG1 or IgG2b B cells in PPs. Administration of TACI-Fc upregulated the frequency of IgG1, IgG2b, and IgA B cells in PPs, suggesting that APRIL and BAFF attenuate Ig production in these regions. TACI-Fc also upregulated intestinal IgA levels and expanded germinal center B cells in PPs. These results indicate that APRIL and BAFF paradoxically downregulate homeostatic Ig production in the intestines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2017.10.009DOI Listing
January 2018

Peyer's patch innate lymphoid cells regulate commensal bacteria expansion.

Immunol Lett 2015 May 17;165(1):1-9. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Department of Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi 321-0293, Japan.

Anatomical containment of commensal bacteria in the intestinal mucosa is promoted by innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). However, the mechanism by which ILCs regulate bacterial localization to specific regions remains unknown. Here we show that Peyer's patch (PP) ILCs robustly produce IL-22 and IFN-γ in the absence of exogenous stimuli. Antibiotic treatment of mice decreased both IL-22+ and IFN-γ+ cells in PPs. Blockade of both IL-2 and IL-23 signaling in vitro lowered IL-22 and IFN-γ production. PP ILCs induced mRNA expression of the antibacterial proteins RegIIIβ and RegIIIγ in intestinal epithelial cells. Furthermore, in vivo depletion of ILCs rather than T cells altered bacterial composition and allowed bacterial proliferation in PPs. Collectively, our results show that ILCs regulate the expansion of commensal bacteria in PPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2015.03.002DOI Listing
May 2015

IL-33 activates eosinophils of visceral adipose tissue both directly and via innate lymphoid cells.

Eur J Immunol 2015 Mar 19;45(3):876-85. Epub 2015 Jan 19.

Department of Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan.

Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes involved in allergic reactions as well as adipose tissue regulation. IL-5 is required for eosinophil survival; however, the in vivo mechanisms of eosinophil regulation are not fully understood. A tg mouse model with il5 promoter-driven EGFP expression was established for detecting the IL-5-producing cells in vivo. Il5-egfp tg mice expressed high levels of EGFP in gonadal adipose tissue (GAT) cells. EGFP(+) cells in GAT were mainly group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). IL-33 preferentially expanded EGFP(+) cells and eosinophils in GAT in vivo. EGFP(+) ILCs were found to upregulate prg2 mRNA expression in GAT eosinophils. These results demonstrate that ILCs activate eosinophils in GAT. The blockage of IL-33Rα, on the other hand, did not impair EGFP(+) ILC numbers but did impair eosinophil numbers in vivo. GAT eosinophils expressed IL-33Rα and IL-33 expanded eosinophil numbers in CD90(+) cell-depleted mice. IL-33 was further observed to induce the expression of retnla and epx mRNA in eosinophils. These findings demonstrate that IL-33 directly activates eosinophils in GAT, and together with our other findings described above, our findings show that IL-33 has dual pathways via which it activates eosinophils in vivo: a direct activation pathway and a group 2 ILC-mediated pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201444969DOI Listing
March 2015

NFκB attenuates IL-5 production and upregulates T-box transcription factors in Th2-like T cells.

Cytotechnology 2014 May 11;66(3):373-82. Epub 2013 Aug 11.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kitakobayashi, Mibu, Tochigi, 321-0293, Japan,

IL-5 plays important roles in eosinophil differentiation, expansion, and recruitment. The regulation of IL-5 seems critical for the treatment of eosinophil-mediated allergic reactions. However, the precise mechanisms for IL-5 regulation remain unknown. In this study, we investigated how IL-5 production is regulated. The transduction of GATA-3 into a murine T cell hybridoma resulted in acquiring the ability to produce IL-5 in response to an antigenic stimulus like Th2 cells. This production was dependent on the cAMP-PKA pathway, but not on p38 activation. Transduction of NIK largely impaired IL-5 production. RelA and RelB similarly impaired IL-5 production. RelA decreased not only IL-5 protein amount but mRNA. RelA also inhibited Il5-luciferase reporter activity. The transduction of GATA-3 decreased the expression of Tbx21 and Eomes, but the additional transduction of RelA abrogated the decreased expression of GATA-3-induced Tbx21 and Eomes. Furthermore, the transduction of T-bet or Eomes into the GATA-3-transduced T cell hybridoma impaired IL-5 production. These results suggested that strong enhancement of the NFκB pathway downregulates IL-5 production and upregulates T-box protein expression to shift an immune response from Th2 to inflammatory Th1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10616-013-9585-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3973803PMC
May 2014

CD2-mediated regulation of peripheral CD4(+)  CD25(+) regulatory T-cell apoptosis accompanied by down-regulation of Bim.

