Publications by authors named "Maryam Soltani"

44 Publications

Case Report: Virtual Reality Analgesia in an Opioid Sparing Orthopedic Outpatient Clinic Setting: A Case Study.

Front Virtual Real 2020 Dec 14;1. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Immersive virtual reality is proving effective as a non-pharmacologic analgesic for a growing number of painful medical procedures. External fixator surgical pins provide adjunctive stability to a broken pelvic bone until the bones heal back together, then pins are removed. The purpose of the present case study was to measure for the first time, whether immersive virtual reality could be used to help reduce pain and anxiety during the orthopedic process of removing external fixator pins from a conscious patient in the orthopedic outpatient clinic, and whether it is feasible to use VR in this context. Using a within-subject within wound care design with treatment order randomized, the patient had his first ex-fix pin unscrewed and removed from his healing pelvic bone while he wore a VR helmet and explored an immersive snowy 3D computer generated world, adjunctive VR. He then had his second pin removed during no VR, standard of care pain medications. The patient reported having 43% less pain intensity, 67% less time spent thinking about pain, and 43% lower anxiety during VR vs. during No VR. In addition, the patient reported that his satisfaction with pain management was improved with the use of VR. Conducting simple orthopedic procedures using oral pain pills in an outpatient setting instead of anesthesia in the operating room greatly reduces the amount of opioids used, lowers medical costs and reduces rare but real risks of expensive complications from anesthesia including oversedation, death, and post-surgical dementia. These preliminary results suggest that immersive VR merits more attention as a potentially viable adjunctive non-pharmacologic form of treatment for acute pain and anxiety during medical procedures in the orthopedic outpatient clinic. Recent multi-billion dollar investments into R and D and mass production have made inexpensive immersive virtual reality products commercially available and cost effective for medical applications. We speculate that in the future, patients may be more willing to have minor surgery procedures in the outpatient clinic, with much lower opioid doses, while fully awake, if offered adjunctive virtual reality as a non-pharmacologic analgesic during the procedure. Additional research and development is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frvir.2020.553492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877803PMC
December 2020

Zoonotic parasitic organisms on vegetables: Impact of production system characteristics on presence, prevalence on vegetables in northwestern Iran and washing methods for removal.

Food Microbiol 2021 May 2;95:103704. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Food Hygiene and Aquatic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

Fresh vegetables are essential components of a healthy and nutritious diet, but if consumed raw without proper washing and/or disinfection, can be important agents of transmission of enteric pathogens. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of zoonotic parasites on vegetables freshly harvested and "ready to eat" vegetables from greengrocers and markets in northwestern Iran. In addition, the effect of cropping system and season on contamination levels were assessed as well as the efficacy of washing procedures to remove parasites from the vegetables. A total of 2757 samples composed of field (n = 1, 600) and "ready to eat" (n = 1157) vegetables were analyzed. Vegetables included leek, parsley, basil, coriander, savory, mint, lettuce, cabbage, radish, dill, spinach, mushroom, carrot, tomato, cucumber and pumpkin. Normal physiological saline washings from 200 g samples were processed using standard parasitological techniques and examined microscopically. A total of 53.14% of vegetable samples obtained from different fields and 18.23% of "ready to eat" vegetables purchased from greengrocers and markets were contaminated with different parasitic organisms including; Entamoeba coli cysts, Giardia intestinalis cysts, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Fasciola hepatica eggs, Dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs, Taenia spp. eggs, Hymenolepis nana eggs, Ancylostoma spp. eggs, Toxocara cati eggs, Toxocara canis eggs, Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs. In both field and "ready to eat" vegetables, the highest parasitic contamination was observed in lettuce with a rate of 91.1% and 55.44%, respectively. The most common parasitic organism was Fasciola hepatica. A seasonal difference in contamination with parasitic organisms was found for field and "ready to eat" vegetables (P < 0.05). There was a significant difference in the recovery of parasitic organisms depending on the washing method with water and dishwashing liquid being the least effective. Proper washing of vegetables is imperative for a healthy diet as the results of this study showed the presence of zoonotic parasites from field and ready to eat vegetables in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2020.103704DOI Listing
May 2021

Surveying the Effect of Opioid Abuse on the Extent of Coronary Artery Diseases in Diabetic Patients.

