Publications by authors named "Maryam Nazari"

35 Publications

Novel 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives as selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation.

EXCLI J 2021 18;20:907-921. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive mental disorder that brings a huge economic burden to the healthcare systems. During this illness, acetylcholine levels in the cholinergic systems gradually diminish, which results in severe memory loss and cognitive impairments. Moreover, Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) enzyme participates in cholinergic neurotransmission regulation by playing a prominent role in the latter phase of AD. In this study, based on donepezil, which is an effective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, a series of 1,2,4-oxadiazole compounds were designed, synthesized and their inhibitory activities towards AChE and BuChE enzymes were evaluated. Some structures exhibited a higher selectivity rate towards BuChE in comparison to donepezil. Notably, compound with an IC value of 5.07 µM and an SI ratio greater than 19.72 showed the highest potency and selectivity towards BuChE enzyme. The docking result revealed that compound properly fitted the active site pocket of BuChE enzyme, and formed desirable lipophilic interactions and hydrogen bonds. Moreover, according to ADME studies, these compounds have proper potential for being developed as new oral anti-Alzheimer's agents (Figure 1(Fig. 1)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17179/excli2021-3569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192883PMC
May 2021

Synthesis of 4,6-diphenylpyrimidin-2-ol derivatives as new benzodiazepine receptor ligands.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Apr 14;109:104737. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Benzodiazepines (BZDs) have been widely used in neurological disorders such as insomnia, anxiety, and epilepsy. The use of classical BZDs, e.g., diazepam, has been limited due to adverse effects such as interaction with alcohol, ataxia, amnesia, psychological and physical dependence, and tolerance. In the quest for new benzodiazepine agonists with more selectivity and low adverse effects, novel derivatives of 4,6-diphenylpyrimidin-2-ol were designed, synthesized, and evaluated. In this series, compound 2, 4-(2-(benzyloxy)phenyl)-6-(4-fluorophenyl)pyrimidin-2-ol, was the most potent analogue in radioligand binding assay with an IC value of 19 nM compared to zolpidem (IC = 48 nM), a nonbenzodiazepine central BZD receptor (CBR) agonist. Some compounds with a variety of affinities in radioligand receptor binding assay were selected for in vivo evaluations. Compound 3 (IC = 25 nM), which possessed chlorine instead of fluorine in position 4 of the phenyl ring, exhibited an excellent ED value in most in vivo tests. Proper sedative-hypnotic effects, potent anticonvulsant activity, appropriate antianxiety effect, and no memory impairment probably served compound 3, a desirable candidate as a benzodiazepine agonist. The pharmacological effects of compound 3 were antagonized by flumazenil, a selective BZD receptor antagonist, confirming the BZD receptors' involvement in the biological effects of the novel ligand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.104737DOI Listing
April 2021

Design, synthesis, and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of novel thiazolidinone derivatives as potential benzodiazepine agonists.

Mol Divers 2021 Jan 23. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, No.2660, Vali-E-Asr., 1991953381, Tehran, Iran.

Thiazolidinones are well-known heterocycles that demonstrate promising biological effects such as anticonvulsant activity. Hybridization of these chemicals with scaffold, which has necessary pharmacophores for binding to the benzodiazepine receptors, can prompt a novel structure possessing extensive anticonvulsant effects. In this study, novel derivatives of thiazolidinone as new benzodiazepine agonists were designed, synthesized, and biologically evaluated. Compound 5h, 4-chloro-2-(2-fluorophenoxy)-N-(4-oxo-2-(p-tolyl)thiazolidin-3-yl)benzamide, exhibited considerable anticonvulsant activity, proper sedative-hypnotic effect, no memory impairment, and no muscle relaxant effect. The pharmacological effects of the designed compounds were antagonized by flumazenil, which confirmed the benzodiazepine receptors' involvement in their biological effects. Based on in silico calculations of ADME properties of our novel compounds, they could be active oral agents potentially. In this study, we designed novel structures by the hybridization of thiazolidinone moiety with scaffold which has necessary pharmacophores for binding to the benzodiazepine receptors. The results are very promising for developing new lead compounds as benzodiazepine agonists possess anticonvulsant effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11030-021-10182-xDOI Listing
January 2021