Immunology 2013 May;139(1):48-60

Department of Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan.

Extensive studies on CD4(+)  CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells suggest that they are important in regulating immune responses. However, mechanisms of peripheral Treg cell homeostasis are unknown. We found that stromal cells isolated from secondary lymphoid organs such as spleen and lymph nodes could support the survival of Treg cells. This was dependent on CD2 engagement and a direct interaction between Treg cells and stromal cells. In the presence of stromal cells, Bim, a pro-apoptotic factor, was partially decreased in Treg cells. This effect could be inhibited by anti-CD2 blocking antibodies, indicating that stimulation through CD2 on Treg cells regulates Bim expression, which may be relevant to Treg cell apoptosis. Therefore, Treg cell interactions with stromal cells through CD2 may be essential for Treg cell survival. Surprisingly, the expression of CD2 ligands on stromal cells was not detected. Hence, it is not clear how CD2 on Treg cells contributes to a direct interaction with the stromal cells and participates in survival support for Treg cells. Taken together, CD2 stimuli were mandatory for Treg cell survival with reduced Bim expression, but CD2 may not function as a direct receptor for molecules on stromal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.12054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3634538PMC
May 2013

Intact B7-H3 signaling promotes allograft prolongation through preferential suppression of Th1 effector responses.

Eur J Immunol 2012 Sep;42(9):2343-53

Transplantation Research Center, Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Ligands of the B7 family provide both positive and negative costimulatory signals to the CD28 family of receptors on T lymphocytes, the balance of which determines the immune response. B7-H3 is a member of the B7 family whose function in T-cell activation has been the subject of some controversy: in autoimmunity and tumor immunity, it has been described as both costimulatory and coinhibitory, while in transplantation, B7-H3 signaling is thought to contribute to graft rejection. However, we now demonstrate results to the contrary. Signaling through a putative B7-H3 receptor prolonged allograft survival in a fully MHC-mismatched cardiac model and promoted a shift toward a Th2 milieu; conversely, B7-H3 blockade, achieved by use of a blocking antibody, resulted in accelerated rejection, an effect associated with enhanced IFN-γ production. Finally, graft prolongation achieved by CTLA4 Ig was shortened both by B7-H3 blockade and the absence of recipient B7-H3. These findings suggest a coinhibitory role for B7-H3. However, experience with other CD28/B7 family members suggests that immune redundancy plays a crucial role in determining the functions of various pathways. Given the abundance of conflicting data, it is plausible that, under differing conditions, B7-H3 may have both positive and negative costimulatory functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201242501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3822046PMC
September 2012

Antibodies against B7-DC with differential binding properties exert opposite effects.

Hybridoma (Larchmt) 2012 Feb;31(1):40-7

Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is an immunoregulatory receptor on T cells that binds two ligands, B7-H1 and B7-DC. Although accumulating reports suggest a critical role for the B7-H1:PD-1 pathway in peripheral tolerance, the actual involvement of B7-DC has not been well confirmed. Here, we established a new MAb against mouse B7-DC (MIH37) and compared its functional properties with a previously established anti-B7-DC MAb (TY25). Binding analyses using flow cytometry demonstrated that MIH37 showed an approximately four-fold higher binding affinity to B7-DC and stronger inhibitory effects on B7-DC:PD-1 binding. In contrast to the effects of TY25, treatment with MIH37 at both sensitization and challenge inhibited hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity reactions. Furthermore, the addition of MIH37 inhibited OVA-specific T cell responses in vitro. The inhibitory effects of MIH37 were counteracted by co-blockade with PD-1 and absent in PD-1-deficient mice, suggesting PD-1-dependent action of MIH37. Our present results suggest that greater complexities of PD-1-mediated functions are induced via ligand binding for controlling immunity and tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hyb.2011.0087DOI Listing
February 2012

Naïve CD4+ T cells of Peyer's patches produce more IL-6 than those of spleen in response to antigenic stimulation.

