Publications by authors named "Maryam Sargolzaei"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Georgian Grapevine Cultivars: Ancient Biodiversity for Future Viticulture.

Front Plant Sci 2021 5;12:630122. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Grapevine () is one of the most widely cultivated plant species of agricultural interest, and is extensively appreciated for its fruits and the wines made from its fruits. Considering the high socio-economic impact of the wine sector all over the world, in recent years, there has been an increase in work aiming to investigate the biodiversity of grapevine germplasm available for breeding programs. Various studies have shed light on the genetic diversity characterizing the germplasm from the cradle of domestication in Georgia (South Caucasus). Georgian germplasm is placed in a distinct cluster from the European one and possesses a rich diversity for many different traits, including eno-carpological and phenological traits; resistance to pathogens, such as oomycetes and phytoplasmas; resistance to abiotic stresses, such as sunburn. The aim of this review is to assess the potential of Georgian cultivars as a source of useful traits for breeding programs. The unique genetic and phenotypic aspects of Georgian germplasm were unraveled, to better understand the diversity and quality of the genetic resources available to viticulturists, as valuable resources for the coming climate change scenario.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.630122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892605PMC
February 2021

From plant resistance response to the discovery of antimicrobial compounds: The role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in grapevine downy mildew infection.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Mar 26;160:294-305. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, via Celoria 2, 20133, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

The discovery of new mechanisms of resistance and natural bioactive molecules could be two of the possible ways to reduce fungicide use in vineyard and assure an acceptable and sustainable protection against Plasmopara viticola, the grapevine downy mildew agent. Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as terpenes, norisoprenoids, alcohols and aldehydes, is frequently induced in plants in response to attack by pathogens, such as P. viticola, that is known to cause a VOCs increment in cultivars harboring American resistance traits. In this study, the role of leaf VOCs in the resistance mechanism of two resistant cultivars (Mgaloblishvili, a pure Vitis vinifera cultivar, and Bianca, an interspecific hybrid) and the direct antimicrobial activity of four selected VOCs have been investigated. The leaf VOCs profiles, analyzed through solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, as well as the expression of six terpene synthases (TPSs), were determined upon pathogen inoculation. In both cultivars, the expression pattern of six TPSs increased soon after pathogen inoculation and an increment of nine VOCs has been detected. While in Mgaloblishvili VOCs were synthesized early after P. viticola inoculation, they constituted a late response to pathogen in Bianca. All the four terpenes (farnesene, nerolidol, ocimene and valencene), chosen according to the VOC profiles and gene expression analysis, caused a significant reduction (53-100%) in P. viticola sporulation. These results support the role of VOCs into defense mechanisms of both cultivars and suggest their potential role as a natural and eco-friendly solution to protect grapevine from P. viticola.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.01.035DOI Listing
March 2021

Azole resistance in Aspergillus isolates by different types of patients and correlation with environment - An Italian prospective multicentre study (ARiA study).

Mycoses 2021 May 28;64(5):528-536. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.

Background: A wide range of frequency of azole-resistance in A fumigatus in different patient populations worldwide was observed threatening to reduce therapeutic options.

Objectives: Estimate the prevalence of azole-resistance, investigate the molecular mechanisms of resistance, compare the genotypes of resistant clinical isolates with those from the surrounding environment.

Methods: Aspergillus isolates were collected by seven Italian hospital microbiology laboratories. Strains were isolated from different clinical samples from unselected patients. The azole-resistance was evaluated using screening test and microdilution EUCAST method. The molecular mechanism of resistance was performed sequencing the cyp51A gene. Resistant isolates were genotyped by microsatellite analysis and their profiles compared with those of azole-resistant isolates from previous Italian studies.

Results: 425 Aspergillus isolates from 367 patients were analysed. The azole-resistance rates were 4.9% and 6.6% considering all Aspergillus spp. isolates and the A fumigatus sensu stricto, respectively. All resistant isolates except one were from a single hospital. Two rare azole-resistant species were identified: A thermomutatus and A lentulus. The predominant resistance mechanism was TR /L98H. No correlation between the clinical resistant strains and environmental isolates from patients' home/work/ward was observed. The analysis of the molecular correlation between the resistant clinical strains collected in the present study and those of environmental and clinical origin collected in previous Italian studies reveals a progressive diversification of azole-resistant genotypes starting from a founder azole-resistant genotype.

Conclusions: This study confirms the trend of azole-resistance rate in Italy, showing a geographical difference. Data reinforce the importance of surveillance programmes to monitor the local epidemiological situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.13241DOI Listing
May 2021

, and : Three Novel Genomic Loci Associated With Resistance to in .

Front Plant Sci 2020 8;11:562432. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

(Berk. et Curt.) Berl. and de Toni, the agent of downy mildew, is one of the most important pathogens of European grapevine ( L.). Extensive evaluation of cultivated grapevine germplasm has highlighted the existence of resistant phenotypes in the Georgian (Southern Caucasus) germplasm. Resistance is shown as a reduction in disease severity. Unraveling the genetic architecture of grapevine response to infection is crucial to develop resistant varieties and reduce the impact of disease management. The aim of this work was to apply a genome-wide association (GWA) approach to a panel of Georgian-derived accessions phenotyped for susceptibility and genotyped with Vitis18kSNP chip array. GWA identified three highly significant novel loci on chromosomes 14 (), 3 () and 16 () associated with a low level of pathogen sporulation. , , and loci appeared to be associated with plant defense genes against biotic stresses, such as genes involved in pathogen recognition and signal transduction. This study provides the first evidence of resistant loci against in germplasm, and identifies potential target genes for breeding resistant grapevine cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.562432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583455PMC
October 2020

Assessing the prevalence of HIV among Afghan immigrants in Iran through rapid HIV testing in the field.

Acta Med Iran 2011 ;49(7):478-9

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Throughout the world, many migrant and mobile populations are at elevated risk for HIV. Iran has a large immigrant population from neighboring Afghanistan; however, few data exist on the prevalence of HIV in this community. In 2008, we conducted a study to assess the presence of HIV infection among 477 immigrants in a town to the northeast of Tehran using a rapid test in the field. HIV prevalence was 0.2% (95% CI 0.005-1.2) with one person HIV-positive. We recommend periodic HIV sero-surveillance with detailed behavioral measures for this population in the future.
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January 2012

Frequency of HIV Infection among Sailors in South of Iran by Rapid HIV Test.

AIDS Res Treat 2011 10;2011:612475. Epub 2011 Apr 10.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Information on the prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection among sailors is scarce. The aim of this seroprevalence study was to evaluate the frequency of HIV infection among sailors in south of Iran using rapid HIV test. The study included 400 consecutive participants in Lengeh, Shahid Rajaie, and Shahid Bahonar ports in south of Iran in May 2010. We observed only one case (0.25%) of HIV infection in this sample of sailors. While prevalence appears low at present, we recommend periodic HIV serosurveillance with detailed behavioral measures for this population in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/612475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3085304PMC
July 2011

Lack of HIV infection among truck drivers in Iran using rapid HIV test.

J Res Med Sci 2010 Sep;15(5):287-9

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HIV infection in Iranian long distance truck drivers using rapid HIV test.

Methods: The study included 400 consecutive participants in Bazargan city, north-west of Iran in the late 2008 and the early 2009.

Results: No HIV infection was observed among these long distance truck drivers.

Conclusions: Although results of this study is plausible compared to other similar studies, repeated surveys are necessary to know the trend of HIV infection in truckers in Iran.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3082827PMC
September 2010