J Addict 2020 19;2020:8619805. Epub 2020 Jul 19.

Cardiovascular Diseases Research Center, Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Background: Diabetes mellitus is recognized as one of the most common, serious, and costly chronic diseases. Opium addiction is also a common health problem in Iran. Given the high prevalence of opium use in South Khorasan Province and the increasing prevalence of opioid abuse in the community, this study was performed to investigate the effect of opioid abuse on the extent of disease in diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography in the cardiology department of Vali-e-Asr Hospital in Birjand city, South Khorasan Province, Iran.

Methods: This study recruited a total of 1051 diabetic patients who underwent coronary angiography in the cardiology department of Vali-e-Asr Hospital of Birjand city from 2011 to 2015. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0 with the chi-square test and univariate regression analysis. value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: Among opiate-addicted diabetics, the risk of coronary artery disease was 0.44 times higher than among nonaddicted diabetics (range 0.24-0.77, =0.004). The extent of coronary vessel involvement, when present, was not different between the two groups.

Conclusion: Opiate-addicted diabetics appear to be more susceptible to CAD than their nonaddicted counterparts. The determinants and correlates of this interaction must be the subject of further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8619805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7387960PMC
July 2020

Cloning and sequencing of the gene present in , a surface protein in pathogenic leptospires.

Iran J Microbiol 2019 Oct;11(5):373-378

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Leptospirosis, an infection caused by pathogenic leptospires, is associated with insufficient sanitation and poverty. Leptospira is transmitted through contact with contaminated urine of reservoir animals. The primary objective of this study was to clone and sequence the gene present in local and vaccine serovars.

Materials And Methods: A total of 16 serovars were cultured in EMJH liquid medium. After growing, genomic DNA was extracted using phenol-chloroform method. Primer pair was synthesized to amplify the 996 bp sequence. The amplified gene was cloned into pTZ57R/T vector. The sequences obtained from this study were compared with an only recorded sequence in the Genbank by the Meg Align software.

Results: PCR products showed an amplified 996bp gene product belonging to pathogenic serovars, while no products were amplified in non-pathogenic serovars. Sequences comparison tests from 16 native serotypes examined in this study displayed a similarity range of 84% to 99.5% among serovars used. The results showed that two serotypes of including Serjoehardjo (RTCC2810 and RTCC2821) had the highest identity up to 95.5%. Two serovars of including Pomona (RTCC2822) and Icterohaemorrhagiae (RTCC2823) had the lowest identity about 84%.

Conclusion: As the results showed, , present on the surface of such bacteria, showed a conserved sequence. , as a key role in cell adhesion and pathogenicity, can be used for designing diagnostic tests and vaccines. Furthermore, sequencing of various sites in gene, including binding sites and immunogenic epitopes, can be valuable alternatives for future studies.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7049318PMC
October 2019

Assessing the risk factors before pregnancy of preterm births in Iran: a population-based case-control study.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019 Feb 6;19(1):57. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Student Research Committee, Epidemiology Department, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Preterm birth is a major cause of prenatal and postnatal mortality particularly in developing countries. This study investigated the maternal risk factors associated with the risk of preterm birth.

Methods: A population-based case-control study was conducted in several provinces of Iran on 2463 mothers referred to health care centers. Appropriate descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the association between maternal risk factors and the risk of preterm birth. All tests were two-sided, and P values < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.

Results: The mean gestational age was 31.5 ± 4.03 vs. 38.8 ± 1.06 weeks in the case and control groups, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between preterm birth and mother's age and ethnicity. Women of Balooch ethnicity and age ≥ 35 years were significantly more likely to develop preterm birth (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.01--2.44 and OR: 9.72; 95% CI: 3.07-30.78, respectively). However, no statistically significant association was observed between preterm birth and mother's place of residence, level of education, past history of cesarean section, and BMI.