Intranasal insulin improves the structure-function of the brain mitochondrial ATP-sensitive Ca activated potassium channel and respiratory chain activities under diabetic conditions.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 04 12;1867(4):166075. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Neurophysiology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Physiology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Although it is well established that diabetes impairs mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, little is known of the effects of intranasal insulin (INI) on the mitochondrial respiratory chain and structure-function of mitoBK channel in diabetes. We have investigated this mechanism in an STZ-induced early type 2 diabetic model. Single ATP-sensitive mitoBK channel activity was considered in diabetic and INI-treated rats using a channel incorporated into the bilayer lipid membrane. Because mitoBK channels have been involved in mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, a study was undertaken to investigate whether the NADH, complexes I and IV, mitochondrial ROS production, and ΔΨ are altered in an early diabetic model. In this work, we provide evidence for a significant decrease in channel open probability and conductance in diabetic rats. Evidence has been shown that BK channel β2 subunits induce a left shift in the BK channel voltage dependent curve in low Ca conditions,; our results indicated a significant decrease in mitoBK β2 subunits using Western blot analysis. Importantly, INI treatment improved mitoBK channel behaviors and β2 subunits expression up to ~70%. We found that early diabetes decreased activities of complex I and IV and increased NADH, ROS production, and ΔΨ. Surprisingly, INI modified the mitochondrial respiratory chain, ROS production, and ΔΨ up to ~70%. Our results thus demonstrate an INI improvement in respiratory chain activity and ROS production in brain mitochondrial preparations coming from the STZ early diabetic rat model, an effect potentially linked to INI improvement in mitoBK channel activity and channel β2 subunit expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2021.166075DOI Listing
April 2021

Is there any potential management against COVID-19? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Daru 2020 Dec 18;28(2):765-777. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Anatomy and Physiology Department, Gharmsar University, Gharmsar, Iran.

Purpose: A recent survey has shown that the COVID-19 pandemic has culminated in dramatical and critical treatment particularly in acute infected patients. In fact, this systematic review-meta-analysis was directly pertained to estimation at the efficient value of some clinical managements to confront the COVID-19 infection.

Methods: Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane, and Scholar databases were searched from inception to July 1, 2020, to identify studies reporting the current treatment process and medications (e.g. hydroxychloroquine, antiviral therapy, convalescent plasma, and immunomodulatory agents) for COVID-19. A random-effects model meta-analysis was performed to calculate the relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The outcomes of this study were the frequency of negative conversion cases, clinical improvements, mechanical ventilation demand, intensive care unit (ICU) entry, and mortality. The standard treatment refers to the published guidelines and specialist experience which varies in different articles, and the proposed treatment refers to the kind of interest suggested in the included studies.

Results: A number of 45 articles met the eligibility criteria (out of 6793 articles). Among them, 26 articles involving 3263 patients were included in quantitative analysis. Anti-COVID-19 interventions could significantly increase clinical improvement (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.08-1.27; I = 49.8%) and reduce the mortality rate (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.35-0.95; I = 74.8%). Although in terms of negative conversion, ICU entry, and mechanical ventilation demand, clinical intervention had no beneficial effect. The clinical effect of immunomodulatory agents (especially tocilizumab and anakinra) was noticeable compared to other medications with RR of 0.22 (95% CI 0.09-0.53; I = 40.9%) for mortality and 1.25 (95% CI 1.07-1.46; I = 45.4%) for clinical improvement. Moreover, Antivirals (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.26; I = 47.0%) and convalescent plasma therapy (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.01-1.98; I = 66.6%) had significant beneficial effects on clinical improvement.

Conclusion: Based on our findings, all the included interventions significantly declined the mortality and enhanced clinical improvements with no effect on negative conversion and mechanical ventilation demand. Especially, immunomodulators and plasma therapy showed favorable outcomes. An evaluation on the efficacy of proposed treatment against COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40199-020-00367-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434334PMC
December 2020

Effects of Two Types of Moderate- and High-Intensity Interval Training on Serum Salusin-α and Salusin-β Levels and Lipid Profile in Women with Overweight/Obesity.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2020 24;13:1385-1390. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Imam Hossein Children's Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: The current study aimed to compare the effects of two modes of moderate- and high-intensity interval training on serum Salusin-α and Salusin-β and lipid profile in women with overweight/obesity.

