Dr. Masa-Aki Oikawa, DVM, PhD - Pathology Unit, Diagnostic and Research Laboratory, Al Shaqab Equine Veterinary Medical Center - Head of Pathology Unit, Senior Veterinary Pathologist

Dr. Masa-Aki Oikawa

DVM, PhD

Pathology Unit, Diagnostic and Research Laboratory, Al Shaqab Equine Veterinary Medical Center

Head of Pathology Unit, Senior Veterinary Pathologist

Education City, Doha | Qatar

Main Specialties: Pathology-Anatomic & Clinical

Additional Specialties: Equine Pathology, Equine Clinical Science

ORCID logohttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6832-3242


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Dr. Masa-Aki Oikawa, DVM, PhD - Pathology Unit, Diagnostic and Research Laboratory, Al Shaqab Equine Veterinary Medical Center - Head of Pathology Unit, Senior Veterinary Pathologist

Dr. Masa-Aki Oikawa

DVM, PhD

Introduction

I had worked at Equine Research Institute belonging to the Japan Racing association (JRA) for thirty-six years (1970-2006) as an anatomic pathologist. Thereafter, I have been worked at school of veterinary medicine, Kitasato University as a professor (2006~ 2013). From February 25, 2018, I will join and start as a member of Qatar Foundation and as a senior veterinary pathologist at Equine Veterinary Medical Center in Education City, Doha, Qatar.

Degree: DVM, Doctor (Veterinary Pathology), Diplomate of Japanese College of Veterinary Pathologists)

Specialized field: Reproductive, perinatal, orthopedic, and vascular pathology

Research Interest: Pathomorphogenesis of infertility, abortion and neonatal loss, endotoxemia, and respiratory disease in association with transport in horses

Primary Affiliation: Pathology Unit, Diagnostic and Research Laboratory, Al Shaqab Equine Veterinary Medical Center - Education City, Doha , Qatar

Specialties:

Additional Specialties:

Research Interests:


View Dr. Masa-Aki Oikawa’s Resume / CV

Education

Apr 1992
Japanese College of Veterinary Pathologists
Diplomate
Large Animal
Sep 1990
Kitasato University, School of Veterinary Medicine
PhD
Veterinary Pathology
Mar 1970
Kitasato University, School of Veterinary Medicine
DVM
Veterinary Lisence: The Board of Veterinary Examiners of the Ministry of Agriculture in Japan,

Experience

Mar 2003
Japanese Society of Veterinary Pathology
Director
Nov 1997
Editorial Board, Equine Veterinary Journal
Member
Apr 1996
Tokyo University, Japan
Visiting Lecturer
Mar 1995
Gifu University, Japan
Visiting Lecturer
Apr 1994
Nippon Veterinary and Animal Science University, Japan
Visiting Lecturer
Apr 1992
Kitasato University, Japan
Visiting Lecturer

Publications

104Publications

153Reads

36Profile Views

7PubMed Central Citations

Patterns of Rectal Temperature and Shipping Fever Incidence in Horses Transported Over Long-Distances.

Front Vet Sci 2019 14;6:27. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Diagnostic and Research Laboratory, Equine Veterinary Medical Center, Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6383045PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Patterns of Rectal Temperature and Shipping Fever Incidence in Horses Transported over Long-Distance 6(Article 27; doi: 10.3389/fvets) 1-10 Feb 2019

Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2019 Feb Volume 6 Article 27, pp. 1-10.

Frontiers in Veterinary Science

Shipping Fever is a transport associated syndrome seen in equids and bovines transported during long distances. The microbial profile and clinical signs vary between species, and in horses it is characterized by pharyngeal commensal bacteria and aerosolized particulate matter invading the lower airway due to compromised mucocillary clearance mechanisms during transports. This leads to pyrexia, pulmonary parenchymal disease, inappetence, and in severe cases pleuropneumonia. It has been shown that  the incidence of transport-related pyrexia in horses increases with travel time and distance, however, this incidence rate has been expressed as the cumulative number of horses showing pyrexia with the length of travel time during road transport (cumulative percentage), which does not accurately reflect the actual temperature fluctuations and their patterns in relation to shipping fever. This study aims to demonstrate the individual fluctuations of body temperature variations during transport, particularly febrile changes. 53 Anglo-Arab and Thoroughbred horses aged 23-30 months were transported by road over different distances and durations (36-61 h; 1,492-2,921 km) in 3 investigations carried out in the spring and mid-summer in the northern hemisphere. The results showed that the incidence of fever (characterized by rectal temperature > 38.6oC) was highest from 20 to 49 h after the start of transport. Clinical signs of shipping fever was observed in 25 of the 53 horses (47.2%), of which 10 horses (18.9%) did not. This showed that horses that develop shipping fever do not necessarily present with fever at the end of transportation. Necropsy of 20 horse performed immediately after transportation suggested that transport induced pneumonia, contributed to the onset of pyrexia. This finding supports the suggestion that measuring body temperature upon arrival to determine the presence or absence of shipping fever could result in missed diagnoses for some horses with subclinical pneumonia, and that taking multiple temperature measurements at intervals from 20 h of transportation is a simple method for not missing horses with subclinical pneumonia.

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February 2019
4 Reads

Patterns of Rectal Temperature and Shipping Fever Incidence in Horses Transported Over Long-Distances.

Front Vet Sci 2019 14;6:27. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Diagnostic and Research Laboratory, Equine Veterinary Medical Center, Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6383045PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Histopathological characteristics of endometrosis in thoroughbred mares in Japan: results from 50 necropsy cases.

J Equine Sci 2014 25;25(2):45-52. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

Misawa Air Base Veterinary Clinic, US Army Public Health Command-Japan, APO, AP96319, Japan ; Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association, Tochigi 320-0856, Japan.

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http://jlc.jst.go.jp/DN/JST.JSTAGE/jes/25.45?lang=en&fro
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1294/jes.25.45DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4090358PMC
July 2014
18 Reads
1 Citation

Postpartum Massive Hematoma within the Broad Ligament of the Uterus in a Broodmare Possibly Caused by Rupture of the Uterine Artery.

J Equine Sci 2009 23;20(3):41-6. Epub 2009 Oct 23.

Laboratory of Theriogenology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1294/jes.20.41DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4013962PMC
May 2014
22 Reads

Equine Endometrial Gland Density and Endometrial Thickness Vary among Sampling Sites in Thoroughbred Mares.

J Equine Sci 2012 18;23(3):35-40. Epub 2012 Oct 18.