Immunol Lett 2011 Dec 12;141(1):109-15. Epub 2011 Sep 12.

Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Peyer's patches (PPs) are potential sites where specific mucosal immune responses and oral tolerance are induced. The unique features of these immune responses are thought to occur in micromilieu and are largely affected by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells. In this study, we investigated the cytokine profiles induced by the activation of CD4(+) T cells of PPs. PP cells from TCR transgenic mice secreted greater amounts of IL-5 and IL-6 than spleen cells after antigenic stimulation. IL-5 was mainly produced by PP non-T cells, whereas IL-6 was secreted by PP CD4(+) cells. PPs contained two major populations including naïve and memory/activated CD4(+) cells; both populations secreted IL-6 upon activation. We also found that CD4(+)/CD62L(hi) naïve cells from PPs secreted a greater amount of IL-6 after stimulation than those from the spleen. Furthermore, subtraction and qPCR analyses revealed that PP CD4(+)/CD62L(hi) cells express a greater amount of transcripts of GA-binding protein β subunit 1 than those of the spleen. These results suggest that naïve T cells as well as non-T cells and activated/memory T cells from PPs are distinct from their splenic counterparts and thus cause unique immune responses the in intestine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2011.09.001DOI Listing
December 2011

Immunoregulatory molecule B7-H1 (CD274) contributes to skin carcinogenesis.

Cancer Res 2011 Jul 5;71(14):4737-41. Epub 2011 Jul 5.

Departments of Molecular Immunology and Oral and Maxillo-facial Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

B7-H1 (CD274), a member of the B7 family of coinhibitory molecules, is often induced in human tumors and its expression is closely correlated with a poor prognosis or higher malignancy grade. Tumor-associated B7-H1 is implicated in mechanisms of immune escape. Under inflammatory conditions, B7-H1 is also inducible in normal epithelial cells, but little is known about its involvement in the conversion of normal cells to tumor cells. We recently found that skin-specific expression of B7-H1 accelerates chemically induced carcinogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), despite impaired skin inflammatory responses, in B7-H1 transgenic (B7-H1tg) mice. B7-H1tg-derived keratinocytes (KC) and SCCs exhibited a marked reduction of E-cadherin, and B7-H1tg-originated SCCs showed elevated expression of the transcription factors Slug and Twist, suggesting that B7-H1 overexpression in KCs promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and accelerates carcinogenesis. This review discusses the diverse functions of B7-H1 in carcinogenesis and cancer progression, and considers future directions for developing cancer therapy targeting B7-H1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-0527DOI Listing
July 2011

B7-H1 overexpression regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and accelerates carcinogenesis in skin.

Cancer Res 2011 Feb 15;71(4):1235-43. Epub 2010 Dec 15.

Department of Molecular Immunology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

B7-H1 (CD274) is a T-cell coinhibitory molecule that is also often induced on human carcinoma cells, where its expression has been implicated in immune escape. Under inflammatory conditions, B7-H1 is also inducible in normal epithelial cells but little is known about its involvement in conversion of normal cells to tumor cells. Here, we show that skin-specific expression of B7-H1 accelerates inflammatory carcinogenesis in a methylcholantrene (MCA)-induced model of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Inflammatory responses induced by MCA or phorbol ester TPA were clearly inhibited in B7-H1 transgenic mice (B7-H1tg mice). Antibody-mediated blockade of either B7-H1 or the related molecule PD-1 revealed that their ability to limit inflammation relied on ligand interactions made by B7-H1 or PD-1. Skin keratinocytes derived from B7-H1tg mice exhibited constitutive reduction of E-cadherin, and SCC induced in B7-H1tg mice also showed loss of E-cadherin along with elevated expression of the transcription factors Slug and Twist that drive epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our results indicate that upregulation of B7-H1 in skin epithelial cells promotes EMT and accelerates carcinogenesis, revealing insights into the significance of B7-H1 overexpression on solid tumor cells and hinting at a close relationship between EMT and immune escape signaling pathways in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-2217DOI Listing
February 2011

Keratinocyte-associated B7-H1 directly regulates cutaneous effector CD8+ T cell responses.