Subjects And Methods: A number of forty females were assigned to each of (1) Control (BMI= 30.2 ± 2.8 kg/m, n=14), (2) Moderate-intensity (BMI= 31.2 ±3.3 kg/m, n=13) and (3) High-intensity interval training (BMI=30.9±3.4 kg/m, n=13) groups. The subjects of experimental groups participated in the selected interval trainings for eight weeks. The first blood sampling was performed within 48 hours prior to the first training session and the second samples were obtained 48 hours after the last training session.

Results: The findings revealed that there were significant increases in Salusin-α (36% vs. 3%; p = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein levels (7% vs. 5%; P = 0.039), while significant reductions in the levels of Triglyceride (-8% vs. -9%; p= 0.012) and total cholesterol (-1% vs. -8%; P =0.01) levels of moderate- and high-intensity interval training groups, respectively. Also, there were insignificant changes in Salusin-β (-7% vs. -5%; P = 0.108), low-density lipoproteins (-3% vs. -11%; P =0.046) and very-low-density lipoprotein (-10% vs. -8%; P = 0.056) compared to control group. There were only significant differences between Salusin-α and high-density lipoprotein levels of training groups (P<0.05).

Conclusion: It is suggested that, although improvements in lipid profile was nearly similar for two training modes, moderate intensity interval training was more effective to prevent and control atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S248476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188200PMC
April 2020

Multifunctional betanin nanoliposomes-incorporated gelatin/chitosan nanofiber/ZnO nanoparticles nanocomposite film for fresh beef preservation.

Meat Sci 2020 Sep 24;167:108161. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to fabricate betanin nanoliposomes incorporated gelatin/chitosan nanofiber/ZnO nanoparticles bionanocomposite film (G/CH NF/ZnO NPs/B NLPs) and investigate its effects on the preservation of fresh beef. The scanning electron microscopy image of nanocomposite film displayed a good inter-connective porous morphology. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of new hydrogen bonds and enhanced crystallinity through the addition of CH NF, ZnO NPs, and B NLPs. The G/CH NF/ZnO NPs/B NLPs film exhibited satisfactory mechanical properties and high surface hydrophobicity (water contact angle = 92.49 ± 3.71°). The incorporation of ZnO NPs and B NLPs in the nanocomposite film provided high antibacterial activity and DPPH inhibition activity (53.02 ± 3.26%). The growth of inoculated bacteria, lipid oxidation, and the changes in the pH and color quality of the beef samples were controlled by packaging with the fabricated film. In conclusion, the G/CH NF/ZnO NPs/B NLPs nanocomposite has a high potential for meat preservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108161DOI Listing
September 2020

A new brain mitochondrial sodium-sensitive potassium channel: effect of sodium ions on respiratory chain activity.

J Cell Sci 2020 05 27;133(10). Epub 2020 May 27.

Neurophysiology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1985717443, Iran

We have determined the electropharmacological properties of a new potassium channel from brain mitochondrial membrane using a planar lipid bilayer method. Our results show the presence of a channel with a conductance of 150 pS at potentials between 0 and -60 mV in 200 mM /50 mM KCl solutions. The channel was voltage independent, with an open probability value of approximately 0.6 at different voltages. ATP did not affect current amplitude or open probability at positive and negative voltages. Notably, adding iberiotoxin, charybdotoxin, lidocaine or margatoxin had no effect on the channel behavior. Similarly, no changes were observed by decreasing the pH to 6. Interestingly, the channel was inhibited by adding sodium in a dose-dependent manner. Our results also indicated a significant increase in mitochondrial complex IV activity and membrane potential and a decrease in complex I activity and mitochondrial ROS production in the presence of sodium ions. We propose that inhibition of mitochondrial potassium transport by sodium ions on potassium channel opening could be important for cell protection and ATP synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.242446DOI Listing
May 2020

Novel amide derivatives of 3-phenylglutaric acid as potent soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors.

