Publications by authors named "Maryam Raoof"

42 Publications

The involvement of orexin 1 and cannabinoid 1 receptors within the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter in the modulation of migraine-induced anxiety and social behavior deficits of rats.

Peptides 2021 Dec 21;146:170651. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran. Electronic address:

Orexin 1 receptors (Orx1R) and cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1R) are implicated in migraine pathophysiology. This study evaluated the potential involvement of Orx1R and CB1R within the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG) in the modulation of anxiety-like behavior and social interaction of migraineurs rats. A rat model of migraine induced by recurrent administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) (5 mg/kg/i.p.). The groups of rats (n = 6) were then subjected to intra-vlPAG microinjection of orexin-A (25, 50 pM), and Orx1R antagonist SB334867 (20, 40 nM) or AM 251 (2, 4 μg) as a CB1R antagonist. Behavioral responses were evaluated in elevated plus maze (EPM), open field (OF) and three-chambered social test apparatus. NTG produced a marked anxiety like behaviors, in both EPM and OF tasks. It did also decrease social performance. NTG-related anxiety and social conflicts were attenuated by orexin-A (25, 50 pM). However, NTG effects were exacerbated by SB334867 (40 nM) and AM251 (2, 4 μg). The orexin-A-mediated suppression of NTG-induced anxiety and social conflicts were prevented by either SB334867 (20 nM) or AM251 (2 μg). The findings suggest roles for Orx1R and CB1R signaling within vlPAG in the modulation of migraine-induced anxiety-like behavior and social dysfunction in rats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2021.170651DOI Listing
December 2021

Pain influences food preference and food-related memory by activating the basolateral amygdala in rats.

Exp Brain Res 2021 Jan 26;239(1):79-93. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Endodontology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

The amygdala has been demonstrated to contribute to pain-related behavior and food preference. Here, the effect of pain on food preference and food-matched visual-cue memory, in the presence or absence of a basolateral amygdala (BLA) lesion, has been evaluated using a novel innovative apparatus and protocol. Forty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8) as follows: control, pain, ibuprofen + pain, BLA lesion, BLA lesion + pain groups. Bilateral lesions of the BLA were produced by passing a current of 1.5 mA for 7 s. Pain was induced on the right hind paw of the rats by sub-plantar injection of 50 μl of 2.5% formalin. The animals were encountered with four different meals including wholemeal, wholemeal + sugar, white flour, and biscuit. Each test session consisted of six trials with inter-trial intervals of 15 min. The number of visits to each meal zone and port, the amount of time spent in each food zone and port, traveled distance in each food zone, food consumption per each visit and the total food consumption were recorded. The control group showed a high biscuit preference and low white flour preference. Rats suffering BLA lesion and rats in the BLA lesion + pain group exhibited a shifted preference curve. They had a bias toward eating wholemeal + sugar rather than white flour and biscuit. This group also showed an impaired spatial memory. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the BLA may be involved in pain-induced food preference and food-matched visual-cue memory.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-020-05961-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Activation orexin 1 receptors in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter attenuate nitroglycerin-induced migraine attacks and calcitonin gene related peptide up-regulation in trigeminal nucleus caudalis of rats.

Neuropharmacology 2020 11 31;178:107981. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

This study aims to explore whether orexin 1 receptors (Orx1R) in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG) play a role in the modulation of migraine headaches in adult male Wistar rats. To model chronic migraine-associated pain, nitroglycerin (NTG) (5 mg/kg/IP) was administered to test subjects every second day for 9 days. After the last NTG injection, rats were randomly separated into the following groups (n = 6): orexin-A (OrxA) groups that received intra-vlPAG OrxA (25, 50, and 100 pM), an Orx1R antagonist group, a SB-334867 (20 μM) group; and a SB-334867 (20 μM) + OrxA (100 pM) group. After 10 min, migraine-associated behavioral symptoms were recorded in all animals for up to 90 min. Light-dark chamber and hot plate tests were used for assessing light aversion and thermal hyperalgesia, respectively. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive cells were detected in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Vc) by immunofluorescence microscopy. NTG caused significant freezing behavior, which was prevented by all OrxA doses. Moreover, OrxA (100 pM) could obstruct NTG-induced increases in facial rubbing and decreases in climbing and body grooming. Furthermore, NTG-induced light aversion and thermal hyperalgesia were attenuated by OrxA at doses of 50 and 100 pM. The effects of OrxA were significantly blocked by SB-334867 (20 μM). Besides, OrxA (100 pM) decreased NTG-induced CGRP upregulation. The data revealed that the activation of Orx1Rs in the vlPAG is effective in relieving NTG-induced migraine symptoms mainly by the downregulation of CGRP in the Vc of rats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2020.107981DOI Listing
November 2020

Physical exercise enhances vulnerability to migraine headache associated with CGRP up-expression in trigeminal nucleus caudalis of stressed rats.

Neurol Res 2020 Nov 18;42(11):952-958. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman , Kerman, Iran.

Objectives: There is conflicting evidence on the effect of physical exercise on migraine development. Present study investigated the impact of treadmill exercise on migraine - associated symptoms and changes in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression in rats with and without maternal deprivation stress (MD).