Laboratory of Large Animal Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, Towada, Aomori 034-8628, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1294/jes.23.35DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4013978PMC
May 2014
16 Reads

Effect of Progesterone on Th1/Th2/Th17 and Regulatory T-Cell-related Genes in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells during Pregnancy in Cows

Vet Res Commun. 2014 37(1):43-49

Veterinary Research Communication

T helper (Th) cells play a central role in immune responses and new Th1/Th2/Th17 and regulatory T (Treg)-cell paradigm in pregnancy has developed. Progesterone (P4) is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy; however the effect of P4 on Th1/Th2/Th17 and Treg paradigm is unclear in cows. We evaluated the effect of P4 on the expression of Th1/Th2/Th17 and Treg-related cytokines, transcription factors, and P4 receptors in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 8 pregnant (163.1 ± 16.9 days of gestation) and 8 non-pregnant luteal phase cows. PBMCs were stimulated with P4 at 0, 0.1, 1 or 10 μg/ml, and the mRNA expression of Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg-related cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17 and TGF-β), transcription factors (T-bet, GATA-3, RORC and Foxp3) and P4 receptors (PGR, PGRMC1 and PGRMC2) were analyzed by real time RT-PCR. In both pregnant and non-pregnant cows, P4 significantly inhibited the expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 dose-dependently, whereas P4 did not affect the expression of TGF-β and Foxp3. In addition, P4 significantly decreased the expression of T-bet and RORC, and enhanced the expression of IL-4 in the pregnant cows, but this reaction was not found in the non-pregnant cows. P4 tended to increase PGRMC1 in the pregnant cows but not in the non-pregnant cows, indicating that PGRMC1 may be involved in the regulation of the effect of P4 during bovine pregnancy. These results indicate that P4 is an important regulator of Th1/Th2/Th17 and Treg immunity, and higher Th2 immunity is characteristic in the pregnant cows.

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November 2012
8 Reads

Effect of progesterone on the in vitro response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by Escherichia coli in mares.

J Vet Med Sci 2012 May 13;74(5):629-32. Epub 2011 Dec 13.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, 35-1 Higashi 23 Bancho, Towada, Aomori 034-8628, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.11-0364DOI Listing
May 2012
19 Reads
0.782 Impact Factor

Influence of Track Surface Condition on Racing Times of Thoroughbred Racehorses in Flat Races

J Equine Vet Sci. 2012 April 5; 32:689-695

Journal of Equine Veterinary Science

Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of race track surface condition on the racing time of Thoroughbred racehorses in flat races isolated from the effects of differences in racecourse and racing distance. The effects of track surface condition, racecourse, and racing distance on the racing time of Thoroughbreds in flat races at 10 Japan Racing Association racecourses during a period of 5 years (2000-2004) were evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis. Track surface condition significantly affected the race time, although this effect differed between turf and dirt courses. On turf courses, racing times for different track surface conditions were, from shortest to longest, in order of firm

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April 2012
10 Reads

Effect of Progesterone on the in vitro Response of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Stimulated by Escherichia Coli in Mares

J Vet Med Sci. 2011 Dec 13; 74(5):629-631

Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

Escherichia coli(E. coli) isolated from the uterus of a Thoroughbred mare with bacterial endometritis was used to evaluate the effect of progesterone (P4) on the immune response of mares. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from 10 nonpregnant clinically healthy adult mares (range, 4–12 years) during diestrus, four Thoroughbreds and six Hokkaido native horses. Cell proliferation and expression of cytokine mRNA, including interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10, of PBMCs stimulated with E. coli and P4 were examined in vitro. P4 was shown to have significantly inhibited E. coli induced proliferation and expression of IFN-γ in PBMCs. These results indicate that P4 inhibits the immune response to E. coli in mares. Key words : bacterial endometritis, cytokine, Escherichia coli, mare, progesterone. doi: 10.1292/jvms.

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December 2011
8 Reads

Comparison of the Immunosuppressive Effects of Dexamethasone, Flunixin Megulumine and Meloxicam on the In Vitro Response of Calf Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

J Vet Med Sci. 2011 March 22; 73(7):957-960.

Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

This study compared the immunosuppressive effects of dexamethasone (DEX), flunixin meglumine (FLU) and meloxicam (MEL) on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of seven healthy Holstein calves in vitro. DEX significantly inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and expression of interferon (IFN)-, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 messenger RNA (mRNA) in comparison with FLU and MEL. FLU and MEL dose-dependently inhibited lymphocyte proliferation, but did not significantly reduce mRNA expression. Our in vitro study indicates that steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have immunosuppressive effects on calf PBMCs. These findings are important for assessing the indications and complications of NSAIDs in calves.

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March 2011
8 Reads

Blood Free Amino Acids in the Postpartum Dairy Cattle with Left Displaced Abomasum

J Vet Med Sci. Oct 29;72(10):1355-1358.

Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

In order to decipher the amino acid (AA) balance in the dairy cattle with left displaced abomasum (LDA), blood samples were obtained from thirty LDA and 12 healthy control cattle. Plasma from LDA cattle exhibited significantly higher free fatty acid and β-hydroxybutyrate, lower glucogenic AA, such as methionine, alanine and serine, and higher ratio of ketogenic AA among blood free AA, such as leucine and lysine. The Fischer ratio, phenylalanine and albumin were similar to control cattle. These results suggested that LDA cattle were in negative energy balance, but AA metabolism and protein synthesis were within a normal range. Lower glucogenic AA was due to the higher gluconeogenesis, and higher ketogenic AA was due to higher ketogenesis.

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October 2010
11 Reads

Alterations of Growth, Blood Biochemical Components and Hormone Profiles by Intensified Nutrition in Growth Retarded Japanese Black Cattle

J Vet Med Sci. 2010 April 7; 72(9):1203-1208

Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

In order to determine the clinical conditions of Japanese Black (JB) cattle with growth retardation, we determined the changes of body growth, blood profiles of metabolism and hormones caused by intensified nutrition (sufficient total digestible nutrients and digestible crude protein for a target daily gain set at 1.2–1.3 kg/day) in three cattle. The daily gain (DG) was increased during the intensified period (Intense) compared with the preparation period (Pre), but the DG in the Intense period was 36–66% of the target DG. Serum albumin, total cholesterol, insulin and IGF-1 increased during the Intense period compared with the Pre period. Serum GH showed high levels in the Pre period, whereas it showed lower levels in the Intense period. These results suggested that the present growth retarded cattle had abnormalities in their metabolic systems and lacked nutrient absorption.

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April 2010
9 Reads

effect of Body Condition Score of the Dairy Cow on the in vitro Response of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells to Progesteron Stimulation

J Vet Med Sci. 2009 71(5):549-553.

Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

Immune function in cows is closely associated with their physical and hormonal conditions. In order to clarify the relationship between the body condition score (BCS) of lactating dairy cows and the immune response to progesterone (P4) in vitro, we examined whether lower BCS in dairy cows affects the responsiveness of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to P4 added in to culture medium. Forty-two non-pregnant healthy Holstein dairy cows were examined at 61 to 120 days after calving. The cows were divided into the following two groups; Low BCS group (N=20), which had a BCS of less than 2.25, and a Control group (N=22), which had a BCS over 2.75. PBMCs were stimulated with P4 (1 g/mL) and/or phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and the levels of cytokine mRNA were analyzed. In the Low BCS group, a significantly lower IFN- level was stimulated by PHA only compared with the Control group. The combination of P4 and PHA significant decreased the IFN-/IL-4 ratio in the Control group, but this reaction was not found in the Low BCS group. Our data indicated that expression of IFN- mRNA was basically lower in the low BCS dairy cows and that addition of P4 did not suppress the cellular immune function in these cows. In this study, we observed that P4 reduced the cellular immune response in the adequate BCS cows, whereas immunosuppression by P4 was not found in the PBMCs of the low BCS cows, which already had a lower level of immune function.

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May 2009
7 Reads

Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Subpopulation of Dairy Cows with Digital Dermatitis and Effect of Hoof trimming with antibiotic Treatment

J Vet Med Sci. 2009 April; 71(4):391-395.

Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

In the present study, 30 cows were used to evaluate the changes in the peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulation of dairy cows with digital dermatitis (DD) following hoof trimming and antibiotic treatment. The cows were divided into two groups; 18 cows (DD group) had DD on both hind feet, and 12 cows (control group) had four feet with no clinical abnormalities. The DD group was further divided into two groups based on the treatment; the antibiotic group (8 cows) was treated with only 2% lincomycin liquid spray once daily for 3 days, and the trimmed group (10 cows) received trimming of hooves as well as treatment with 2% lincomycin liquid spray. The plasma cortisol concentration was significantly higher in both DD groups before treatment than in the control group, and it decreased significantly after hoof trimming in the trimmed group. The number of CD3+, CD4+, WC1+ and CD21+ cells in both DD groups before treatment was significantly lower than that of the control group. The number of CD3+, CD4+, WC1+ and CD21+ cells in the trimmed group increased after treatment. These results indicated that cows with DD suffer from stress and reduced number of T and B cells. Treatment of DD with both hoof trimming and 2% lincomycin liquid spray was effective for reducing the stress and bringing the immune cell number back to the normal range.

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April 2009
8 Reads

Pathology of Aortic-Iliac Thrombosis in Two Horses

J Equine Sci. 2007 July 11; 18(2):59-65.

Journal of Equine Science

The pathology of aortic-iliac thrombosis(AIT) in two adult Thoroughbred horses from the same breeding farm is reported. No. 1 showed sudden falls with moaning and profuse sweating at mating and during hard exercise repeatedly for more than two years. The symptoms subsided within several tens of minutes. No. 2 showed intermittent lameness of the left hind leg progressively for more than three years. In both horses, thromboembolism was observed in the abdominal aorta, terminal quadrifurcation, and branchial arteries bilaterally. Arterial intima without adherent thrombi had formed intimal plaques frequently. Other noticeable changes were parasitic aneurysm and Hemomelasma ilei. From these findings of the two cases it is suggested that AIT is one of the pathological conditions caused by Strongylus vulgaris infection.

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July 2007
14 Reads

Endotoxin-Induced Injury of the Central, Autonomic and Enteric Nervous Systems and Intestinal Muscularis in Thoroughbred Horses

J Comp Path. 2007 Feb-April ;136(2-3):127-132.

Journal of Comparative Pathology

To evaluate the effects of endotoxin on the morphology of the equine central, autonomic and enteric nervous system and intestinal muscularis, six Thoroughbred horses with experimentally induced endotoxaemia were examined. The lesions in the central nervous system consisted of perivascular oedema around arterioles, suggesting brain oedema, and ring haemorrhages around veins, similar to those in human patients with septic shock. In the cranial mesenteric ganglia, neuronal cell bodies became pink or red, with shrinkage of cytoplasm indicative of ischaemic changes; intramural and perivascular infiltration by erythrocytes and neutrophils occurred around arterioles in the epineurium (acute focal interstitial inflammation). In addition, transmission electron microscopy revealed oedema of the endoneurium and mesoaxon in the nerve fascicles running inside or outside the ganglia. Myenteric neurons showed shrinkage of the cytoplasm with multiple cytoplasmic vacuoles, suggesting ischaemic changes. Oedematous degeneration and coagulation necrosis of smooth muscle cells, with dissociation of the cells, were prominent in the tunica muscularis. It is suggested that arterionecrosis elicited by endotoxin and frequently observed in the autonomic and enteric nervous system and intestinal muscularis, was the result of vasoconstriction or vasospasm.

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February 2007
8 Reads

Mesenteric Arterionecrosis in Natural and Experimental Equine Endotoxaemia

J Comp Path. Jan; 134(1):51-59.

Journal of Comparative Pathology

To test the hypothesis that mesenteric arterionecrosis (MA) occurs in horses with naturally occurring endotoxaemia (ET) and in those with experimentally induced ET, the mesentery and gastrointestinal tract of 21 Thoroughbred racehorses (15 with spontaneous colic suspected to be due to ET, and six with experimentally induced ET) were examined. MA, which occurred in 13 of the 15 horses with spontaneous colic and in all six of the cases of experimental ET, was morphologically similar in the two groups of animals. This suggested that the pathogenesis of the MA was fundamentally similar in the two groups, and that MA is a pathognomonic feature of equine ET. In addition to histolysis of the arterial walls associated with infiltration of blood components, changes were noted in the medial smooth muscle including formation of many intracellular vacuoles within single smooth muscle cells, cytoplasmolysis, necrosis with granules and vacuoles, and coagulation necrosis; similar changes have been observed in cases of prolonged angiospasm or vasoconstriction. It is suggested that the effects of sustained arterial contraction leading to intimal and medial damage influence the pathomorphogenesis of MA.

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January 2006
34 Reads

Fractures Sustained by Racehorses in Japan during Flat Racing with Special Reference to Track Condition and Racing Time

Vet J. Nov;170(3)369-374.

The Veterinary Journal

The purpose of this report is to describe the results of epidemiological surveys of racing-related fractures in Thoroughbred horses in Japan. In the period 1987–2000, a total of 10,203 fractures were diagnosed in 556,705 runners, resulting in an overall incidence of 1.83%. The annual incidence of fractures in flat racing during the 14-year period fluctuated between 1.44% and 2.19%. The majority of fractures affected the forelimbs. We found significant effects of track condition on injury incidence. The incidence of fractures decreased as track conditions on turf became softer and increased as track conditions on dirt became muddier. Because of the general trend for the incidence of fractures to vary with track condition, we examined the relationship between track conditions and racing times for winning horses in 4117 races and for 50,564 overall runners for the period 1990–1994 on two tracks. For turf courses, racing times became longer as track conditions became softer. In contrast, for dirt courses, racing time tended to become shorter in muddier conditions. The variation in the incidence of fracture with track condition might be due to the corresponding difference in racing time.