Conclusion: Despite technological advances in the health care system, preterm birth still remains a major concern for health officials. Providing appropriate perinatal health care services as well as raising the awareness of pregnant women, especially for high-risk groups, can reduce the proportion of preventable preterm births.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2183-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364407PMC
February 2019

Artist's Statement: The Whole.

Authors:
Maryam Soltani

Acad Med 2019 01;94(1):16

M. Soltani is a fifth-year resident in family medicine and psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California; e-mail:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000002473DOI Listing
January 2019

Effect of age, sex, and season on the prevalence of Linguatula serrata infestation in mesenteric lymph nodes of goats slaughtered in Tabriz, Iran.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2019 May 6;51(4):879-885. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Young Researchers and Elite Club, Zabol Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zabol, Iran.

This research was conducted to determine the prevalence and intensity of infection with nymphs of Linguatula serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes of the goats from northwest of Iran. Moreover, the intensity of infection of mesenteric lymph nodes was compared based on gross appearance and the morphological changes in these nodes. In addition, the effects of age, sex, and season on the prevalence of Linguatula serrata were assessed. In this study, mesenteric lymph nodes (n = 16,284) were randomly collected from 2132 goats slaughtered in the abattoir of Tabriz, Iran, from September 2013 to September 2017. The samples were categorized based on their gross appearance (color and consistency) and then were cut into small pieces and immersed in normal saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and left for 5 to 6 h to allow nymphs to come out from the tissue. The results showed that 1241 out of total 2132 (58. 2%) goats and 9282 out of total 16,284 mesenteric lymph nodes (57%) were infested with the nymphal stage of Linguatula serrata. It was also revealed that the infestation rate was age-dependent: as the goats grow older, the infestation increases. Further, the prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in the mesenteric lymph nodes in various seasons was not significant (P > 0.05). The prevalence of infestation rate in female goats was significantly higher than of male goats (P < 0.05). Besides, the infestation rate in the black-colored lymph nodes (75.88%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of hemorrhagic nodes (54.94%) and normal-colored nodes (22.65%). Moreover, the infestation rate of nymphs in the soft lymph nodes (83.91%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in normal (21.85%) and hard (32.43%) lymph nodes. Given the fact that the Linguatula serrata is a zoonotic parasite; thus, the inspection process should be meticulously done in an abattoir, especially in areas where residents consume raw or under-cooked liver and/or visceral organs of herbivores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1768-3DOI Listing
May 2019

Synthesis and modification of crystalline SBA-15 nanowhiskers as a pH-sensitive metronidazole nanocarrier system.

Int J Pharm 2019 Jan 15;555:28-35. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Young Researchers and Elite Club, Urmia Branch, Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran; Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Clinical resistance to drugs and diminution in their side effects have become great issues for pharmacologists. In veterinary medicine, parasites like Trichomonas gallinae are of veterinary, hygienic and economic importance and can be treated by metronidazole. Unfortunately, scientific evidence has been reported about its resistance and serious side effects in trichomoniasis. In this research, it was attempted to introduce a new procedure to lower side effects of the drug molecules and also, enhance the treatment of disease. Whisker-formed SBA-15 nanoparticles were utilized for the first time in this issue. They had mesoporous structures which metronidazole molecules could be trapped in them. Additionally, these crystalline nanowhiskers were modified with tannic acid to make the release process better. The branches of tannic acid covered the opening of pores in crystalline SBA-15 nanowhiskers and restricted the drug from fast release. It caused a controlled metronidazole release in the smart drug delivery. These nanocarriers were completely tested by several experiments. Whisker-like SBA-15 nanocrystals had a mesopore volume of 0.5931 cm/g, pore diameter of 6.06 nm and surface area of 491.38 m/g. Based on TGA analysis, 10% of tannic acid was coated on the crystalline nanowhiskers during the modification. The metronidazole content and entrapment efficiency of final nanocarriers was 28.56% and 71.40%, respectively. The decomposition of tannic acid in lower pHs made whisker-like SBA-15@tannic acid nanocrystals be pH-responsive which can be used for other applications in the pharmacology. In-vitro study revealed that the minimal lethal concentration of nanocarriers was 0.5 mg/mL for 180 min.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.034DOI Listing
January 2019

Blue Bridge.