Mol Divers 2021 Feb 23;25(1):45-53. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, No. 2660, Vali-e-Asr, Tehran, 1991953381, Iran.

Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzyme plays an important role in the metabolism of endogenous chemical mediators, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, which are involved in the regulation of blood pressure and inflammation. According to the pharmacophoric model suggested for sEH inhibitors, some new amide-based derivatives of 3-phenylglutaric acid were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. Docking study illustrated that the amide group as a primary pharmacophore had a suitable distance from the three amino acids of Tyr383, Tyr466 and Asp335 for effective hydrogen binding. Most of the compounds showed moderate to high sEH inhibitory activities in in vitro test in comparison with 12-(3-Adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid, as a potent urea-based sEH inhibitor. Compound 6o with phenethyl in R position exhibited the highest activity with IC value of 0.5 nM. In this study, some new amide-based derivatives of 3-phenylglutaric acid were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. Most of the synthesized compounds provided nanomolar range inhibition against sEH enzyme. The best observed IC value was 0.5 nM. Incorporating a carboxylic moiety into these structures by forming carboxylate salts would increase the solubility and improving physicochemical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11030-019-10023-yDOI Listing
February 2021

Assessment of changes in growth traits, oxidative stress parameters, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms in Lepidium draba plant under osmotic stress induced by polyethylene glycol.

Protoplasma 2020 Mar 27;257(2):459-473. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.

Lepidium draba is a weed with the medicinal properties which few researches have been done on it. In this study, some traits, related to the osmotic stress, in 14-day-old L. draba sprouts that were grown 9 days in the presence of various doses of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) including 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12%, with different osmotic potentials (- 0.04, - 0.12, - 0.23, - 0.34, and - 0.48 MPa, respectively) were investigated. Based on our results, germination percentage besides stem and root lengths decreased with increasing the concentrations of PEG. The contents of electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, other aldehydes, total protein, free amino acids, total soluble carbohydrate as well as free proline increased with increasing the concentrations of PEG. Also, for the first time, our results have proven that under osmotic stress, there is an adverse relationship between hydrogen peroxide content and the activity of catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and guaiacol peroxidase enzymes, such that hydrogen peroxide content decreased with induction of PEG up to 6% and after that increased, while the activity of catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and guaiacol peroxidase enzymes increased up to 6% PEG and after that decreased. The expression levels of catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and guaiacol peroxidase genes showed the same pattern as was seen for these enzyme activities. According to the results of this study, it can be deduced that decreasing HO content cannot be the main reason for other oxidative stress parameters to decrease. In this study, P5CS and P5CR gene expression levels increased with increasing levels of PEG up to 12% which was completely similar to free proline content. Based on our results, L. draba can be considered as a semi-tolerant plant to osmotic stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-019-01457-0DOI Listing
March 2020

Biosensor design using an electroactive label-based aptamer to detect bisphenol A in serum samples.

J Biosci 2019 Sep;44(4)

Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

A new and simple procedure was applied to detect bisphenol A (BPA) based on a BPA aptamer and its complementary strand (Comp. Str.). An electrode was modified with a mixture of carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes and chitosan. The Comp. Str. was immobilized on a modified-glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface via covalent binding. After the incubation of the aptamer with the electrode surface, it could interact with the Comp. Str. In the presence of BPA, its aptamer will interact with the analyte, resulting in some changes in the configuration and leading to separation from the electrode surface. Due to the attached ferrocene (Fc) group on the 50 head of the aptamer, the redox current of Fc has reduced. This aptasensor can sense the level of BPA in the linear range of 0.2-2 nM, with a limit of detection of 0.38 nM and a sensitivity of 24.51 lA/μM. The proposed aptasensor showed great reliability and selectivity. The acceptable selectivity is due to the specificity of BPA binding to its aptamer. The serum sample was used as a real sample; the aptasensor was able to effectively recover the spiked BPA amounts. It can on-site monitor the BPA in serum samples with acceptable recoveries.
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September 2019

Boron-nitrogen substituted dihydroindeno[1,2-b]fluorene derivatives as acceptors in organic solar cells.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2019 Sep 28;55(74):11095-11098. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, USA.