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November 2005
7 Reads

Pathological Findings of the Skeletal Muscles in Racehorsewith Malignant Hyperthermia-Like Symptoms after Halothane Anesthesia

J Equine Sci. 2005 Oct;16(3):73-77.

Journal of Equine Science

We performed pathological analysis of the skeletal muscles obtained from a racehorse that showed astasia after halothane anesthesia. Light microscopic examination revealed that skeletal muscle fibers had undergone degenerative changes such as coagulation necrosis, segmental rarefaction, and granular degeneration. Electron microscopic examination revealed damage of sarcomeres. Fragmentation of the actin filaments without Z-discs degeneration was seen in some areas in which rarefaction was observed under a light microscope. Electron microscopic examination demonstrated degenerated muscle fibers, which are commonly observed during the process of skeletal muscle degeneration. However, we also observed marked degeneration of the actin filaments. This change differed from the myofibril degradation process, explained so far, suggesting the existence of a mechanism by which actin filaments are predominantly degraded.

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October 2005
7 Reads

Immunohistochemical Characterization of Parafollicular Cell Adenoma, Medullary Carcinoma and Follicular Adenocarcinoma in Thyroid of Horses

J Equine Sci. 2005 April 21;16(1)11-17.

Journal of Equine Science

An Immunohistochemical examination was conducted using commercially available primary antibodies to evaluate their utility for differential diagnosis of equine thyroid tumors i.e. non-functional C-cell adenoma, medullary carcinoma and follicular adenocarcinoma. The primary antibodies used in the study were antibodies against calcitonin, calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP), thyroglobulin, chromogranin A, neuron specific enolase (NSE), synaptophysin and somatostatin. Calcitonin, NSE and synaptophysin were found to be useful to identify the origin of tumors as C-cells and thyroglobulin as follicular epithelial cells. In addition, it was found that detection of CGRP and chromogranin A is related with the functional status of C-cells. The carcino-related-gene (CRG) product, bcl-2, was positive in medullary carcinoma and follicular adenocarcinoma, and weakly positive to negative in non-functional C-cell adenoma. Another CRG product, p53, was positive in non-functional C-cell adenoma and follicular adenocarcinoma, and negative in medullary carcinoma. These results suggest that the expression pattern of 9 antigens used may be of help for the differential diagnosis of these tumors.

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April 2005
8 Reads

Some Aspects of the Stress Responses to Road Transport in Throughbred Horses with Special Reference to Shipping Fever

J Equine Sci. 2005 Feb 16; 15(1):99-102.

Journal of Equine Science

We performed two sets of experiments consisting of 36 hr and 41 hr of transportation to elucidate the road transit-induced stress response's profiles in horses with clinical signs of respiratory disease ("affected" horses) and horses without clinical signs of respiratory disease ("unaffected" horses). In both sets of experiments, "affected" horses showed a significantly greater increase or decrease in levels of the indices of the stress response, i.e., eosinophil count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, levels of serum glucose, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and 11-hydroxycorticosteroid (11-OHCS) than "unaffected" horses after road transportation. Compared with "unaffected" horses, "affected" horses had a different pattern of changes in indices of the stress response, suggesting that they failed to adapt to transportation.

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February 2005
11 Reads

Effects of Orientation, Intermittent Rest and Vehicle Cleaning during Transport on Development of Transport-related Respiratory Diseases in Horses

J Comp Path. Feb-April; 132(2-3):153-168.

Journal of Comparative Pathology

The effects of various factors on the inflammatory and stress response in horses during transportation were examined in Experiments 1 and 2, carried out in April and August, respectively. In Experiment 1, three groups (G1–G3) of four Thoroughbreds were used, and in Experiment 2, two groups (G4, G5). G1 animals were loaded into lorries with their heads facing forwards (FF) and given periods of short rest (SR) (30 min for every 4 h driven). G2 horses were loaded facing rearwards (FR) and given SR. G3 horses were FF and given periods of long rest (LR) (2 h rest for every 4 h driven). G4 horses were transported FF with hay suspended in front of them and no cleaning of faeces or urine during rest stops. G5 horses were FF and given pellets instead of hay, and the lorry was cleaned and washed at each rest stop. G4 and G5 horses were rested for 1 h after every 5 h of driving. All groups were driven a distance of 1500 km, and the total journey time was 37 h for G1 and G2, 49 h for G3, and 40 h for G4 and G5. In Experiment 1, indicators of inflammatory and stress responses tended to be highest in G1, intermediate in G2 and lowest in G3. In Experiment 2 they tended to be higher in G4 than in G5. The results suggested that increasing the rest time and cleaning the interior of the vehicle during rest stops reduced transportation stress and respiratory insults, factors that may lead to respiratory disease.

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February 2005
11 Reads

Non-functional C-cell Adenoma in Aged Horses

J Comp Path. 2004 Aug-Oct;131(2-3):157-165

Journal of Comparative Pathology

Thyroid tumours occur in older horses, and most such tumours have been considered to be of follicular epithelial origin. However, their immunohistochemical characterization has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to confirm a suspicion that most of these tumours are in fact parafollicular cell (C cell)-derived adenomas, and to evaluate their pathogenesis and functional state. Thyroid glands from 38 horses aged 10–29 years were evaluated, all tissue samples being examined histologically, immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. Nodular tumour masses were found in the thyroids of 12 of 38 horses older than 10 years (31.6%), and in nine of 12 horses older than 20 years (75.0%), regardless of sex or breed. Nodular lesions were composed of solid proliferations of polygonal cells with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for calcitonin and neuron specific enolase, but negative for thyroglobulin. Ultrastructurally, few if any secretion granules were found in tumour cells. On the basis of these results it was concluded that the nodular lesions were C-cell adenomas, not follicular adenomas. It was suspected that the C-cell adenomas were non-functional and unlikely to lead to calcitonin hypersecretion-related diseases.

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August 2004
13 Reads

Arterionecrosis of the Mesentery in Naturally Occurring Endotozaemia in a Throughbred Racehorse

J Comp Path. 2004 Jan;130(1):75-79.

Journal of Comparative Pathology

This report describes the mesenteric arteriolar lesions in a Thoroughbred racehorse with endotoxaemia due to colic. The vascular lesions consisted of a striking loss of medial smooth muscle cells, associated with granular cell debris derived from necrosed muscle cells, plasma insudation, erythrocyte infiltration and the deposition of a fibrinoid substance (fibrinoid degeneration) in the entire arterial wall, possibly produced by the infiltration of blood components through endothelial cell junctions into the arterial wall. The morphology of the mesenteric arteriolar necrosis closely resembled that seen in experimental equine endotoxaemia and in horses that died from colic; it also resembled that of Shiga toxin-induced arteriolar lesions in oedema disease of swine and of the arterionecrosis in human cerebral arteries that may lead to hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage.

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January 2004
16 Reads

Effect of Exercise on Thyroid, Parathyroid and Bone in Very Young Thoroughbreds

J Equine Sci. 2003 Oct 6;14(2):51-58.