Acad Psychiatry 2018 Dec 30;42(6):862-864. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40596-018-0997-0DOI Listing
December 2018

Virtual reality analgesia for burn joint flexibility: A randomized controlled trial.

Rehabil Psychol 2018 Nov 4;63(4):487-494. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.

Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled study to determine the effects of virtual reality (VR) distraction on pain and range of motion (ROM) in patients hospitalized for burn care during active physical therapy exercises.

Method: Thirty-nine participants aged 15 to 66 (M = 36) years with significant burn injuries (mean burn size = 14% TBSA) participated. Under therapist supervision, using a within-subjects design, participants performed unassisted active ROM exercises both with and without VR distraction in a randomized order. Therapists provided participants with instructions but did not physically assist with stretches. Maximum active ROM was measured using a goniometer. A 0-100 Graphic Rating Scale (GRS) was used to assess the cognitive, affective, and sensory components of pain. A GRS rating of the amount of "fun" during stretching served as a measure of positive experience.

Results: Participants reported lower mean GRS ratings during VR, relative to No VR, for worst pain, pain unpleasantness, and time spent thinking about pain. They also reported having a more positive experience during VR than during No VR. However, patients did not show greater ROM during VR.

Conclusion: Immersive VR reduced pain during ROM exercises that were under the control of the patient. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rep0000239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6235624PMC
November 2018

Planning for agricultural return flow allocation: application of info-gap decision theory and a nonlinear CVaR-based optimization model.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Sep 25;25(25):25115-25129. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

A new methodology is proposed for sizing the required infrastructures for water and waste load allocation in river systems receiving return flow from agricultural networks. A nonlinear optimization model with a constraint based on conditional value at risk (CVaR) is developed to provide water and waste load allocation policies. The CVaR-based constraint limits the probabilistic losses due to existing uncertainties in available surface water. The deep uncertainties of return flow simulation model parameters, which have significant impacts on the simulated quantity and quality of agricultural return flows, are handled by using the info-gap theory. Total dissolved solid (TDS) is selected as water quality indicator and diverting a fraction of return flows to evaporation ponds is considered to control the TDS load of agricultural waste load dischargers. Quantity and TDS load of agricultural return flows over a 1-year cultivation period are simulated by using a calibrated SWAP agro-hydrological model. The results of many runs of SWAP model for different combinations of important uncertain parameters in their ranges of variations provide some response (impact) matrixes which are used in optimization model. The applicability of the proposed methodology is illustrated by applying it to the PayePol region in the Karkheh River catchment, southwest Iran. The selected strategy for water and waste load allocation in the study area is expected to provide total annual benefit of 48.64 million US dollars, while 7.84 million m of total return flow should be diverted to evaporation ponds. The results support the effectiveness of the methodology in incorporating existing deep uncertainties associated with agricultural water and waste load allocation problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2544-7DOI Listing
September 2018

Want Change Not Coins.

Acad Psychiatry 2018 Oct 9;42(5):729-730. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40596-018-0899-1DOI Listing
October 2018

Developing a methodology for real-time trading of water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits in rivers.

J Environ Manage 2018 Apr 22;212:311-322. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

School of Civil Engineering and Center of Excellence for Engineering and Management of Civil Infrastructures, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