The electrophilic borylation of 2,5-diarylpyrazines results in the formation of boron-nitrogen doped dihydroindeno[1,2-b]fluorene which can be synthesized using standard Schlenk techniques and worked up and handled readily under atmospheric conditions. Through transmetallation via diarylzinc reagents a series of derivatives were synthesized which show broad visible to near-IR light absorption profiles that highlight the versatility of this BN substituted core for use in optoelectronic devices. The synthesis is efficient, scalable and allows for tuning through changes in substituents on the planar heterocyclic core and at boron. Exploratory evaluation in organic solar cell devices as non-fullerene acceptors gave power conversion efficiencies of 2%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cc05103aDOI Listing
September 2019

A novel sensitive laccase biosensor using gold nanoparticles and poly L-arginine to detect catechol in natural water.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2019 Jul 5;66(4):502-509. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

In this study, the simple, green, and fast layer-by-layer modification of the glassy carbon electrode was mainly performed by electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles and then, poly-l-arginine, and finally, laccase was covalently bonded to poly-l-arginine using glutaraldehyde. This type of fabrication is used for the first time for catechol detection, which provides a bioelectrocatalytic cycle for electron transport in the presence of laccase that results in sensitive and fast detection of catechol. The scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrochemical studies were performed to confirm successful immobilization of the enzyme. The biosensor response was linear in a wide range of catechol trace concentrations, 24.90-274.00 nM, with the detection limit of 18.00 nM. Values of K , α, n, and K for the immobilized enzyme were calculated to be 1.25 × 10  µM, 0.56, 3.19, and 0.28 Sec , respectively. It was examined in real sample successfully confirming it is capable of measuring catechol in natural water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bab.1746DOI Listing
July 2019

Selection and validation of reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR gene expression in wheat ( L.) under drought and salt stresses.

J Genet 2018 Dec;97(5):1433-1444

Department of Plant Breeding, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd 8616871967, Iran.

Eight candidate housekeeping genes were examined as internal controls for normalizing expression analysis of durum wheat () under drought and salinity stress conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to analyse gene expression of multiple stress levels, plant ages (24 and 50 days old), and plant tissues (leaf and root). The algorithms BestKeeper, NormFinder, GeNorm, the delta Ct method and the RefFinder were applied to determine the stability of candidate genes. Under drought stress, the most stable reference genes were , and β-, whereas under salinity stress conditions, , and were identified as the most stable reference genes. Validation with stress-responsive genes and demonstrated that the expression level of target genes could be determined reliably with combinations of up to three of the reference genes. This is the first report on reference genes appropriate for quantification of target gene expression in under drought and salt stresses. Results of this investigation may be applicable to other species.
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December 2018

Adipose tissue miRNA level variation through conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in diet-induced obese rats.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2018 Nov;27(11):1477-1482

Hyperlipidemia Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Background: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is an octadecadienoic acid isomer, is believed to play different positive physiological roles, such as lowering body fat. Due to some reported side effects of CLA, like lipodystrophy and impaired glucose metabolism, it is important to establish its safety by understanding detailed molecular mechanisms. One of these mechanisms may be the role of this dietary agent in modifying the function and activity of microRNAs (miRNAs).

Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate how adipocyte miR-27a and miR-143 expression may be influenced by CLA in obese rats.

Material And Methods: In this study, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal-fat diet (NFD) and high-fat diet (HFD) groups. After 8 weeks, the rats were weighed and half of the diet-induced obese rats were randomly selected to receive 500 mg CLA per 1 kg body weight for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, epididymal fat was isolated to investigate the expression level of miRNAs by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Results: After 12 weeks, the obese rats in the HFD group, compared with rats in the NFD group, demonstrated a significant decrease in the expression of miR-27a (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in the expression of miR-143 (p < 0.05). In the group which had received CLA for a 4-week period, these events were reversed. Moreover, the rats in this group gained less weight than other rats in HFD groups, although the difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CLA, as an anti-obesity agent, may minimize abnormal changes in miRNA expression in obesity. This suggests a new pathway for weight loss; however, further studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/93728DOI Listing
November 2018

Morpho-physiological and proteomic responses of Aegilops tauschii to imposed moisture stress.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 Nov 26;132:445-452. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Science, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran.