Journal of Equine Science

Seven horses were exercised five days a week for 12 months at different gaits on a treadmill, and eight horses were pastured freely in a paddock without any training programs. They were 60 days of age at the beginning of the experiment. We compared the number of C cells in the thyroid, ultrastructure of chief cells in the parathyroid and radiography of the third metatarsal bone of the training group with the control group. In the training group, the number of C cells was not increased and chief cells were not in a phase of secretion. In addition, the bone mineral content and the cortical area did not show high values. We considered that an additional exercise used in this study had suppressive effects on the thyroid and parathyroid. Our results also suggest an additional and/or intense exercise in early stage of life (foal to weanling) may have an adverse effect on bone growth and metabolism.

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October 2003
11 Reads

Pneumonia in Horses Induced by Intrapulmonary Inoculation of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus

J Vet Med Sci. 2003 Aug 2;65(7):787-792.

Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

To evaluate the possibility that Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S.z) the causative bacterial agent of equine shipping fever pneumonia (ESFP), as well as to investigate its pathogenesis, 10 horses (seven Thoroughbreds and three Anglo-Arab species, ranging from 2-4 years in age) were experimentally inoculated, via an endoscope, into bronchus of the lung lobe with a dose of 30 ml of 1-7 × 108 CFU/ml of S.z. After inoculation, autopsy and pathological examinations were sequentially conducted 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 4, 17, 20 hr and 2 weeks later. Pneumonia induced by the intrapulmonary inoculation of S.z was characterized by small purulent pneumonic foci in the inoculated areas. With the lapse of time, these foci developed into serous hemorrhagic pneumonia, hemorrhagic purulent pneumonia, and then purulent, coagulation necrotic pneumonia. These pathomorphological characteristics of experimental pneumonia closely resemble those naturally occurring ESFP. There is strong evidence that S.z. is implicated as a causal factor in ESFP. S.z. grew in the mucus, exudate, and pulmonary effusions. Further, the bacteria showed resistance against phagocytosis by pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) and neutrophils. Inhibition of PAM and neutrophil function is considered to be important in the development of pneumonia. With the progression of the disease, the neutrophils often adhered to the endothelial surface of the alveolar capillary lumen and played a role in generating coagulation necrosis of lung tissues.

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July 2003
10 Reads

Clinical, Hematological, and Biochemical Analysis of Experimental Endotoxemia in Thoroughbred Horses

J Equine Sci. 2003 July 13;14(1):5-12.

To evaluate the biological response of the horse to endotoxemia, a sublethal amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 μg/kg) was given to two Thoroughbreds in two doses 24 hr apart. Each infusion initially produced a significant increase or decrease in rectal temperature, an increase in respiratory rate and heart rate, and a marked decrease in white blood cell count (WBC). The horses subsequently showed signs of shock, characterized by extreme coldness of the skin of lower limbs, as well as cyanosis of the visible mucosae, oliguria accompanied by proteinuria, and abnormalities in gastrointestinal function. The clinical signs of equine endotoxemia may be manifested by the clinical condition of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): two or more of the above signs, such as high or low rectal temperature, increased heart rate and respiratory rate, and leukopenia. Pathobiological responses such as a severe decrease in the number of platelets, hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, disorders of hemostasis accompanied by cyanosis of the visible mucosal membranes, proteinuria and oliguria, and abnormal gastrointestinal function, may be manifestations of pathobiological conditions ranging from disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Therefore, the clinicopathological responses in equine endotoxemia suggest the nature of SIRS elicited by hypercytokinemia progressing into septic shock.

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June 2003
10 Reads

Extranodal Lymphoblastic Lymphoma of Suspected B-Cell Lineage in the Gingiva of a Racehorse, Accompanied by Mandibular Osteolysis

J vet Med A. 2003 April 11;50(3):151-155.

Journal of Veterinary Medicine, series A

A mass developed in the mandibular gingiva of a thoroughbred racehorse. When the horse could no longer eat unassisted, it was killed and immediately autopsied. Macroscopically, the mandible exhibited extensive osteolysis, with only a small amount of bone remaining around the tooth roots. The cut surface of the mass around the mandible consisted of neoplastic medullary tissue, in which osteogenesis was observed. The medullary tissue was composed of pleomorphic medium-sized to large cells, interlaced by collagen bundles. These cells had large, pale, round or ovoid, sometimes cleaved nuclei, with one or two prominent nucleoli. Mitoses were numerous. Electron microscopy showed that the cells in the medullary tissues were similar in shape to undifferentiated lymphocytes. Immunohistochemically, these cells were positive for B-cell associated antigen in the pre-B-cell stage. Our findings suggest that the horse had extranodal lymphoblastic lymphoma of suspected B-cell lineage, possibly originating from the lymphatic system of the gingiva. We consider that the osteolysis resulted from activation of osteoclasts by proliferation of the tumour cells.

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April 2003
11 Reads

-Review- The Japanese Experience with Tendonitis in Racehorses

J Equine Sci. 2002 Oct 12;13(2)41-56

Journal of Equine Science

Superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injury leading to tendonitis is the most frequent soft tissue injury in racehorses. As tendonitis has been noted to heal slowly and imperfectly, injured tendons require long periods of rest, and the rate of recurrence of tendonitis upon return to training is high. Between 1, 100 and 1,200 of the 6,400 to 7,000 racehorses currently registered with the Japan Racing Association (JRA) suffer from tendonitis, and some 70% of these return to racing without making a comeback in a single race. In view of this statistic, the JRA has conducted investigational and clinical research from various perspectives. This paper will review the results of these studies, thus providing insight into practical methods of treating and preventing tendonitis. The study results are summarized under the following headings: 1) Introduction; 2) Impacts and loads on the lower limb at the track; 3) Occurrence of tendonitis at JRA training centers; 4) The hoof and tendonitis; 5) Ultrasonic diagnostic criteria; 6) Therapeutic regimens; 7) Conclusion. We concluded that tendon injuries represent irreversible structural alterations that are unlikely to be significantly altered by therapy, so that the best outcome may be achieved by minimizing the damage done by the original injury. From this viewpoint, research efforts will be directed toward prevention and early diagnosis, rather than therapy of established lesions.

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October 2002
7 Reads

Polymerase chain Reaction-Restriction fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of the SzP Gene of Streptococcus zooepidemicus isolated from the Respiratory Tract of Horses

Am J Vet Res.2002 Sep.;63(9):1298-2002.