J Immunol 2010 May 2;184(9):4918-25. Epub 2010 Apr 2.

Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Keratinocytes (KCs) may play important roles for maintenance of peripheral tolerance in the upper layers of the skin. Coinhibitory signals mediated via the programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligand B7-H1 (PD-L1/CD274) are crucial for the downregulation of T cell immune responses and for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. In this study, to investigate the role of KC-expressed B7-H1 in the regulation of T cell immune responses, we generated transgenic (tg) mice overexpressing B7-H1 under the control of keratin 14 (K14) promoter (K14-B7-H1 tg). K14-B7-H1 tg mice displayed impaired contact hypersensitivity (CH) responses to primary and secondary hapten challenges. The K14-B7-H1 tg mice did not exhibit substantial impairment of cutaneous dendritic cell migration after sensitization and of hapten-specific proliferation and IFN-gamma production of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the draining lymph nodes, suggesting that overexpression of B7-H1 on KCs did not affect the induction phase of the CH response. The systemic or s.c. injection of hapten-sensitized T cells into the K14-B7-H1 tg mice did not efficiently induce the CH response. IFN-gamma expression and apoptosis of KCs in the challenged ears were impaired in K14-B7-H1 tg mice. IFN-gamma production by presensitized CD8(+) T cells stimulated with hapten-pulsed KCs was markedly impaired for the KCs obtained from the K14-B7-H1 tg mice but was restored by the addition of an anti-B7-H1 mAb. These results suggest that KC-associated B7-H1 directly downregulates the effector function of CD8(+) T cells by associating with PD-1 at local inflammatory sites and that it plays a role in peripheral T cell tolerance against exogenous Ags.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0902478DOI Listing
May 2010

Topical application of siRNA targeting cutaneous dendritic cells in allergic skin disease.

Methods Mol Biol 2010 ;623:373-81

Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

RNA interference is a promising method for silencing specific genes and has great potential for therapeutic applications. However, the major hurdle for therapeutic application is the limited stability of double-strand RNA (dsRNA) and the absence of a reliable delivery method to target cells. Skin appears to be a favorable target for small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapy. Dendritic cells (DCs) exist in the skin and mucosae on the front lines of defense; these cells capture antigens and play a crucial role in inducing immunity and tolerance.In our recent work, we have shown a successful treatment using CD86 siRNA targeting cutaneous DCs. A costimulatory molecule, CD86, is induced on DCs in situ after antigen uptake, and CD86-expressing DCs migrate to the regional lymph nodes to present antigens to T cells. Topical application of cream-emulsified CD86 siRNA ameliorated the clinical manifestations in murine contact hypersensitivity (CH) and atopic dermatitis (AD)-like disease. Our method may be advantageous for the treatment of allergic skin diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60761-588-0_24DOI Listing
May 2010

Enhancement of effector CD8+ T-cell function by tumour-associated B7-H3 and modulation of its counter-receptor triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-like transcript 2 at tumour sites.

Immunology 2010 Jul 5;130(3):363-73. Epub 2010 Feb 5.

Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Summary: B7-H3 is a B7-family co-stimulatory molecule and is broadly expressed on various tissues and immune cells. Transduction of B7-H3 into some tumours enhances anti-tumour responses. We have recently found that a triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-like transcript 2 (TLT-2) is a receptor for B7-H3. Here, we examined the roles of tumour-associated B7-H3 and the involvement of TLT-2 in anti-tumour immunity. Ovalbumin (OVA)(257-264)-specific OT-I CD8(+) T cells exhibited higher cytotoxicity against B7-H3-transduced OVA-expressing tumour cells (B7-H3/E.G7) in vitro and selectively eliminated B7-H3/E.G7 cells in vivo. The presence of B7-H3 on target cells efficiently augmented CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity against alloantigen or OVA, whereas the presence of B7-H3 in the priming phase did not affect the induced cytotoxicity. B7-H3 transduction into five tumour cell lines efficiently reduced their tumorigenicity and regressed growth. Treatment with either anti-B7-H3 or anti-TLT-2 monoclonal antibody accelerated growth of a tumour that expressed endogenous B7-H3, suggesting a co-stimulatory role of the B7-H3-TLT-2 pathway. The TLT-2 was preferentially expressed on CD8(+) T cells in regional lymph nodes, but was down-regulated in tumour-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells. Transduction of TLT-2 into OT-I CD8(+) T cells enhanced antigen-specific cytotoxicity against both parental and B7-H3-transduced tumour cells. Our results suggest that tumour-associated B7-H3 directly augments CD8(+) T-cell effector function, possibly by ligation of TLT-2 on tumour-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells at the local tumour site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2567.2009.03236.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2913216PMC
July 2010