Moisture stress is the most important limitation of wheat production in the worldwide. Among the tribe Triticeae, Aegilops tauschii is one of the most valuable gene sources of resistance to abiotic stresses. In order to identify the most tolerant accession to moisture stress, and to understand its adaptive mechanisms at the molecular level, the present experiment was carried out on ten Ae. tauschii accessions under normal (95% soil pot capacity) and moisture stress (45% soil pot capacity) conditions. At the start of the heading time, the expanded flag leaves of treated and untreated plants were sampled for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) based on proteomics approach. A19 accession was less affected by the imposed moisture stress; therefore, it was used for the proteomics experiment. Among 252 protein spots which were reproducibly detected in each given 2-DE gels, 25 spots showed significant differences between the two moisture treatments; 17 spots were upregulated and 8 spots were downregulated. The identified proteins by MALDI-TOF/TOF, were allocated to seven functional protein groups, which were mainly involved in photosynthesis/respiration (28.5%), carbohydrate metabolism (14.2%), energy metabolism (7.1%), chaperone (14.2%), protein translation and processing (14.2%), repair and stability of the genome (7.1%) and unknown function (14.2%). We report this for the first time that RMI2 protein (in the group of repair and stability of the genome) was significantly changed in wheat in response to moisture stress. We believe that, the identified proteins could play important roles in acclimation and tolerance to moisture stress and provide the genetic pathways for improving tolerance to moisture stress in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.09.031DOI Listing
November 2018

2D & 3D-QSAR Study on Novel Piperidine and Piperazine Derivatives as Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme Inhibitors.

Curr Comput Aided Drug Des 2018 ;14(4):391-397

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) is the main target in Alzheimer's disease therapy and designing of novel AChE inhibitors is a great deal of attention.

Methods: In this study, 2D-QSAR and 3D-QSAR models were generated using stepwise multiple linear regressions (SW-MLR) and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) respectively.

Results: It was found that CoMFA model with r2 of 0.947 for the training set and r2 of 0.816 for the test set is more favorable than model which is established by SW-MLR method with r2 =0.825 and r2pred =0.778 in 2D-QSAR.

Conclusion: In addition, obtaining models were validated by cross validation with cut off values of q2 > 0.5 and r2pred > 0.6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573409914666180726092800DOI Listing
January 2019

Hesperidin inhibits insulin-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt activation in human pre-B cell line NALM-6.

J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Apr-Jun;14(3):503-508

Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetic, National Institute and Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology; Cancer Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Context: It has been shown that hesperidin induces apoptosis in NALM-6 cells through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation.

Aims: To investigate the effect of hesperidin on inhibition of NF-κB activation through blocking phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway as a main target in cancer treatment, in NALM-6 cells.

Materials And Methods: NALM-6 cells were incubated with two concentrations of hesperidin (25, 50 μM) in the presence or absence of insulin (100 nM), as a potent activator of Akt. The cytotoxic activity of hesperidin was determined by 3-(4,5-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell apoptotic death was measured by ELISA test using cell death detection ELISA kit. To assay the effect of hesperidin on Akt pathway, the phosphorylation levels of Akt, inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IκBα), and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) and expression level of IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) were determined by Western blot analysis.

Results: Hesperidin (both concentrations) significantly reduced cells survival in the presence and absence of insulin compared to untreated cells in a time-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Hesperidin also significantly increased apoptosis in NALM-6 cells even in hyperinsulinemia condition (P < 0.0001). Hesperidin inhibited insulin-induced phosphorylation and activation of Akt, IκBα, and GSK-3β and decreased expression of IKKα.

Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that cytotoxic and proapoptotic actions of hesperidin are partly mediated through the suppression of PI3K3/Akt/IKK signaling pathway. So, hesperidin might act as a chemotherapeutic agent by targeting cell survival pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.157323DOI Listing
October 2018

The Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Postural Stability After Acute Stroke: A Clinical Trial.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2017 Sep-Oct;8(5):405-411

Neuromusculoskeletal Research Center, Firoozgar Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Balance impairment is a common problem and a major cause of motor disability after stroke. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether low-frequency repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) improves the postural balance problems in stroke patients.