American journal of Veterinary Research

Epizootic Research Station, Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association, 1400-4 Shiba, Kokubunji-machi, Shimotsuga-gun, Tochigi 329-0412, Japan. (Anzai, Kuwamoto, Wada); Gluck Equine Research Center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0099. (Timoney); Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association, 321- 4, Togami-cho, Utsunomiya-shi, Tochigi 320-0856, Japan. (Oikawa); Mitsuishi Animal Clinic Center, Agriculture Mutual Aid Association of Hidaka District, 200 Higashihohrai, Mitsuishi-cho, Mitsuishi-gun, Hokkaido 059-3105, Japan. (Higuchi) Objective—To develop polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis for molecular typing of strains of Streptococcus zooepidemicus and to use the new typing method to analyze a collection of isolates from the respiratory tract of Thoroughbreds. Sample Population—10 strains of S zooepidemicus, 65 isolates from the respiratory tract of 9 yearlings following long distance transportation, and 89 isolates from tracheal aspirates of 20 foals with pneumonia. Procedure—Phenotypic variations in the SzP protein were detected by western immunoblot analysis. Using PCR-RFLP analysis, genotypes were obtained with primer sets from the SzP gene, followed by restriction endonuclease digestion of the amplicons. Results—Unique genotypic patterns were obtained with a primer set designed from both ends of the structural gene and the restriction endonuclease Dde I. Forty-five isolates from the lymphoid tissue within the pharyngeal recess (ie, pharyngeal tonsil) of yearlings included 10 SzP genotypes and SzP phenotypes. Isolates from the trachea of each yearling were of a single genotype that was also present among isolates from the pharyngeal tonsil of the same horses. Isolates from tracheal aspirates of foals belonged to 14 genotypes. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of the SzP gene by use of PCR-RFLP was effective for molecular typing of strains of S zooepidemicus in the study of respiratory tract disease in horses. Results of PCR-RFLP analysis indicate that a single strain of S zooepidemicus can migrate from the pharyngeal tonsil to the trachea at a high rate in horses undergoing long distance transportation. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1298–1301)

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September 2002
7 Reads

Equine Endotoxemia:Pathomorphological aspects of Endotoxin Induced Damage in Equine Mesenteric Arteries.

J Vet Med A. 2002. June 6;49(4):173-176.

Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Series A

To evaluate the effects of endotoxin on the morphology of the equine mesenteric vasculature, each of two thoroughbred horses were given two intravenous injections (24 h apart) of a sublethal dose of endotoxin (10 μg/kg). Each injection produced results similar to those of clinical cases of equine colic with obstructive nature of the loop of bowel: diarrhoea within 2 h after administration, followed by cessation of both faecal excretion and sounds of intestinal peristalsis. The most prominent morphological change was the development of moniliform appearance of small mesenteric arteries, in which there were contracted and dilated segments of the small mesenteric arteries. This was accompanied by parietal hyalinization and intramural and extramural haemorrhage. These mesenteric vascular changes appear to reflect dynamic vasoconstriction in the living animal, resulting in reduction of mesenteric and intestinal blood flow and possibly inducing alterations of gastrointestinal function such as cessation of intestinal peristalsis.

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May 2002
7 Reads

Horse Lumbrical Muscle: Possible Structural and Functional Reorganization in Regressive Muscle.

Anat Histol Embryol.2002 April 25;31(2):85-98.

Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia

An anatomical study of horse lumbrical muscle (Lm) was carried out by light and electron microscopy in combination with immunochemical and cytochemical methods. Paraffin sections were subjected to haematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and Masson's trichrome staining for morphometric analysis. Paraffin sections were also used for immunostaining by anti-PGP 9.5 for reaction with nerve-protein associated-structures, anti-heat-shock protein 70 (hsp 70) for detection of gene expression changes, anti-fast myosin for the determination of muscle fibre types, and for detection of apoptotic gene expression of muscle fibres by the TUNEL method. The distribution of muscle fibre types on frozen sections was also examined by assaying ATPase (pH 4.2). We found that the proximal end of the tendon of the unipennate-shaped Lm binds to the deep digital flexor tendon, and the distal end of the Lm tendon connects to the medial surface of the palmar annular ligament. The Lm was not always present, but when found it varied in length greatly, up to 8 cm (muscle part alone), and weighed less than 1 g. The Lm was white, pale, or reddish in colour depending on the ratio of muscle fibre and connective tissue contents. The semi-tendinized regressive Lm was composed of rich vasculature, peripheral nerves, and nerve-like organs similar to the neuromuscular spindle (NMS). The extrafusal muscle fibres (e-lm) that surround the NMS were replaced with a thick outer capsule of connective tissues (CT) in the Lm nerve-like organ, which we named the neurotendinous capsule (NTC) organ. NTC organs exist alone or as multiple structures (up to eight) surrounded by a common outer capsule at the outermost CT ring. The NTC possesses several intrafusal muscle fibres (ifm) just as the NMS does. That the ifm was associated with nerve endings was confirmed by anti-PGP 9.5 and electron microscopic observation. Some muscle fibres in ifm and e-lm reacted with anti-fast twitch myosin and with anti-hsp 70. The e-lm exhibited at least two fibre types, determined by ATPase (pH 4.2) assay. The ifm exhibited mainly type I (slow twitch) fibres. No apoptotic gene expression was detected in either ifm or e-lm, suggesting the Lm is a vital organ. The degenerating fibres observed in ifm and e-lm indicate that the turnover rate of cytoplasmic components is accelerated. We attribute this phenomenon to the necessity for adaptation to new environmental demands. The surprising finding of tubular aggregates (TAs) in ifm of the NTC organ suggests that the Lm is continuously adapting. Some results related to variation in diameter of the collagen fibrils, isolation of the NTC organ and the myofibrillar protein constituents are also discussed. In conclusion, the so-called regressive Lm has rich vasculature, many peripheral nerves, and newly described NTC organs. The induction of heat-shock protein, lack of apoptotic gene expression in ifm and e-lm fibres, and TA formation in ifm suggest that horse Lm responds to environmental stress through reorganization and/or remodelling of cell constituents. We hypothesize that the horse Lm has lost its original role as a contractile element and changed to another function, likely as a vital nerve organ.

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April 2002
14 Reads

Effect of beta-aminopropionitrile and Hyaluronic acid on Repair of Collagenase-Induced Injury of the Rabbit Achilles Tendon

J Comp Path. 2002 Feb; 126(2-3):161-170.

Journal of Comparative Pathology

Collagenase was injected into the Achilles tendon of both hind legs of 10 clinically normal adult male New Zealand white rabbits. One month after induction of the injury, beta-aminoproprionitrile (BAPN) or hyaluronic acid (HA) was injected into the tendon core of the right hind leg of each rabbit, the left hind leg being left untreated. The treatment effects were evaluated by electron microscopy and analysis of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of samples at 2 and 6 months post-treatment. At 2 months, collagen fibrils in tendons from both hind legs were relatively small in diameter, irregularly arranged, and interspersed with abundant active tenocytes as compared with those in normal tendon uninjured by collagenase. In the matrix, the amount of HA increased, but chondroitin-6-sulphate was eliminated. At 6 months, BAPN-treated tendons had small-diameter, regularly arranged collagen fibrils. HA-treated tendons, on the other hand, had large diameters, as well as regularly arranged collagen fibrils by comparison with non-treated tendon. The results suggest that HA, unlike BAPN, promoted healing.