Methods: Two days after birth, the male Wistar pups were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6) as follows: intact, exercise, MD, and MD plus exercise. The animals in the MD groups were separated from their dams 4 h per day for 2 weeks. At 8 weeks of age, the rats were exercised on a motor-driven treadmill for 4 weeks. Then, nitroglycerin (NTG) (5 mg/kg/IP) was used to induce migraine and pain-related symptoms were recorded for 90 min. NTG-related thermal hyperalgesia was measured by tail flick and hot plate methods. Finally, immunofluorescence staining of CGRP in trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) was performed.

Results: NTG - produced a significant headache symptoms and thermal hypersensitivity, which were aggravated following physical exercise in stressed or unstressed groups. Besides, NTG administration increased CGRP expression in the Vc of rats. Such effect was overpowered by treadmill running only in rats exposed to MD stress.

Conclusion: These findings highlight the worsening effects of treadmill exercise for migraine in rats with and without MD stress. However, inflammatory response can further exacerbate in stressed rats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2020.1794243DOI Listing
November 2020

Mode of delivery alters dental pulp nociception and pain-induced changes in cognitive performance in adults male rats.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2020 Oct 9;98(10):717-724. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Endodontology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

This study examined the effects of delivery mode on the response to inflammatory pulpal pain and pain-induced changes in cognitive performance in adult rats. Experiments were done on rats born by vaginal or caesarean section (C-section) delivery. Dental pulp was irritated by intradental capsaicin (100 μg) application and then nociceptive scores were recorded for 40 min. Spatial and passive avoidance learning and memory were assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) and shuttle box tools, respectively. Additionally, in vivo recording of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) in the CA1 of the hippocampus was used to verify synaptic plasticity. Capsaicin produced more significant nociceptive behavior in vaginally delivered rats compared to C-section rats ( < 0.01). C-section-delivered rats show better performance in both MWM and shuttle box tests. Likewise, C-section rats had greater fEPSP slopes compared to the vaginally delivered group ( < 0.05). Capsaicin impairs cognitive performance in rats born by each delivery route. However, capsaicin effects were more significant in rats delivered vaginally than by C-section. Overall, C-section-delivered rats show lower sensitivity to capsaicin-evoked pulpal nociception and better cognitive performance than vaginally delivered rats. These effects are in part mediated by reduced neuroinflammation and enhanced neuronal synaptic plasticity following C-section delivery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2019-0370DOI Listing
October 2020

Blockage of ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter cannabinoid 1 receptor increases dental pulp pain and pain-related subsequent learning and memory deficits in rats.

Behav Pharmacol 2020 Aug 27. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) signaling has a pivotal role in the modulation of both pain and cognitive responses. This study aims at investigating the role of CB1R in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG) on both pulpal pain and pain-related subsequent changes in learning and memory performances in rats. The adult male Wistar rats were cannulated in the vlPAG. The rats were pretreated by intra-vlPAG administration of selective CB1R antagonist AM-251 (2, 4 and 8 µg/rat) and vehicle dimethylsulfoxide. The drugs were microinjected 20 min before the induction of capsaicin-induced pulpalgia. The nociceptive behaviors were recorded for 40 min. Then, passive avoidance and spatial learning and memory were assessed using the shuttle box and Morris water maze tests, respectively. Following the administration of intradental capsaicin, there was a significant nociceptive response that increased after an induced blockage of CB1R by AM-251 at 4 and 8 µg. In addition, capsaicin impaired passive avoidance and spatial memory performance of rats. Microinjection of AM-251, prior to capsaicin, could dose-dependently exaggerate capsaicin-related learning and memory deficits in both tests. The present data indicated that the vlPAG endocannabinoid system is involved in the modulation of pain signals from dental pulp. It was also accompanied by learning and memory impairments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FBP.0000000000000566DOI Listing
August 2020

The rostral ventromedial medulla orexin 1 receptors and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in hippocampus are involved in modulation of anxiety behavior induced by dental pulp nociception in adult male rats.

Arch Oral Biol 2020 Aug 25;116:104778. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran; Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Objectives: To explore the role of rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) orexin 1 receptors (OX1R) on orofacial nociception -induced anxiety and locomotion in rats.

Design: Forty two adult male Wistar rats (220-270 gr) were randomly divided into 7 groups (n = 6) as follows: untreated control, capsaicin, capsaicin vehicle-treated group (sham operation), capsaicin groups pretreated by intra-RVM administration orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) agonist (orexin A) or antagonist (SB-334867) and the capsaicin groups treated by drugs vehicles (DMSO or aCSF). Orofacial nociception was induced by intradental application of capsaicin (100 μg) into the incisors of rats. Anxiety level and locomotor activity were measured by the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OF) tests, respectively. Hippocampal levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated Kinase (p-ERK) was also assessed by western blotting.

Results: Intradental application of capsaicin significantly increased anxiety and decreased locomotion behaviors. Intra-RVM microinjection of orexin-A significantly prevented capsaicin-induced anxiety-like behavior and increased locomotor activity in the EPM and OF tests. These effects were inhibited by SB-334867. Furthermore, orexin-A significantly increased p-ERK levels in capsaicin-treated rats. This effect was inhibited by pretreatment of the rats with SB-334867.

Conclusions: The results suggest that both OX1R signaling in the RVM and hippocampal p-ERK signaling are involved in orofacial nociception-induced anxiety as well as locomotor activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2020.104778DOI Listing
August 2020

Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Extracts of and and their Combination with Calcium Hydroxide Powder against .