Methods: This randomized double blind clinical trial with 12 weeks follow-up was conducted on stroke patients. Treatment was carried with 1 Hz rTMS in contralateral brain hemisphere over the primary motor area for 20 minutes (1200 pulses) for 5 consecutive days. Static postural stability, Medical Research Council (MRC), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and Fugl-Meyer assessments were evaluated immediately, 3 weeks and 12 weeks after intervention.

Results: A total of 26 patients were enrolled (age range=53 to 79 years; 61.5% were male) in this study. Administering rTMS produced a significant recovery based on BBS (df=86, 7; F=7.4; P=0.01), Fugl-Meyer Scale (df=86, 7; F=8.7; P<0.001), MRC score (df=87, 7; F=2.9; P=0.01), and static postural stability (df=87, 7; F=9.8; P<0.001) during the 12 weeks follow-up.

Conclusion: According to the findings, rTMS as an adjuvant therapy may improve the static postural stability, falling risk, coordination, motor recovery, and muscle strength in patients with stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18869/nirp.bcn.8.5.405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5691172PMC
November 2017

Effect of lecithin nanoliposome or soybean lecithin supplemented by pomegranate extract on post-thaw flow cytometric, microscopic and oxidative parameters in ram semen.

Cryobiology 2017 10 14;78:34-40. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

This investigation was carried out to study the effect of soybean lecithin 1.5% (wt/vol) (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg l pomegranate extract (PE)) or PE-loaded lecithin nanoliposome (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg l) to Tris-based extender. Sperm motility (CASA), viability, membrane integrity (HOS test), abnormalities, mitochondrial activity, apoptosis status, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity (TAC)) and antioxidant activities (GPX, SOD) were investigated following freeze-thawing. No significant differences were detected in motility parameters, viability, membrane integrity, and mitochondria activity after thawing sperm between soybean lecithin and lecithin nanoliposomes. It was shown that PE5 significantly improved sperm total and progressive motility, membrane integrity, viability, mitochondria activity, TAC and reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde concentration). Moreover, the percentage of apoptotic sperm in PE5 extenders was significantly the lowest among other treatments. Sperm abnormalities, SOD and GPX were not affected by the antioxidant supplements. For apoptotic status, no differences were observed between soybean lecithin and lecithin nanoliposome. We showed that lecithin nanoliposome extender can be a beneficial alternative extender to protect ram sperm during cryopreservation without any adverse effects. It was also observed that regarding pomegranate concentration, PE5 can improve the quality of ram semen after thawing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2017.07.005DOI Listing
October 2017

Electrophysiology of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion: First evidence for the role of synapse in ischemic tolerance.

Synapse 2016 09 18;70(9):351-60. Epub 2016 May 18.

Department of Physiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objective: The subthreshold brain-damaging stimulus may protect the brain from subsequent ischemia; this phenomenon has been named "ischemic tolerance" (IT). We focused on the synaptic properties of the neurons after mild and severe ischemia to determine the association between IT and synaptic efficacy.

Experimental Design: Adult male rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups including control, sham, permanent ischemia (pI/R), and mild ischemia (mI/R). Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was applied to induce brain ischemia. Seven days after the insult, long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by high-frequency stimulation (HFS) and paired-pulse ratio (PPR) were monitored before and after the HFS delivery.

Results: The field potential recording demonstrated that mild ischemia significantly increased the basal synaptic transmission. Additionally, the HFS produced a significant potentiation compared to its baseline level in the mI/R group. Moreover, mild ischemia prevented depression of PPR by HFS. This effect was accompanied by a significant increase in the normalized PPR (PPR after HFS/PPR before HFS) in this group.

Conclusions: Our data indicated that a mild reduction in brain perfusion without permanent lesion can dramatically increase the basal synaptic transmission. This effect may be associated with an increase in the neurotransmitter content of the pre-synaptic neurons. This hypothesis could provide a new insight into the relationship between IT and synaptic efficacy. Synapse 70:351-360, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.21910DOI Listing
September 2016

Fingolimod (FTY720) improves hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory deficit in rats following focal cerebral ischemia.