In this paper, a new methodology is proposed for the real-time trading of water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits in agricultural areas along the rivers. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is chosen as an indicator of river water quality and the TDS load that agricultural water users discharge to the river are controlled by storing a part of return flows in some evaporation ponds. Available surface water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits are determined using a non-linear multi-objective optimization model. Total available permits are then fairly reallocated among agricultural water users, proportional to their arable lands. Water users can trade their water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits simultaneously, in a bilateral, step by step framework, which takes advantage of differences in their water use efficiencies and agricultural return flow rates. A trade that would take place at each time step results in either more benefit or less diverted return flow. The Nucleolus cooperative game is used to redistribute the benefits generated through trades in different time steps. The proposed methodology is applied to PayePol region in the Karkheh River catchment, southwest Iran. Predicting that 1922.7 Million Cubic Meters (MCM) of annual flow is available to agricultural lands at the beginning of the cultivation year, the real-time optimization model estimates the total annual benefit to reach 46.07 million US Dollars (USD), which requires 6.31 MCM of return flow to be diverted to the evaporation ponds. Fair reallocation of the permits, changes these values to 35.38 million USD and 13.69 MCM, respectively. Results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the real-time water and waste load allocation and simultaneous trading of permits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.02.013DOI Listing
April 2018

When You Go.

Acad Psychiatry 2018 Oct 26;42(5):731-732. Epub 2017 Dec 26.

University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40596-017-0872-4DOI Listing
October 2018

Epidemiology and Outcome Determinants of Pedestrian Injuries in a Level I Trauma Center in Southern Iran; A Cross-Sectional Study.

Bull Emerg Trauma 2017 Oct;5(4):273-279

Student Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objective: To epidemiologically assess the accidents and incidents in the injured pedestrians referred to Shahid Rajaee Hospital, Shiraz in order to provide basic preventive strategies and reduce injuries and fatalities caused by traffic accidents in pedestrians.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 5840 injured pedestrians referred to Shahid Rajaee Hospital, Shiraz from 2009 to 2014. The baseline characteristic including the demographic and clinical information, the mechanism of injury, injury severity score (ISS) and outcome determinants. We also recorded the outcome measures and the mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the factors related to mortality rate and Length of Stay (LOS) in hospital.

Results: In our study, the history of 5840 injured pedestrians was analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 41.32 ± 19.21 years. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that mortality increased with age. Moreover, the odds of mortality was more in patients with Injury Severity Score (ISS) between 16 and 24 [OR: 12.94, 95% CI (3.78-32.66), =0.001] and injuries in the head and neck [OR: 7.92, 95% CI (4.18-14.99), =0.020]. LOS in hospital was also higher in patients with ISS > 25 [OR: 16.65, 95%CI (10.68-25.96), =0.001].

Conclusion: Pedestrians have always been one of the most vulnerable road users. Our study indicated that the adverse consequences and mortalities in pedestrians increased with age. Hence, approaches are required to improve primary prevention programs and reduce deaths and injuries due to this major public health problem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18869/acadpub.beat.5.4.508.DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5694600PMC
October 2017

No Place to Call Home.

Acad Psychiatry 2018 Oct 17;42(5):717-719. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40596-017-0850-xDOI Listing
October 2018

Genetic study of the BRAF gene reveals new variants and high frequency of the V600E mutation among Iranian ameloblastoma patients.

J Oral Pathol Med 2018 Jan 7;47(1):86-90. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Ameloblastoma is a benign, slow-growing and locally invasive tumor. It is one of the most prevalent odontogenic tumors, with an incidence rate of 1% of all oral tumors and approximately 18% of odontogenic tumors. A group of genes have been investigated in patients with ameloblastoma. The BRAF V600E mutation has been implicated as the most common mutation in ameloblastoma. The presence or absence of this mutation has been associated with several clinicopathological properties, including location, age at diagnosis, histology, and prognosis. Although some populations have been investigated so far, little data are available on the Iranian population. The current research was launched to study the BRAF V600E mutation among a cohort of Iranian patients with ameloblastoma.

Methods: In this clinicopathological and molecular biology study, a total of 19 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues were studied. DNA extraction was performed, followed by PCR-sequencing of exons 10 and 15 of the BRAF gene to identify mutations. In silico analysis was performed for the identified variants. Results were analyzed by T test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact test.

Results: Totally, 12 of 19 samples (63%) harbored the p. V600E hotspot mutation. In addition, we identified several variants, two of which were novel. The c.1769T>G (p. V590G) and c.1751C>T (p.L584F) as the novel variants showed a possible damaging effect by in silico analysis. No variant was found within exon 10.