J Dent (Shiraz) 2019 Sep;20(3):195-202

Oral and Dental Diseases Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Statement Of The Problem: The goal of endodontic therapy is the reduction or elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system. The use of intracanal medicament between treatment appointments is recommended in order to eliminate any remainang microorganisms in the pulp space.

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of and , their combination with calcium hydroxide powder; combination of calcium hydroxide powder with water, and ready-to-use calcium hydroxide paste with iodoform; against .

Materials And Method: In this experimental study, after gathering the plants, their methanolic extracts were obtained by masceration method. The diameters of inhibition zone of all mentioned materials were determined by agar diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC); and anti biofilm effect of the materials that showed antibacterial effect in agar diffusion test, were then evaluated by tube dilution test, and microtiter plate assay followed by colorimetric crystal violet methods, respectively.

Results: After 48 hours, both herbal extracts showed antimicrobial effect. However, combination of calcium hydroxide with extracts produced no zone of inhibition. The mean inhibition zone of extract was more than that of . However, the results of ANOVA test, showed that there was no significant difference between the antibacterial effect of and positive control (Cefoxitin) ( Value= 0.987). The MIC for both extracts were 12.5 mg/ml. MBC evaluation of the two methanolic extracts showed no bactericidal effect on . Based on ELISA analysis, biofilm formation in response to different sub-MIC concentrations of both extracts was scored as weak to moderate.

Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of and in combination with calcium hydroxide powder were not able to eliminate within 48 hours.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.30476/DENTJODS.2019.44898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6732178PMC
September 2019

Intra-periaqueductal gray matter administration of orexin-A exaggerates pulpitis-induced anxiogenic responses and c-fos expression mainly through the interaction with orexin 1 and cannabinoid 1 receptors in rats.

Neuropeptides 2019 Feb 13;73:25-33. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Department of Orofacial Pain and Dysfunction, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Different types of trigeminal pains are frequently associated with psychophysiological concerns. Orexin-A and orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) are involved in modulation of both trigeminal pain and anxiety responses. Ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG), a controlling site for nociception and emotion, receives orexinergic inputs. Here, the role of vlPAG OX1Rs and their interaction with cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor was evaluated in anxiety-like behavior following capsaicin-induced dental pulp pain. Rats were cannulated in the vlPAG and orexin-A was injected at the doses of 0.17, 0.35 and 0.51 μg/rat prior to the induction of pain. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OF) tests were used for assessing the anxiety responses. In addition, the induction of c-fos, in the vlPAG, was investigated using immunofluorescence microscopy. Capsaicin-treated rats displayed significantly higher anxiogenic behavior on EPM and OF tests. Pretreatment with orexin-A (0.51 μg/rat) attenuated capsaicin-mediated nociception, while exaggerated anxiogenic responses (p < 0.05). In addition, orexin-A effects were diminished by the administration of OX1R (SB-334867, 12 μg/rat) and cannabinoid 1 (AM251, 4 μg/rat) receptor antagonists. Intradental capsaicin induced a significant increase in c-fos expression in the vlPAG that was exaggerated by orexin-A (0.51 μg/rat). Blockage of OX1R and CB1 receptors attenuated the effect of orexin-A on c-fos expression in capsaicin-treated rats. In conclusion, the data suggest that manipulation of OX1R and CB1 receptors in the vlPAG alters capsaicin-evoked anxiety like behaviors and c-fos induction in rats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.npep.2018.12.001DOI Listing
February 2019

The effect of CA1 administration of orexin-A on hippocampal expression of COX-2 and BDNF in a rat model of orofacial pain.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2018 09;76(9):603-608

Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Neuroscience Research Center, Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Kerman, Iran.

Objective: The neuropeptide orexin-A and its receptors are widely distributed in both hippocampal circuitry and pain transmission pathways. Involvement of the CA1 orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) on the modulation of orofacial pain and pain-induced changes in hippocampal expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was investigated.

Methods: Orofacial pain was induced by an intra-lip injection of capsaicin (100 μg). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analysis were used to indicate changes in hippocampal BDNF and COX-2 expression, respectively.

Results: Capsaicin induces a significant pain response, which is not affected by either orexin-A or SB-334867-A, an OX1R antagonist. However, an increased expression of COX-2 and decreased expression of BDNF was observed in the hippocampus of animals that received capsaicin or SB-334867-A (80 nM) plus capsaicin. Meanwhile, orexin-A (40 pM) attenuated the effects of capsaicin on the expression of COX-2 and BDNF.

Conclusions: CA1 OX1R activation moderates capsaicin-induced neuronal inflammation and neurotrophic deficiency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0004-282X20180099DOI Listing
September 2018

Orexin-A inhibits capsaicin-induced changes in cyclooxygenase-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in trigeminal nucleus caudalis of rats.

Korean J Pain 2018 Jul 2;31(3):174-182. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Pathology and Stem Cell Research Center, Department of Pathology, Afzalipour Kerman University of Medical Science, Kerman, Iran.

Background: The trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Vc) is a primary central site for trigeminal transmitting. Noxious stimulation of the trigeminal nociceptors alters the central synaptic releases and neural expression of some inflammatory and trophic agents. Orexin-A and the orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) are expressed in pain pathways including trigeminal pain transmission. However, the the mechanism(s) underling orexin-A effects on trigeminal pain modulation have not been fully clarified.