Possible involvement of soluble B7-H4 in T cell-mediated inflammatory immune responses.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009 Nov 31;389(2):349-53. Epub 2009 Aug 31.

Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan.

B7-H4, a newly identified B7 family molecule, is reported to regulate T cell activation. However, the expression and function of B7-H4 remain controversial. Here, we demonstrated that B7-H4 expression in immune cells was undetectable at both the transcription and cell-surface protein levels. B7-H4 transfectants augmented anti-CD3 mAb-induced re-directed cytotoxicity and this was inhibited by anti-B7-H4 mAb. In a hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity model, treatment with anti-B7-H4 mAb at sensitization, but not at challenge, efficiently suppressed the ear swelling and CD8(+) T cell activation assessed by CD25 expression and IFN-gamma production. We found that cells expressing B7-H4 secreted soluble B7-H4 and the serum B7-H4 level increased with disease progression in lupus-prone and collagen-induced arthritis autoimmune mice and after the antigen challenge in allergic inflammatory diseases. Our results suggest a different action of B7-H4 in T cell-mediated inflammatory responses and the possible involvement of soluble B7-H4 in inflammatory immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.08.144DOI Listing
November 2009

Enhancement of T-cell-mediated anti-tumour immunity via the ectopically expressed glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor-related receptor ligand (GITRL) on tumours.

Immunology 2009 Aug;127(4):489-99

Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor-related receptor (GITR) costimulates functions of both effector and regulatory T cells. The administration of agonistic anti-GITR monoclonal antibodies efficiently enhances various T-cell-mediated immune responses; however, it is unknown to what extent the ligand of GITR (GITRL) contributes to T-cell responses. We investigated the involvement of endogenously expressed GITRL on dendritic cells and ectopically expressed GITRL on tumours in T-cell-mediated immunity. Expression of GITRL on dendritic cells in secondary lymphoid organs was limited, and treatment with anti-GITRL monoclonal antibodies did not substantially affect T-cell-mediated immunity to alloantigens, a specific protein antigen (ovalbumin), or tumour antigens. The introduction of GITRL promoted anti-tumour immunity in four tumour models. Tumour-associated GITRL greatly augmented the effector function of CD8(+) T cells and enhanced the contribution of CD8(+) T cells. These events reduced the crucial contribution of CD25(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cells, which were found to inhibit immunity against tumours lacking GITRL. Peritumoral injection of GITRL tumour vaccine efficiently inhibited the growth of established tumours. Our results suggest that the ectopic expression of GITRL in tumour cells enhances anti-tumour immunity at peripheral tumour sites. Consequently, the combined use of a GITRL tumour vaccine with methods aimed at enhancing the activation of host antigen-presenting cells in secondary lymphoid tissues may be a promising strategy for tumour immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2567.2008.03036.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2729526PMC
August 2009

The glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related protein (GITR)-GITR ligand pathway acts as a mediator of cutaneous dendritic cell migration and promotes T cell-mediated acquired immunity.