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February 2002
7 Reads

The Influence of Exercise Intensity on Bucked Shin Complex in Horses

J Equine Sci. 2001;12(4):51-55.

Journal of Equine Science

We tested the hypothesis that frequency of intense exercise during training would affect the likelihood of bucked shins complex developing in young horses. The relative prevalence of bucked shins were examined in two groups of Anglo-Arabian horses that trainined by different training programs. One group (6 horses) exercised once per week at maximal speed, the other group (7 horses) exercised twice per week at maximal speed. They ran on similar track surface conditions on the same track. Although the group exercised twice per week at maximal speed had a prevalence, there was no significant difference in the incidence of bucked shins between the two groups. It suggest that the number of maximum gallop than the duration of intense exercise. Pathomorphogenetically, there was suggestion that focal radiolucent areas, indicating focal remodeling regions consisting of a focal conglomerate of irregular-sized osteons, at the site of the middle layer in the cortical bone beneath periosteal bony proliferation might play a role as a precursor lesion for the occurrence of otitis of the third metacarpal bone (Mclll).

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December 2001
8 Reads

Efficacy of Guttural Pouch Flushing on Equine Retropharyngeal Abscesses

J Equine Sci. 2001; 12(2)51-53.

Journal of Equine Science

Four thoroughbred horses exhibiting abnormal respiratory sounds and coughing during exercise were examined clinically. Endoscopic examination revealed dorsolateral swelling of the pharyngolarynx and compression of the arytenoid cartilage corniculum, narrowing of the pharyngolarynx cavity, and guttural pouch empyema. These findings were consistent with those of retropharyngeal abscesses previously reported in Europe and North America. All horses were treated by topical and systemic antimicrobial therapy after flushing the guttural pouches with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Retropharyngeal abscesses and guttural pouch empyema completely disappeared after 7 to 10 days. This appearance suggests that topical and systemic antimicrobial therapy after guttural pouch flush with PBS coupled with systemically administered broad-spectrum antibiotics is an effective therapeutic regimen for this condition.

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April 2001
11 Reads

Surfactant Proteins in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Horses: assay Technique and Changes Following Road Transport.

Vet. Rec. 2001 March;148(3):74-80.

The veterinary Record

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for equine surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Anti-equine SP-A or SP-D monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were produced by hybridoma technology, purified by the antibody purification reagent, and analysed by Western blotting analysis. The immunoreaction (two-site sandwich ELISA) with a mAb, peroxidase-labelled mAb and BALF sample was carried out simultaneously and analytical recovery and precision were assayed. Six mAb for SP-A and four mAb for SP-D were successfully cloned in limiting dilution to monoclonality. These mAb were reacted with equine SP-A or SP-D on Western blotting analysis. For SP-A, a combination of solid-phase TA08 and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated WA28 was found to be more sensitive than other combinations, gave a good dose response and was capable of measuring 0.78 to 100 ng of protein/mi. For SP-D, a combination of solid-phase TD13 and HRP-conjugated WD19 was found to be more sensitive than other combinations, had a good dose response and was capable of measuring 0.78 to 200 ng of protein/ml. The assay was used to determine the effect of 41 hours of road transport on the concentrations of SP-A and SP-D in the BALF of 30 horses. The concentrations of SP-A and SP-D decreased by 55 per cent and 36 per cent, respectively, decreases similar to the decrease in phosphatidylglycerol concentration previously reported by the authors.

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March 2001
7 Reads

The use of a racetrack hardness measurement system

Equine Pract. Apr 22 (4): 26-29

Equine Practice

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April 2000
8 Reads

Exercise-induced haemorrhagic lesions in the dorsocaudal extremities of the caudal lobes of the lungs of young thoroughbred horses.

Authors:
M Oikawa

J Comp Pathol 1999 Nov;121(4):339-47

Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association, 321-4 Tokami-Cho, Utsunomiya City, Tochigi, 320-0856, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/jcpa.1999.0331DOI Listing
November 1999
12 Reads
1 Citation
1.142 Impact Factor

Clinical and investigational advances in the prevention of tendonitis

Equine vet J., Suppl. 30: 640-641

Equine veterinary Journal, Supplement 30 (Equine Exercise Physiology 5)

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March 1999
7 Reads

Immunocytochemical differences in adenohypophyseal cells among adult Mongolian pony mares, stallions, and geldings.

Am J Vet Res 1998 Mar;59(3):262-6

Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Agriculture, Osaka Prefecture University, Japan.

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March 1998
14 Reads
1.340 Impact Factor

Enthesopathy of the radial tuberosity in two thoroughbred racehorses.

Authors:
M Oikawa I Narama

J Comp Pathol 1998 Feb;118(2):135-43

Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association, Tochigi, Japan.

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February 1998
12 Reads
2 Citations
1.142 Impact Factor

A case of a pony with Cushing's disease

J Vet Med Sci. 1997 Aug 59 (8): 707-710

Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

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August 1997
8 Reads

Pathomorphological findings in a case of onychomycosis of a racehorse

J Vet Med Sci. 1996 Nov 58 (11): 1117-1120

Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

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November 1996
15 Reads

Morbid anatomy of soft tissue in fractured forelimbs of thoroughbred racehorses

j Equine Sci. 1996 Sep 7 (3): 51-54

Journal of Equine Science

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September 1996
7 Reads

Respiratory changes in horses during automobile transportation

J Equine Sci. 1995 Nov 6 (4): 135-139

Journal of Equine Science

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November 1995
8 Reads

Some epidemiological aspects of equine respiratory disease associated with transport

J Equine Sci. 1995 Jan 6 (1): 25-29

Journal of Equine Science

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January 1995
9 Reads

Pathology of equine respiratory disease occurring in association with transport

J Comp Path. 1995 Jan 113: 29-43

Journal of Comparative Pathology

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January 1995
9 Reads

Effect of restructuring of a racetrack on the occurrence of racing injuries in thoroughbred horses

J Equine Vet Sci. 1994 May 14 (5): 262-268

Journal of Equine Veterinary Science

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May 1994
11 Reads

Analysis of race accident conditions through use of patrol video

J Equine Vet Sci. 1993 Dec 13 (12): 707-710

Journal of Equine Veterinary Science

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December 1993
11 Reads

Effects of transit stress on white blood cell count in the peripheral blood in thoroughbred racehorses

Bull Equine Res Inst 1993 Nov 30: 30-32

Bulletin of Equine Research Institute (Predecessor of "Journal of Equine Science")