Methods: Trigeminal pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of capsaicin in the upper lip in rats. The effect of trigeminal pain on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the Vc of animals was determined by immunofluorescence. Subsequently, OX1R agonist (orexin-A) and antagonist (SB-334867-A) was administrated in the Vc to investigate the possible roles of the Vc OX1R on changes in COX-2 and BDNF levels following pain induction.

Results: The data indicated an increase in COX-2 and decrease in BDNF immuno-reactivity in the Vc of capsaicin, and capsaicin- pretreated with SB-334867-A (80 nM), groups of rat. However, the effect of capsaicin on COX-2 and BDNF expressions was reversed by a Vc microinjection of orexin-A (100 pM).

Conclusions: Overall, the present data reveals that orexin-A can attenuate capsaicin-induced trigeminal pain through the modulation of pain effects on COX-2 and BDNF expressions in the Vc of rats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2018.31.3.174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037813PMC
July 2018

The effects of regular exercise on capsaicin-induced pulpal pain and pain-induced changes in passive avoidance learning and memory in rats.

Korean J Pain 2017 Oct 29;30(4):258-264. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Oral and Dental Diseases Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Pulpal pain is one of the most common and severe orofacial pain conditions with considerable adverse effects on physiological processes including learning and memory. Regular exercise is known to be effective on cognitive function as well as pain processing in the central nervous system. Here, the possible effects of regular exercise on pulpal pain response as well as pain-induced changes in learning and memory efficiency in rats were investigated.

Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the control, capsaicin, exercise, and exercise plus capsaicin groups. Rats in exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill with a moderate exercise protocol for 4 weeks. Capsaicin was used to induce dental pulp pain. Passive avoidance learning and memory performance was assessed by using a shuttle box apparatus.

Results: According to the results, regular exercise could decrease the time course of capsaicin-induced pulpal pain ( < 0.001). Moreover, in capsaicin-treated rats, passive avoidance acquisition was impaired as compared to the control ( < 0.05) and exercise ( < 0.001) groups. Additionally, regular exercise before capsaicin injection could attenuate capsaicin-induced memory impairments ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: Taken together, the present data showed that regular exercise has inhibitory effects on capsaicin-induced pulpal pain as well as pain-induced cognitive dysfunction in rats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2017.30.4.258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5665737PMC
October 2017

Effect of chronic stress on capsaicin-induced dental nociception in a model of pulpitis in rats.

Arch Oral Biol 2018 Jan 18;85:154-159. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

Oral and Dental Diseases Research Center/Kerman Social Determinants on Oral Health Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Objective: Chronic stress can alter nociceptive sensitivity. However, the effect of stress exposure on dental nociception has been less addressed. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of chronic exposures to some social and psychological stresses on pulpal nociceptive responses.

Design: The stress groups were constructed as follows: forced swimming (n=6), restraint (n=6), and mild (n=10) and severe (n=15) crowding stresses. Rats were subjected to stress for 1h per day for a week. At the end of the stress session, pulp irritation was induced by intradental application of capsaicin (100μg). There were another capsaicin or capsaicin plus stress training groups that received articaine 5min before the administration of capsaicin. Nociceptive responses were recorded for 40min. The time (ins) of continuous shaking of the lower jaw and excessive grooming and rubbing of the mouth near the procedure site was measured as nociceptive behaviors. Data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc Tukey's test.

Results: Significant nociceptive responses were evoked by the administration of capsaicin. Exposures to forced swimming (p<0.01), restraint (p<0.001), and both mild and severe crowding stresses (p<0.05) exaggerated capsaicin-induced nociceptive reaction. There was, however, no significant difference in nociceptive reaction time between the different stress groups. Articaine buccal infiltration attenuated nociceptive time in capsaicin and capsaicin plus stress training groups (p<0.001).

Conclusions: The current data support the association between chronic stress exposures and nociceptive behavior following intradental capsaicin administration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.10.012DOI Listing
January 2018

The Modulatory Role of Orexin 1 Receptor in CA1 on Orofacial Pain-induced Learning and Memory Deficits in Rats.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2017 May-Jun;8(3):213-222

Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: Cognitive impairment is commonly associated with pain. The modulatory role of (OX1R) in pain pathways as well as learning and memory processes is reported in several studies. The current study was designed to investigate the possible role of CA1-hippocampal OX1R on spatial learning and memory of rats following capsaicin-induced orofacial pain.

Methods: Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous intra lip injection of capsaicin (100 μg). CA1 administration of orexin A and its selective antagonist (SB-334867-A) were performed 20 minutes prior to capsaicin injection. Learning and spatial memory performances were assessed by Morris Water Maze (MWM) task.

Results: Capsaicin treated rats showed impairment in spatial learning and memory. In addition, pretreatment with orexin A (20 and 40 nM/rat) significantly attenuated learning and memory impairment in capsaicin-treated rats. Conversely, blockage of OX1R via SB-334867-A (40 and 80 nM/rat) significantly exaggerated learning and memory loss in capsaicin-treated rats.

Conclusion: The obtained results indicated that CA1 OX1R may be involved in modulation of capsaicin -induced spatial learning and memory impairment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18869/nirp.bcn.8.3.213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5535327PMC
August 2017

Comparative Antimicrobial Efficacy of and Extracts, Chlorhexidine and Sodium Hypochlorite against .

Iran Endod J 2017 ;12(2):205-210

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Science, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of and methanolic extracts, chlorhexidine (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on as the predominant species isolated from infected root canals.