J Immunol 2009 Mar;182(5):2708-16

Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) has various roles in the activation of T cells and inflammation. In this study, we investigated the roles of the GITR-GITR ligand (GITRL) pathway in contact hypersensitivity (CH). Treatment with anti-GITRL mAb at sensitization inhibited CH responses. Depletion studies using an anti-CD25 or anti-PDCA-1 mAb revealed that regulatory T cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs), known to express high levels of GITR and GITRL, respectively, were not apparently involved in GITRL-mediated CH responses. Treatment with/addition of anti-GITRL mAb in the experiments for hapten-specific T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production showed a minor contribution of the GITRL, which was weakly expressed on DCs in draining lymph nodes (dLNs). Interestingly, anti-GITRL mAb treatment inhibited the migration of cutaneous DCs to the dLNs. Epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) constitutively express GITR, whereas Langerhans cells (LCs) express higher levels of GITRL compared with DCs in dLNs. GITR ligation, by an anti-GITR mAb, in KCs promoted expression of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and blockade of GITRL-inhibited IL-1beta and CCR7 expression in sensitized skin. These results suggest that the GITR-GITRL pathway promotes epidermal inflammatory cytokine production by KCs and LCs, resulting in migration of cutaneous DCs from the skin to the dLNs. This is the first report demonstrating the involvement of the GITR-GTRL pathway in interactions with KCs and LCs and the migration of DCs. Our findings provide important implications for understanding the molecular bases of KC-LC interactions and for developing new therapeutic strategies in skin disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0803704DOI Listing
March 2009

Tim-3 mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and cross-presentation.

Blood 2009 Apr 17;113(16):3821-30. Epub 2009 Feb 17.

Department of Immunology, Biomedical Research Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Phagocytes such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) engulf apoptotic cells to maintain peripheral immune tolerance. However, the mechanism for the recognition of dying cells by phagocytes is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) recognizes apoptotic cells through the FG loop in the IgV domain, and is crucial for clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytes. Whereas Tim-4 is highly expressed on peritoneal resident macrophages, Tim-3 is expressed on peritoneal exudate macrophages, monocytes, and splenic DCs, indicating distinct Tim-mediated phagocytic pathways used by different phagocytes. Furthermore, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by CD8(+) DCs is inhibited by anti-Tim-3 mAb, resulting in a reduced cross-presentation of dying cell-associated antigens in vitro and in vivo. Administration of anti-Tim-3 as well as anti-Tim-4 mAb induces autoantibody production. These results indicate a crucial role for Tim-3 in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and cross-presentation, which may be linked to peripheral tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2008-10-185884DOI Listing
April 2009

Splenic Dendritic Cells from Antigen-Fed Mice Induced Antigen-Specific T Cell Unresponsiveness in vivo.

Cytotechnology 2003 Nov;43(1-3):41-8

Research Center, Morinaga & Co., Ltd., Yokohama, 230-8504, Japan.

While it is well-known that orally fed antigens induce systemic T cell tolerance (oral tolerance), the mechanism by which this occurs, however, remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the role of splenic dendritic cells (DCs) in the process of oral tolerance induction and/or maintenance, by using an adoptive transfer system of antigen (Ag)-specific CD4(+) T cells from ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell receptor transgenic mice and DCs from OVA-fed BALB/c mice. Transfer of splenic DCs from OVA-fed mice reduced IL-2 productivity and the proliferative activity of pre-transferred Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells to ex vivo Ag stimulation. There were no changes in expression levels of costimulatory molecules on DCs from OVA-fed mice. Our results show that orally administered Ags induce systemic T cell unresponsiveness through splenic DCs without inducing cell division of T cells, thus providing evidence that splenic DCs are involved in oral tolerance induction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:cyto.0000039907.30815.65DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3449597PMC
November 2003

Murine Peyer's patch dendritic cells prime naïve CD4(+) T cells to produce interferon-gamma.

Cytotechnology 2002 Nov;40(1-3):31-8

Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

We investigated the role of Peyer's patch (PP) dendritic cells (DCs) in the production of interferon (IFN)-gamma from naïve CD4(+) T cells of T cell receptor transgenic mice. PP DCs were found to prime naïve CD4(+) T cells for the production of higher levels of IFN-gamma, when compared to spleen (SP) DCs. However, a similar level of interleukin-12 (IL-12) production was observed for PP and SP DCs stimulated via the CD40 molecule. In addition, PP DCs expressed slightly higher levels of B7.2 (CD86) compared to SP DCs. This data demonstrates that PP DCs have a distinct function in the induction of IFN-gammas and suggests that PP DCs may enhance IFN-gamma production via another cytokine or costimulatory molecule, in addition to IL-12.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023949620172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3449535PMC
November 2002

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-like transcript 2 (TLT-2) is a counter-receptor for B7-H3 and enhances T cell responses.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008 Jul 23;105(30):10495-500. Epub 2008 Jul 23.

Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan.