Conclusions: Our study confirms the role of BRAF mutations in ameloblastoma in the Iranian patients studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jop.12610DOI Listing
January 2018

Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the God Locus of Health Control (GLHC): A Study on Muslim Pilgrims.

J Relig Health 2018 Feb;57(1):84-93

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

God Locus of Health Control (GHLC) scale is an instrument for assessing to what extent one believes that God controls his/her health or disease. The aim of this study was to describe the cultural adaptation of this scale and to investigate the psychometric properties of Persian version. At first, the scale was forward-translated to Persian, and then, backward-translation was conducted. Finally, the synthesized back-translated version was prepared and compared to the draft Persian-language version of the GLHC. In the next step, in order to test cognitive debriefing, the Persian-language version of the questionnaire was completed by 20 pilgrims. Final version of Persian GHLC scale was answered by 600 pilgrims attending religious holy places. Mean age of respondents was 33.15 (±11.04) years. There was a positive correlation between six items of GLHC scale and inter-item correlation coefficients. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.84. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the G LHC scale had a one-factor structure. The factor loadings for all items ranged from 0.57 to 0.77. Residual correlations of all items were between -0.2 and +0.2. The people with lower income had significantly higher score of GLHC scale. GLHC scale score had a significant positive correlation with DUREL subscale and MHLC Chance Externality subscale score. There was no a significant correlation between GLHC scale score and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) Internality and Powerful subscales scores. The results of the present study showed that the Persian version of GHLC scale has acceptable factorial validity and internal consistency reliability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10943-016-0350-4DOI Listing
February 2018

Artist's Statement: Isolation.

Authors:
Maryam Soltani

Acad Med 2017 01;92(1):30

M. Soltani is a third-year resident in family medicine and psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California; e-mail:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000001499DOI Listing
January 2017

Alone in a Crowd.

Acad Psychiatry 2017 12 7;41(6):757-758. Epub 2016 Dec 7.

University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40596-016-0642-8DOI Listing
December 2017

Artist's Statement: N = 1: An Internal Struggle.

Authors:
Maryam Soltani

Acad Med 2015 Oct;90(10):1353

M. Soltani is a second-year resident in family medicine and psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California; e-mail:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000000871DOI Listing
October 2015

Effects of narrow-base walking and dual tasking on gait spatiotemporal characteristics in anterior cruciate ligament-injured adults compared to healthy adults.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2017 Aug 9;25(8):2528-2535. Epub 2016 Feb 9.

Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: The present experiment was conducted to examine the hypothesis that challenging control through narrow-base walking and/or dual tasking affects ACL-injured adults more than healthy control adults.

Methods: Twenty male ACL-injured adults and twenty healthy male adults walked on a treadmill at a comfortable speed under two base-of-support conditions, normal-base versus narrow-base, with and without a cognitive task. Gait patterns were assessed using mean and variability of step length and mean and variability of step velocity. Cognitive performance was assessed using the number of correct counts in a backward counting task.

Results: Narrow-base walking resulted in a larger decrease in step length and a more pronounced increase in variability of step length and of step velocity in ACL-injured adults than in healthy adults. For most of the gait parameters and for backward counting performance, the dual-tasking effect was similar between the two groups.

Conclusions: ACL-injured adults adopt a more conservative and more unstable gait pattern during narrow-base walking. This can be largely explained by deficits of postural control in ACL-injured adults, which impairs gait under more balance-demanding conditions. The observation that the dual-tasking effect did not differ between the groups may be explained by the fact that walking is an automatic process that involves minimal use of attentional resources, even after ACL injury. Clinicians should consider the need to include aspects of terrain complexity, such as walking on a narrow walkway, in gait assessment and training of patients with ACL injury.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-016-4014-4DOI Listing
August 2017

Analysis of survival data in thalassemia patients in Shiraz, Iran.

Epidemiol Health 2015 7;37:e2015031. Epub 2015 Jul 7.

Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objectives: The survival rate of thalassemia patients has not been conclusively established, and the factors associated with survival remain unclear. This study aimed to determine the survival rate of thalassemia among patients in southern Iran and to identify the factors associated with mortality from thalassemia.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted based on a retrospective review of the medical records of 911 beta-thalassemia patients in 2014. Data analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis.