Methods And Materials: One hundred twenty mandibular premolars were randomly divided into 8 groups: 12.5 mg/mL, 6.25 mg/mL 0.2% CHX, %2 CHX, 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, positive and negative control group. Sampling was performed using paper points (from the root canal space lumen) and Gates-Glidden drills (from the dentinal tubules); then colony forming units (CFU) were counted and analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann Whitney U test. The level of significance was set at 0.05.

Results: All irrigants reduced more than 99% of bacteria in root canal. In the presence of and , the bacterial count in dentin were significantly more than CHX and NaOCl groups (<0.05) except 0.2% CHX in 200 µm and 400 µm depths (>0.05).

Conclusion: Although 5.25% NaOCl was the most effective irrigant, all agents exerted acceptable antimicrobial activity against .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/iej.2017.40DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5431725PMC
January 2017

Comparison of Apical Extrusion of Debris by Using Single-File, Full-Sequence Rotary and Reciprocating Systems.

J Dent (Tehran) 2016 Nov;13(6):394-399

Assistant Professor, Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

Objectives: During root canal preparation, apical extrusion of debris can cause inflammation, flare-ups, and delayed healing. Therefore, instrumentation techniques that cause the least extrusion of debris are desirable. This study aimed to compare apical extrusion of debris by five single-file, full-sequence rotary and reciprocating systems.

Materials And Methods: One hundred twenty human mandibular premolars with similar root lengths, apical diameters, and canal curvatures were selected and randomly assigned to six groups (n=20): Reciproc R25 (25, 0.08), WaveOne Primary (25, 0.08), OneShape (25, 0.06), F360 (25, 0.04), Neoniti A1 (25, 0.08), and ProTaper Universal. Instrumentation of the root canals was performed in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. Each tooth's debris was collected in a pre-weighed vial. After drying the debris in an incubator, the mass was measured three times consecutively; the mean was then calculated. The preparation time by each system was also measured. For data analysis, one-way ANOVA and Games-Howell post hoc test were used.

Results: The mean masses (±standard deviation) of the apical debris were as follows: 2.071±1.38mg (ProTaper Universal), 1.702±1.306mg (Neoniti A1), 1.295±0.839mg (OneShape), 1.109±0.676mg (WaveOne), 0.976±0.478mg (Reciproc) and 0.797±0.531mg (F360). Compared to ProTaper Universal, F360 generated significantly less debris (P=0.02). The ProTaper system required the longest preparation time (mean=88.6 seconds); the Reciproc (P=0.008), OneShape (P=0.006), and F360 (P=0.001) required significantly less time (P<0.05).

Conclusions: All instruments caused extrusion of debris through the apex. The F360 produced significantly less debris than did the ProTaper Universal.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5318495PMC
November 2016

Effectiveness of Amlexanox and Adcortyl for the treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcers.

J Clin Exp Dent 2016 Oct 1;8(4):e368-e372. Epub 2016 Oct 1.

Postgraduate Student of Endodontics. School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common condition that affects approximately 20% of the general population. The ulcers can interfere with speech and eating and cause significant pain and discomfort. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Amlexanox and Adcortyl in the treatment of aphthous ulcers.

Material And Methods: In this randomized double blind clinical trial with sequential patient entry, a total of 40 patients who presented with aphthous ulcers were included. Patients were received Amlexanox or Adcortyl four times daily for 7 days. Patients were evaluated for pain, lesion size, and tingling at one day, three days, five days and seven days follow-ups. The treatment effects were then evaluated using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney (WMW) test. Values of <0.05 were considered significant.

Results: No significant differences in pain score, tingling and lesion size were observed on similar days between Amlexanox and Adcortyl groups. In both groups, reduction in the assessed variables was significant between days 1-3, 3-5, and 5-7 ( < 0.001).

Conclusions: This study indicated that Amlexanox as well as Adcortyl was effective in relieving pain and reducing the lesion size during the treatment of aphthous ulcers. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis, Amlexanox, Adcortyl, pain relief.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/jced.52540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5045682PMC
October 2016

The role of trigeminal nucleus caudalis orexin 1 receptor in orofacial pain-induced anxiety in rat.

Neuroreport 2016 Oct;27(15):1107-13

aDepartment of Biology, Shiraz Branch bDepartment of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz cDepartment of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman dNeuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology eDepartment of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

The relationship between anxiety and pain has received special attention. Orexins (A and B) are hypothalamic neuropeptides that have diverse functions in the regulation of different physiological and behavioral responses. This study was designed to evaluate the role of orexin 1 receptors (OX1R) within trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) in anxiety following the induction of orofacial pain. The subcutaneous injection of capsaicin (CAP) into the rat upper lip region produced pain responses. OX1R agonist (orexin A) and antagonist (SB-334867) were microinjected into the TNC before the administration of CAP. Anxiety behaviors were investigated using elevated plus maze (EPM) and open-field tests. The results showed that CAP injection significantly decreases the percentage of time spent in the open arms of the EPM and the time spent in the center of the open field. Surprisingly, orexin (50, 100, and 150 pM/rat) significantly exaggerated the CAP effects, whereas SB-334867 (20, 40 nM/rat) significantly inhibited the CAP-induced anxiety. The CAP-injected group showed a significant decrease in the percentage of entries to open arms in the EPM and the number of visits in the center area of the open field compared with the control group. Orexin significantly potentiated the mentioned effects of CAP, whereas SB-334867 (40, 80 nM/rat) exerted a significant inhibitory effect on CAP-induced anxiety. The overall results indicated that the TNC OX1Rs play an important role in orofacial pain-induced anxiety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000000660DOI Listing
October 2016

The Effects of Inflammatory Tooth Pain on Anxiety in Adult Male Rats.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2016 Jul;7(3):259-68

Dental Research Center, Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: This study aimed to examine the effects of induced inflammatory tooth pain on anxiety level in adult male rats.