The B7 family member B7-H3 (CD276) plays important roles in immune responses. However, the function of B7-H3 remains controversial. We found that murine B7-H3 specifically bound to Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-like transcript 2 (TLT-2, TREML2). TLT-2 was expressed on CD8(+) T cells constitutively and on activated CD4(+) T cells. Stimulation with B7-H3 transfectants preferentially up-regulated the proliferation and IFN-gamma production of CD8(+) T cells. Transduction of TLT-2 into T cells resulted in enhanced IL-2 and IFN-gamma production via interactions with B7-H3. Blockade of the B7-H3:TLT-2 pathway with a mAb against B7-H3 or TLT-2 efficiently inhibited contact hypersensitivity responses. Our results demonstrate a direct interaction between B7-H3 and TLT-2 that preferentially enhances CD8(+) T cell activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0802423105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2492502PMC
July 2008

Topical application of cream-emulsified CD86 siRNA ameliorates allergic skin disease by targeting cutaneous dendritic cells.

Mol Ther 2008 Jul 6;16(7):1323-30. Epub 2008 May 6.

Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Induction of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 on dendritic cells (DCs) in the peripheral tissues is a critical event in triggering antigen-specific immune responses. In this study, we propose a new small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapy using cream-emulsified CD86 siRNA, targeting DCs for murine contact hypersensitivity (CH) and atopic dermatitis (AD)-like disease. Topical application of CD86 siRNA efficiently inhibited CH and markedly decreased the numbers of infiltrating CD86(+) or major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II(+) cells in murine ear skin. The total number of cells, the percentage of hapten-carrying DCs, and their CD86 expression in the regional lymph nodes (RLNs) also significantly decreased. These results suggest that the silencing of CD86 in local DCs inhibits the recruitment and migration of DCs into the skin and RLNs, respectively, resulting in reduced antigen-specific local inflammation. The therapeutic efficacy of the CD86 siRNA was confirmed in AD-prone NC/Nga mice. Treatment produced marked amelioration in the clinical manifestations of AD and reduced the antigen-specific production of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG1. Our results suggest that the targeting of cutaneous DCs by CD86 siRNA may be a promising strategy in the treatment of allergic skin disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mt.2008.91DOI Listing
July 2008

GITR ligand-costimulation activates effector and regulatory functions of CD4+ T cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008 May 17;369(4):1134-8. Epub 2008 Mar 17.

Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan.

Engagement of glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) enables the costimulation of both CD25(-)CD4(+) effector (Teff) and CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory (Treg) cells; however, the effects of GITR-costimulation on Treg function remain controversial. In this study, we examined the effects of GITR ligand (GITRL) binding on the respective functions of CD4(+) T cells. GITRL-P815 transfectants efficiently augmented anti-CD3-induced proliferation and cytokine production by Teff cells. Proliferation and IL-10 production in Treg were also enhanced by GITRL transfectants when exogenous IL-2 and stronger CD3 stimulation was provided. Concomitant GITRL-costimulation of Teff and Treg converted the anergic state of Treg into a proliferating state, maintaining and augmenting their function. Thus, GITRL-costimulation augments both effector and regulatory functions of CD4(+) T cells. Our results suggest that highly activated and increased ratios of Treg reverse the immune-enhancing effects of GITRL-costimulation in Teff, which may be problematic for therapeutic applications using strong GITR agonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.03.024DOI Listing
May 2008

Expression and function of the B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA/CD272) on human T cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006 Jun 21;344(4):1121-7. Epub 2006 Apr 21.

Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan.

Co-signal receptors provide crucial activating or attenuating signals for T cells. The B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA/CD272) is a third member of co-inhibitory receptors, which belongs to the CD28 immunoglobulin-superfamily. Using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human BTLA, we show that BTLA is constitutively expressed on most CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and its expression progressively decreases upon T cell activation. Polarized Th1 and Th2 cells contained both BTLA-positive and BTLA-negative populations, but the extended culture diminished BTLA expression. Cross-linking BTLA with an agonistic mAb inhibited T cell proliferation and the production of the cytokines IFN-gamma and IL-10 in response to anti-CD3 stimulation. BTLA-mediated inhibition of T cell activation occurred during both primary CD4+ T cell responses and secondary CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, suggesting that BTLA ligation sends a constitutive "off" signal to T cells and thus might play an important role in the maintenance of T cell tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.03.242DOI Listing
June 2006

IkB-alpha-specific transcript regulation by the C-terminal end of c-Rel.