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November 1993
9 Reads

Microscopic characteristics of uterine wall arteries in barren aged mares

J Comp Path. 1993 Apr 108 (4): 411-415

Journal of Comparative Pathology

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April 1993
8 Reads

Pathological analysis of bone fractures in racehorses

J Vet Med Sci. 1993 Jan 55 (1): 181-183

Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

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January 1993
7 Reads

Villous hypoplasia of the small intestine in neonatal foals

J Vet Med A Mar 39: 121-129

Journal of Veterinary Medicine, A

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March 1992
8 Reads

Histologic features of the carotid artery trifurcation in thoroughbreds

Am J Vet Res 1992 Mar 53 (3): 121-129

American Journal of Veterinary Research

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March 1992
8 Reads

Identification of the bronchi for bronchoscopy in the horse and segmentation of the horse lung

Jpn J Equine Sci 1992 Feb 3 (1): 37-43

Japanese Journal of Equine Science (Predecessor of " Journal of Equine Science")

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February 1992
8 Reads

Nerve growth factor-like activity detected in equine peripheral blood after running exercise

J Vet Med A 1991 Dec 38: 557-559

Journal of Veterinary Medicine, A

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December 1991
8 Reads

Morphological development of the mid-diaphysis of the third metacarpal bone n the equine fetuses

Jap J Equine Sci. 1991 Nov 2: 59-63

Japanese Journal of Equine Science (Predecessor of " Journal of Equine Science")

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November 1991
8 Reads

Clinico-pathological analysis of foal diseases from 237 autopsy cases

Kitasato Arch Exp Med 64 Sep 64 (2-3): 149-156

Kitasato Archives of Experimental Medicine

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September 1991
4 Reads

Bone morphometry and mineral contents of the distal part of the fractured third metacarpal bone in thoroughbred racehorses

Bull Equine Res Inst 1990 Nov 27: 1-6

Bulletin of Equine Research Institute (Predecessor of "Journal of Equine Science")

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November 1990
12 Reads

A case of canker in a thoroughbred mare

Bull Equine Res Inst 1990 Nov 27: 35-39

Bulletin of Equine Research Institute (Predecessor of "Journal of Equine Science")

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November 1990
8 Reads

Morphology of equine allantochorion at the tip of the pregnant horn

J Comp Path. 1990 Oct 103 (3): 343-349

Journal of Comparative Pathology

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October 1990
8 Reads

Villous hypoplasia of small intestine in neonatal foals

Jpn J Vet Sci. 1990 Apr 52 (4): 855-858

Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science (Predecessoe of " Journal of Veterinary Medical Science")

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April 1990
7 Reads

Isolation of Mycobacterium avium Complex from a thoroughbred racehorse with fetal pneumonia

Bull Equine Res Inst 1989 Nov 26: 73-77

Bulletin of Equine Research Institute (Predecessor of "Journal of Equine Science")

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November 1989
8 Reads

An environmental survey of perinatal disease in the Hidaka district in Japan

Bull Equine Res Inst 1989 Nov 26: 39-46

Bulletin of Equine Research Institute (Predecessor of "Journal of Equine Science")

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November 1989
11 Reads

MR imaging of equine tendinitis in vitro

Bull Equine Res Inst 1989 Nov 26: 65-68

Bulletin of Equine Research Institute (Predecessor of "Journal of Equine Science")

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November 1989
8 Reads

Field survey on unqualified colostrum in horses by latex agglutination test

Bull Equine Res Inst 1989 Nov 26: 69-72

Bulletin of Equine Research Institute (Predecessor of "Journal of Equine Science")

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November 1989
7 Reads

Age-related changes in articular cartilage thickness of the third metacarpal bone in the thoroughbred

Jpn J Vet Sci. 1989 Apr 51 (4): 839-842

Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science (Predecessoe of " Journal of Veterinary Medical Science")

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April 1989
8 Reads

Pathomorphological aspects of extremely small thymses occurring spontaneously in thoroughbred foals

Jap J Vet Sci. 1989 Feb 51 (2): 437-440

Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science (Predecessoe of " Journal of Veterinary Medical Science")

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February 1989
8 Reads

An application of the image analyzer to the soft radiogram of the third metacarpus in horses

Jpn J Vet Sci. 1989 Jan 51 (1): 184-186

Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science (Predecessoe of " Journal of Veterinary Medical Science")

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January 1989
8 Reads

Pathological studies on distal third tibial fractures on the plantar side in racehorses

Bull Equine Res Inst 1988 Nov 25: 6-14

Bulletin of Equine Research Institute (Predecessor of "Journal of Equine Science")

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November 1988
9 Reads

Equine lymphocyte blastogenic assay using the ethidium bromide fluorescence technique

Bull Equine Res Inst 1988 Nov 25: 20-24

Bulletin of Equine Research Institute (Predecessor of "Journal of Equine Science")

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November 1988
8 Reads

A survey of Filarial parasites in the peritoneal

Bull Equine Res Inst 1988 Nov 25: 25-28

Bulletin of Equine Research Institute (Predecessor of "Journal of Equine Science")

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November 1988
10 Reads

Tw cases of cerebrospinal setariosis in the racehorses

Bull Equine Res Inst 1987 Nov 24: 14-22

Bulletin of Equine Research Institute (Predecessor of "Journal of Equine Science")

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November 1987
7 Reads

A histopathological observation on the lung of a horse with heaves

Bull Equine Res Inst 1987 Nov 24: 60-64

Bulletin of Equine Research Institute (Predecessor of "Journal of Equine Science")

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November 1987
9 Reads

Latex agglutination test for handy, rapid measurement of foal serum and colostral IgG

Bull Equine Res Inst 1986 Nov 23: 62-66

Bulletin of Equine Research Institute (Predecessor of "Journal of Equine Science")

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February 1986
8 Reads

Bone mineral content of metacarpus in racehorses by photon absorption technique: in vitro measurement

Bull Equine Res Inst. 1985 Nov 22 (21-29)

Bulletin of Equine Research Insitute ( Predecessor of " Journal of Equine Science")

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November 1985
8 Reads

Emericella nidulans isolated from horses with guttural pouch mycosis in Japan

Bull Equine Res Inst 1984 Nov 21: 81-87

Bulletin of Equine Research Insitute ( Predecessor of " Journal of Equine Science")

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November 1984
9 Reads

Microscopic obserbations on the heart which exhibited no arrhythmias

Bull Equine Res Inst 1981 Nov 18: 141-147

Bulletin of Equine Research Insitute ( Predecessor of " Journal of Equine Science")

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November 1981
9 Reads

9 Reads

Top co-authors

Yousuke Maeda
Yousuke Maeda

Kitasato University

5
Yasuo Nambo
Yasuo Nambo

Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine

2
I Narama
I Narama

Setsunan University

1
Yohji Ohnami
Yohji Ohnami

Laboratory of Theriogenology

1
Motohiro Kikuchi
Motohiro Kikuchi

Kitasato University

1
Jihoon Oh
Jihoon Oh

The Catholic University of Korea

1
Hiromichi Ohtsuka
Hiromichi Ohtsuka

Kitasato University

1