Methods: The mandibular incisors of 56 adult male rats were cut off and prefabricated crowns were fixed on the teeth. Formalin and capsaicin were injected intradentally to induce inflammatory tooth pain. Diazepam treated group received diazepam 30 minutes before intradental injection. The anxiety-related behavior was evaluated with elevated plus maze test.

Results: Intradental application of chemical noxious stimuli, capsaicin and formalin, significantly affected nociceptive behaviors (P<0.001). Capsaicin (P<0.001) and formalin (P<0.01) significantly increased the anxiety levels in rats by decrease in the duration of time spent in open arm and increase in the duration of time spent in closed arm. Rats that received capsaicin made fewer open arm entries compared to the control animals (P<0.05). Capsaicin (P<0.001) and formalin (P<0.01) treated rats showed more stretch attend postures compared to the control and sham operated animals. In diazepampretreated rats, capsaicin induced algesic effect was prevented (P<0.001).

Conclusion: Inflammatory pulpal pain has anxiogenic effect on rats, whereas diazepam premedication showed both anxiolytic and pain reducing effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15412/J.BCN.03070311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4981838PMC
July 2016

Surface microhardness of different thicknesses of a premixed bioceramic material with or without the application of a moist cotton pellet.

Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2016 Jan-Feb;13(1):58-62

Department of Endodontics, Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: This study was conducted to assess the effect of thickness and hydration condition on the surface microhardness of Endosequence Root Repair Material putty (ERRM; Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA), a premixed bioceramic material.

Materials And Methods: Polymethyl methacrylate cylindrical molds with an internal diameter of 4 mm and three heights of 2, 4, and 6 mm were fabricated. In Group 1 (dry condition), the molds with heights of 2, 4, and 6 mm (10 molds of each) were filled with ERRM. In Groups 2 and 3 (wet condition), a distilled water- or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-moistened cotton pellet was placed directly on the upper surface of ERRM, respectively. The lower surface of ERRM was in contact with floral foams soaked with human blood. After 4 days, Vickers microhardness of the upper surface of ERRM was tested. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance. Significance level was set at P < 0.05.

Results: No significant difference was found between the microhardness of three thicknesses of ERRM (2, 4, and 6 mm) with or without placing a distilled water- or PBS-moistened cotton pellet over the material (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it could be concluded that placing a moistened cotton pellet on ERRM putty up to 6 mm thick might be unnecessary to improve its surface microhardness and hydration characteristics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-3327.174715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4770471PMC
March 2016

The role of trigeminal nucleus caudalis orexin 1 receptors in orofacial pain transmission and in orofacial pain-induced learning and memory impairment in rats.

Physiol Behav 2016 Apr 25;157:20-7. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Endodontology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

It is widely accepted that the spinal trigeminal nuclear complex, especially the subnucleus caudalis (Vc), receives input from orofacial structures. The neuropeptides orexin-A and -B are expressed in multiple neuronal systems. Orexin signaling has been implicated in pain-modulating system as well as learning and memory processes. Orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) has been reported in trigeminal nucleus caudalis. However, its roles in trigeminal pain modulation have not been elucidated so far. This study was designed to investigate the role of Vc OX1R in the modulation of orofacial pain as well as pain-induced learning and memory deficits. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of capsaicin in the right upper lip of the rats. OX1R agonist (orexin-A) and antagonist (SB-334867-A) were microinjected into Vc prior capsaicin administration. After recording nociceptive times, learning and memory was investigated using Morris water maze (MWM) test. The results indicated that, orexin-A (150 pM/rat) significantly reduced the nociceptive times, while SB334867-A (80 nM/rat) exaggerated nociceptive behavior in response to capsaicin injection. In MWM test, capsaicin-treated rats showed a significant learning and memory impairment. Moreover, SB-334867-A (80 nM/rat) significantly exaggerated learning and memory impairment in capsaicin-treated rats. However, administration of orexin-A (100 pM/rat) prevented learning and memory deficits. Taken together, these results indicate that Vc OX1R was at least in part involved in orofacial pain transmission and orexin-A has also a beneficial inhibitory effect on orofacial pain-induced deficits in abilities of spatial learning and memory.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.01.031DOI Listing
April 2016

Noxious Stimulation of the Rat Tooth Pulp May Impair Learning and Memory Through the Induction of Hippocampal Apoptosis.

J Oral Facial Pain Headache 2015 ;29(4):390-7

Aims: To determine whether noxious stimulation of the rat tooth pulp induces learning and memory impairment through the induction of apoptosis in the hippocampus.

Methods: Thirty-five adult rats were divided randomly into five groups (each n=7) as follows: control, sham-operated, sham-vehicle, capsaicin-treated, and capsaicin plus ibuprofen-treated group. After preparing dental cavities via cutting 2 mm of the distal extremities of the mandibular incisors, polyethylene crowns were placed on the teeth. Based on the study groups, different injections were administered into the cavities. Nociceptive scores for each block were obtained by measuring the number of seconds that the animal spent rubbing and flicking the lower jaw. After recording the nociceptive behaviors, spatial learning and memory were assessed by using the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test. The hippocampal levels of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 protein were determined by immunoblotting. Statistical analyses were performed using one- or two-way analysis of variance.