Results: Overall, 212 patients (23.3%) died, and 26.8% had thalassemia intermedia. The 20-year, 40-year, and 60-year survival rates were 85%, 63%, and 54%, respectively. Both crude and adjusted analyses found that education, marital status, ferritin levels, and comorbidities were related to mortality.

Conclusions: Sociodemographic and hematological factors were found to be significantly associated with the survival rate of thalassemia. Addressing these factors may help healthcare providers and physicians to provide the best possible care and to improve the survival rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4616013PMC
October 2015

River water quality management considering agricultural return flows: application of a nonlinear two-stage stochastic fuzzy programming.

Environ Monit Assess 2015 Apr 5;187(4):158. Epub 2015 Mar 5.

School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran,

In this paper, a new fuzzy methodology is developed to optimize water and waste load allocation (WWLA) in rivers under uncertainty. An interactive two-stage stochastic fuzzy programming (ITSFP) method is utilized to handle parameter uncertainties, which are expressed as fuzzy boundary intervals. An iterative linear programming (ILP) is also used for solving the nonlinear optimization model. To accurately consider the impacts of the water and waste load allocation strategies on the river water quality, a calibrated QUAL2Kw model is linked with the WWLA optimization model. The soil, water, atmosphere, and plant (SWAP) simulation model is utilized to determine the quantity and quality of each agricultural return flow. To control pollution loads of agricultural networks, it is assumed that a part of each agricultural return flow can be diverted to an evaporation pond and also another part of it can be stored in a detention pond. In detention ponds, contaminated water is exposed to solar radiation for disinfecting pathogens. Results of applying the proposed methodology to the Dez River system in the southwestern region of Iran illustrate its effectiveness and applicability for water and waste load allocation in rivers. In the planning phase, this methodology can be used for estimating the capacities of return flow diversion system and evaporation and detention ponds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4263-6DOI Listing
April 2015

Universal depression screening, diagnosis, management, and outcomes at a student-run free clinic.

Acad Psychiatry 2015 Jun 10;39(3):259-66. Epub 2014 Dec 10.

University of California, San Diego, CA, USA,

Objective: Student-run free clinics (SRFCs) are now present at most medical schools. Reports regarding SRFCs have focused on the infrastructure of established clinics, characteristics of the patient populations served, and their contribution to patient care. Few studies discuss their role in preventive medicine and even fewer discuss mental health care. This study examined the outcomes of a medical student-run universal depression screening, diagnosis, and management program at two SRFC sites.

Methods: Medical students implemented a universal depression screening, diagnosis, and management program within the electronic health record during routine adult primary care visits utilizing the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) as an initial screening tool, with a protocol to administer the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) if the PHQ-2 score was ≥3. This is a retrospective medical record review of visits from August 13, 2013, through February 13, 2014, to assess this program.

Results: Overall, 95.8 % (206/215) of the patients received either the PHQ-2 or the PHQ-9. Among the 174 patients without a previous diagnosis of depression, 166 were screened (95.4 %), of which 33 (19.9 %) had a positive PHQ-2 score of ≥3; 30 (of 33; 90.9 %) appropriately received a PHQ-9. Nineteen (of 166 screened; 11.4 %) previously undiagnosed patients were confirmed to have depression. Fourteen patients had two or more PHQ-9 tests at least 4 weeks apart and eight (57.1 %) had a clinically significant improvement, defined as PHQ-9 score decrease of ≥5. The prevalence of depression diagnosed prior to the implementation of this program in this cohort was 19.1 % (41/215) and after was 27.9 % (60/215).

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that medical students with faculty supervision can successfully implement a universal depression screening, diagnosis, and management program at multiple SRFC sites, identify previously undiagnosed depression, and work with interdisciplinary support services to provide treatment options, leading to a clinically significant improvement in depression severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40596-014-0257-xDOI Listing
June 2015

The Essence of Eddie: a reflection of the interplay between art, relationships, and emotion.