FEBS Lett 2005 Jan;579(1):141-4

Program in Molecular Immunology, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, 1120, 15th Street, Augusta, GA 30912-2600, USA.

The NF-kB family transcription factor c-Rel is a critical molecule for inducing expression of cytokine genes by T cells. Here, we report that a deletion of the C-terminal end, similar to the deletion in the highly oncogenic chicken v-Rel gene, renders c-Rel hyperactive toward cytokine gene promoters. At the same time, this mutation dramatically reduced c-Rel activity in induction of IkB-alpha mRNA expression. Moreover, ectopic expression of IkB-alpha, along with the C-terminal truncated c-Rel, abrogates hyperactivity of this mutant. IkB-alpha co-expression did not affect the function of wild-type c-Rel. The data demonstrate that the C-terminal end of c-Rel has specific activity for IkB-alpha mRNA expression and is dispensable for IL-2 gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2004.11.060DOI Listing
January 2005

CD4(-)c-kit(-)CD3epsilon(-)IL-2Ralpha(+) Peyer's patch cells are a novel cell subset which secrete IL-5 in response to IL-2: implications for their role in IgA production.

Eur J Immunol 2004 Jul;34(7):1920-9

Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

In this study, we examined which cell population contributes to IL-5 production by Peyer's patch (PP) cells. Thy1.2(-) fraction of PP cells, but not those of splenocytes, secreted IL-5 in response to IL-2. We found that CD3epsilon(-)IL-2Ralpha(+) cells purified from the Thy1.2(-)B220(-) fraction of PP cells secreted IL-5 when stimulated with IL-2. CD3epsilon(-)IL-2Ralpha(+) cells were subdivided into CD4(+) and CD4(-) populations or c-kit(+) and c-kit(-) populations, and only the CD4(-) and c-kit(-) CD3epsilon(-)IL-2Ralpha(+) cells secreted IL-5 in response to IL-2. CD3epsilon(-)IL-2Ralpha(+) cells did not express NK cell-markers and exhibited a lymphoid morphology. We have therefore identified CD3epsilon(-)IL-2Ralpha(+) cells as a unique lymphoid population that are not classified into conventional IL-5-producing cell populations, such as T cells, mast cells and NK cells. Depletion of CD3epsilon(-)IL-2Ralpha(+) cells from PP resulted in reduced IL-5 production. Furthermore, IgA secretion by B cells was increased when PP B cells were cocultured with CD3epsilon(-)IL-2Ralpha(+) cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the novel subset of CD4(-)c-kit(-)CD3epsilon(-)IL-2Ralpha(+) PP cells are capable of secreting a high level of IL-5 in response to IL-2, contribute markedly to IL-5 production and help IgA secretion by B cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.200324696DOI Listing
July 2004

Costimulation via glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor in both conventional and CD25+ regulatory CD4+ T cells.

J Immunol 2004 Jun;172(12):7306-14

Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan.

The glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor (GITR), which is a member of the TNF receptor family, is expressed preferentially at high levels on CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells and plays a key role in the peripheral tolerance that is mediated by these cells. GITR is also expressed on conventional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and its expression is enhanced rapidly after activation. In this report we show that the GITR provides a potent costimulatory signal to both CD25+ and CD25- CD4+ T cells. GITR-mediated stimulation induced by anti-GITR mAb DTA-1 or GITR ligand transfectants efficiently augmented the proliferation of both CD25-CD4+ and CD25+CD4+ T cells under the limited dose of anti-CD3 stimulation. The augmentation of T cell activation was further confirmed by the enhanced cell cycle progression; early induction of the activation Ags, CD69 and CD25; cytokine production, such as IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-10; anti-CD3-induced redirected cytotoxicity; and intracellular signaling, assessed by translocation of NF-kappaB components. GITR costimulation showed a potent ability to produce high amounts of IL-10, which resulted in counter-regulation of the enhanced proliferative responses. Our results highlight evidence that GITR acts as a potent and unique costimulator for an early CD4+ T cell activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.172.12.7306DOI Listing
June 2004