Results: Noxious pulp stimulation induced by intradental application of capsaicin significantly increased time and traveled distance in the MWM test. Capsaicin stimulation of the pulp also significantly increased the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and activated caspase-3 in the hippocampus (P<.01), which was inhibited by ibuprofen pretreatment (P<.05).

Conclusion: Memory and learning impairment induced by noxious stimulation of the rat tooth pulp may be correlated with activation of apoptotic pathways in the hippocampus.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/ofph.1452DOI Listing
February 2016

Microleakage of Single-Cone Gutta-Percha Obturation Technique in Combination with Different Types of Sealers.

Iran Endod J 2015 1;10(3):199-203. Epub 2015 Jul 1.

Student of Research Committee, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Introduction: Various materials and methods have been recommended for successful root canal obturation. The aim of this experimental in vitro study was to compare the sealing ability of three root canal sealers AH-26, glass ionomer cement (GIC) and zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) in single gutta-percha obturating system.

Methods And Materials: Seventy extracted single-rooted human teeth were decoronated. The teeth were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n=20) and 2 positive and negative control groups. After root canal preparation, canals were obturated with single-cone method using either AH-26, GIC and ZOE. The leakage was evaluated using the dye penetration method. The samples were sectioned to evaluate the linear leakage using a stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using the One-way ANOVA test.

Results: All the specimens in the positive control group showed evidence of leakage. In the experimental groups, the lowest leakage scores were observed in the AH-26 group (P<0.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences between GIC and ZOE samples (P=0.676).

Conclusion: AH-26 showed a superior seal and less microleakage compared to the two other materials in single gutta-percha obturating system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7508/iej.2015.03.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4509130PMC
July 2015

Elastofibroma of the Face: A Case Report.

J Dent (Shiraz) 2015 Mar;16(1 Suppl):73-5

Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran, Oral and Dental Disease Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran;

Elastofibroma is a rare neoplasm that characteristically occurs in subscapular area in response to microtrauma. There are some reports of this tumor in other sites of the body but, up till now, there has been no report of elastofibroma in the face. A 20-year-old man presented with a slow growing painless mass in the face without any history of trauma. Histopathologic examination revealed a soft tissue mass composed of eosinophilic fibers admixed with aggregation of fat cells, capillary blood vessels, and fibroblasts. Elastic stain and Masson's trichrome stain confirmed the nature of elastic and collagen fibers. It was a case of elastofibroma in the face.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4476114PMC
March 2015

Prevalence of Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders in Dentists: Symptoms and Risk Factors.

J Environ Public Health 2015 3;2015:517346. Epub 2015 May 3.

Oral and Dental Diseases Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Aim: The purpose of the present research was to examine the factors that lead to musculoskeletal disorders in dentists by assessing their posture using RULA method.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 130 dentists (84 male and 46 female) participated. The posture of the subjects during their normal workload was recorded by using the RULA method, and the range of musculoskeletal pains by using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ), and individual and professional data was assessed by a demographics questionnaire. All tests were performed at the P < 0.05 level.

Results: Assessment of the physical status of the subjects showed that 82.8% of subjects were at high risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The majority of musculoskeletal pains were in the neck (55.9%) and the shoulder (43.8%). Moreover, 68.9% of the subjects had experienced pain at least once over the last year. Significant relationships were observed between musculoskeletal pain and daily work hours (P = 0.07) and number of patients (P = 0.02), but the pain was not significantly associated with BMI and experience.

Conclusion: The present findings showed that unsuitable posture of dentists during work has a considerable effect on musculoskeletal disorders. Therefore, further investigation is required to avoid the detrimental effects of wrong posture.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/517346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4433686PMC
May 2016

Isolation and evaluation of dental pulp stem cells from teeth with advanced periodontal disease.

Arch Iran Med 2015 Apr;18(4):211-7

Dental Material Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry of Babol, Babol, Iran.

Introduction: Successful isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from waste tissues might be extremely promising for developing stem cell-based therapies. This study aimed to explore whether cells retrieved from teeth extracted due to advanced periodontal disease present mesenchymal stem cell-like properties.

Methods: Pulp cells were isolated from 15 intact molars and 15 teeth with advanced periodontal disease. Cell proliferation and markers of mesenchymal stem cells were evaluated.

Results: Based on the RT-PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis, nucleostemin, Oct-4 and jmj2c, but not Nanog, were expressed in undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells of both groups. Interestingly, diseased pulp exhibited higher gene expressions although it was not statistically significant. The average percentage of BrdU positive cells in the diseased group (84.4%, n = 5) was significantly higher than that of the control group (65.4%, n = 5) (t-test, P = 0.001).

Conclusion: Our results indicate the successful isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from the pulp tissue of hopeless periodontally involved teeth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/015184/AIM.004DOI Listing
April 2015

Preferred materials and methods employed for endodontic treatment by Iranian general practitioners.

Iran Endod J 2015 18;10(2):112-6. Epub 2015 Mar 18.

Instructor, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to gather information on the materials and methods employed in root canal treatment (RCT) by general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Iran.