Authors:
Maryam Soltani

Acad Psychiatry 2014 Dec 12;38(6):751. Epub 2014 Nov 12.

University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40596-014-0227-3DOI Listing
December 2014

Water and waste load allocation in rivers with emphasis on agricultural return flows: application of fractional factorial analysis.

Environ Monit Assess 2014 Sep 1;186(9):5935-49. Epub 2014 Jun 1.

School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran,

In this paper, a new methodology is developed to handle parameter and input uncertainties in water and waste load allocation (WWLA) in rivers by using factorial interval optimization and the Soil, Water, Atmosphere, and Plant (SWAP) simulation model. A fractional factorial analysis is utilized to provide detailed effects of uncertain parameters and their interaction on the optimization model outputs. The number of required optimizations in a fractional factorial analysis can be much less than a complete sensitivity analysis. The most important uncertain inputs and parameters can be also selected using a fractional factorial analysis. The uncertainty of the selected inputs and parameters should be incorporated real time water and waste load allocation. The proposed methodology utilizes the SWAP simulation model to estimate the quantity and quality of each agricultural return flow based on the allocated water quantity and quality. In order to control the pollution loads of agricultural dischargers, it is assumed that a part of their return flows can be diverted to evaporation ponds. Results of applying the methodology to the Dez River system in the southwestern part of Iran show its effectiveness and applicability for simultaneous water and waste load allocation in rivers. It is shown that in our case study, the number of required optimizations in the fractional factorial analysis can be reduced from 64 to 16. Analysis of the interactive effects of uncertainties indicates that in a low flow condition, the upstream water quality would have a significant effect on the total benefit of the system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-3830-6DOI Listing
September 2014

Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from pigeon droppings.

J Res Med Sci 2013 Jan;18(1):56-60

Department of Medical and Veterinary Mycology, Faculty of Specialized Veterinary Science, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Invasive fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Pigeon droppings could especially be a potential carrier in the spread of pathogenic yeasts and mold fungi into the environment. The objective of this study was to isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from pigeon droppings.

Materials And Methods: One hundred twenty samples of pigeon droppings were suspended 1:10 in saline solution and then cultured. Identification of C. neoformans was performed on bird seed agar, presence of a capsule on India ink preparation, urease production on urea agar medium and RapID yeast plus system. The identification of candida species was based on micro-morphological analysis on corn meal-Tween 80 agar, RapID yeast plus system and growth in CHROMagar candida. The identification of other fungi was based on macromorphologic, microscopic, biochemical and physiological characteristics.

Results: The highest frequency of yeasts and mold fungi were observed in Candida albicans 6.6% and Penicillium spp. 25%. The frequency rate of C. neoformans isolation was 2.5%.

Conclusion: Several types of fungi are present in pigeon droppings that can spread in environment and transmit to children and elderly as well as immunocompromised patients who are at increased risk of contracting opportunistic diseases.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3719228PMC
January 2013

Artist's statement: puzzled.

Authors:
Maryam Soltani

Acad Med 2013 Feb;88(2):213

University of California, Berkeley, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e31827c1e10DOI Listing
February 2013

Prefrontal cortex lesions impair object-spatial integration.

PLoS One 2012 26;7(4):e34937. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America.

How and where object and spatial information are perceptually integrated in the brain is a central question in visual cognition. Single-unit physiology, scalp EEG, and fMRI research suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a critical locus for object-spatial integration. To test the causal participation of the PFC in an object-spatial integration network, we studied ten patients with unilateral PFC damage performing a lateralized object-spatial integration task. Consistent with single-unit and neuroimaging studies, we found that PFC lesions result in a significant behavioral impairment in object-spatial integration. Furthermore, by manipulating inter-hemispheric transfer of object-spatial information, we found that masking of visual transfer impairs performance in the contralesional visual field in the PFC patients. Our results provide the first evidence that the PFC plays a key, causal role in an object-spatial integration network. Patient performance is also discussed within the context of compensation by the non-lesioned PFC.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0034937PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3338509PMC
September 2012