Methods And Materials: A questionnaire was distributed among 450 dentists who attended the 53(th) Iranian Dental Association congress. Participants were asked to consider demographic variables and answer the questions regarding the materials and methods commonly used in RCT. Descriptive statistics were given as absolute frequencies and valid percentages. The chi-square test was used to investigate the influence of gender and the years of professional activity for the employed materials and techniques.

Results: The response rate was 84.88%. The results showed that 61.5% of the participants did not perform pulp sensitivity tests prior to RCT. Less than half of the general dental practitioners (47.4%) said that they would trace a sinus tract before starting the treatment. Nearly 16% of practitioners preferred the rubber dam isolation method. Over 36% of the practitioners reported using formocresol for pulpotomy. The combined approach of working length (WL) radiographs and electronic apex locators was used by 35.2% of the practitioners. Most of the respondents used K-file hand instruments for canal preparation and the technique of choice was step-back (43.5%), while 40.1% of respondents used NiTi rotary files, mostly ProTaper and RaCe. The most widely used irrigant was normal saline (61.8%). Calcium hydroxide was the most commonly used inter appointment medicament (84.6%). The most popular obturation technique was cold lateral condensation (81.7%) with 51% using zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealers.

Conclusions: The majority of Iranian GDPs who participated in the present survey do not comply with quality guidelines of endodontic treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4372785PMC
April 2015

Changes in hippocampal orexin 1 receptor expression involved in tooth pain-induced learning and memory impairment in rats.

Neuropeptides 2015 Apr 12;50:9-16. Epub 2015 Mar 12.

Department of Motor Behaviour, Facaulty of Physical Education, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

Orexin 1 receptor signaling plays a significant role in pain as well as learning and memory processes. This study was conducted to assess the changes in orexin 1 receptor expression levels in hippocampus following learning and memory impairment induced by tooth inflammatory pulpal pain. Adult male Wistar rats received intradental injection of 100 µg capsaicin to induce pulpal pain. After recording the pain scores, spatial learning and memory were assessed using Morris Water Maze test. The hippocampal levels of orexin 1 receptor mRNA and protein were determined by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting respectively. The data showed that capsaicin-induced tooth inflammatory pulpal pain was correlated with learning and memory impairment. Intra-hippocampal injection of orexin A inhibited pain-induced learning and memory impairment. However, orexin 1 receptor antagonist, SB-334867, had no effect on learning and memory impairment. Moreover, capsaicin-induced pain significantly decreased hippocampal orexin 1 receptor mRNA and protein levels. Meanwhile, reversed changes took place in the ibuprofen-pretreated group (p < 0.05). It seems that decrease in orexin 1 receptor density and signaling could be involved in tooth pain-induced learning and memory impairment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.npep.2015.03.002DOI Listing
April 2015

An In Vitro Comparison of Marginal Adaptation of MTA and MTA-Like Materials in the Presence of PBS at One-Week and Two-Month Intervals.

J Dent (Tehran) 2014 Sep 30;11(5):560-8. Epub 2014 Sep 30.

Assistant Professor, Dental Research Center, Dentistry Research Institute, Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: This study compared the marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and MTA-like materials as root-end fillings after incubation in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), a synthetic tissue fluid, for either 1 week or 2 months.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, seventy-two extracted human single-rooted teeth were prepared and obturated with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. The apical 3 mm of the roots were resected. Root-end cavities were prepared with an ultrasonic retrotip. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n=24) and filled with either ProRoot MTA, OrthoMTA, or RetroMTA. Half of the specimens in each group were stored in PBS for 1 week the other half for 2 months. Epoxy resin replicas from the resected root-end surfaces and longitudinally sectioned roots were fabricated. The gaps at the material/dentin interface were measured using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Transversal, longitudinal, and overall gap sizes were measured. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The significance level was set at p < 0.05.

Results: There were no significant differences between the marginal adaptation of ProRoot MTA, RetroMTA, and OrthoMTA in both transverse and longitudinal sections after incubation for either 1 week or 2 months (p > 0.05). In addition, the test groups were not significantly different regarding the overall mean gap values (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Under the conditions of this study, there was no difference between the marginal adaptation of ProRoot MTA, OrthoMTA, and RetroMTA as root-end filling materials after exposure to PBS for either 1 week or 2 months.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4290776PMC
September 2014

General Dental Practitioners' Concept towards Using Radiography and Apex-Locators in Endodontics.

Iran Endod J 2014 7;9(4):277-82. Epub 2014 Oct 7.

Instructor, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: Despite being the gold standard as well as a routine technique in endodontics, radiographic working length (WL) determination owns many drawbacks. Electronic apex-locators (EALs) are recommended to complement radiographies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of Iranian general dental practitioners (GDPs) towards using radiography and EAL.

Methods And Materials: Three hundred and ninety one GDPs attending the 53(th) Iranian Dental Association Congress completed a questionnaire focusing on the use of radiography and EALs during the various stages of root canal treatment. The data was analyzed with the chi-square test with the level of significance set at 0.05. The results were then calculated as frequencies and percentages.

Results: More than half of the GDPs reported using radiographs as the sole method for WL determination. A total of 30.4% of the practitioners were using the combined approach during root canal therapy of a single-rooted tooth, while 38.9% used this method in multi-rooted teeth. Approximately half of the respondents would not order follow-up radiographies after root canal treatment.

Conclusion: Radiography continues to be the most common method for WL determination in Iran.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4224766PMC
November 2014
-->