Brain Res Bull 2016 06 8;124:95-102. Epub 2016 Apr 8.

Department of physiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Histomorphometry and Stereology Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Fingolimod (FTY720) is a known sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist. Several studies have shown the therapeutic efficacy of FTY720 in neurodegenerative disorders. However, the neuroprotective mechanisms in brain ischemia have not been adequately studied. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of FTY720 on the impairment of learning and memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in ischemic brain injury. Twenty eight male rats were randomly divided into four groups of control (n=7), sham (n=8), ischemic-reperfusion+vehicle (I/R+V; n=7), and I/R+FTY720 (n=6). After 1h of the occlusion of artery, the filament was gently withdrawn to allow reperfusion for the next 7 days. The animals first received a dose of FTY720 (0.5mg/Kg) or its vehicle (intra-peritoneal) twenty-four hours before surgery in I/R+FTY720 and I/R+V groups, respectively. The administration of FTY720 or its vehicle continued every other day. The passive avoidance test and field potential recording were used for evaluation of learning, memory and synaptic plasticity. The brain infarct volume was measured by triphenyltetrazolim hydrochloride (TTC) staining. MCAO caused infarct damage in the rat's brain tissue. The administration of FTY720 significantly reduced the size of the lesion, improved the memory impairment of MCAO rats, and increased the STL time. In addition, the field potential recording demonstrated a marked reduction in induction of long-term potentiation of MCAO animals. However, administration of FTY720 recovers the magnitude of the LTP without any effects on presynaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter release probability. The results of this study demonstrated that MCAO in rats impairs the retention of passive avoidance tasks and multiple injection of FTY720 improved the memory performance after MCAO by LTP induction via post-synaptic mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2016.04.004DOI Listing
June 2016

The Relationship Between Dietary Intakes of Amino Acids and Bone Mineral Density Among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury.

Oman Med J 2016 Jan;31(1):22-8

Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: The effect of dietary protein intake on bone mineral density (BMD) has not been explained in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we looked at the relationship between BMD and higher protein intake in patients with SCI while controlling for possible confounders.

Methods: Patients with SCI, who were referred to the Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center between November 2010 and April 2012, were included in the study. In total, the dietary intakes of 103 patients were assessed by 24-hour dietary recall interviews. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure BMD in the femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, hip, and lumbar vertebras.

Results: Eighty-six men and 17 women participated in this study. Protein intake was negatively associated with the BMD of lumbar vertebrae (p = 0.001, r = -0.37 for T-score and p = 0.030, r = -0.24 for Z-score). The BMD of lumbar vertebrae were negatively associated with intake of tryptophan, isoleucine, lysine, cysteine, and tyrosine (p = 0.007, 0.005, 0.009, 0.008, and 0.008 for T-score, respectively). Higher intakes of threonine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, valine, and histidine were related to a lower BMD of lumbar vertebrae (p = 0.006, 0.010, 0.009, 0.010, 0.009, and 0.008 respectively for T-scores).

Conclusions: We found that high protein intake led to a lower BMD of lumbar vertebrae in patients with SCI after controlling for confounders including demographic and injury-related characteristics and calcium intake. No relationship between higher amino acids intake and BMD of the femur and hip was detected. Intake of alanine, arginine, and aspartic acid were not related to BMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2016.05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4720942PMC
January 2016

Influence of L-carnitine on the Expression Level of Adipose Tissue miRNAs Related to Weight Changes in Obese Rats.

Pak J Biol Sci 2016;19(5):227-232

Health Research Institute, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background And Objective: Molecular mechanisms of most anti-obesity drugs are remained to be clear. MicroRNAs that are noncoding RNA molecules supposed to regulate biological processes concomitant to obesity and have attracted a lot of attention to themselves. The miR-27a and miR-143 expression levels in obese and non-obese rats during weight changes and L-carnitine (LC) effects on them was investigated in this study.

Materials And Methods: In the present study 12 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal fat diet and high fat diet groups to develop obesity. After 8 weeks rats were weighted and half of diet induced obese rats were randomly selected to receive 200 mg LC kg -1 b.wt. for 4 weeks. At the end epididymal fat was isolated to investigate expression level of microRNAs by real-time PCR.

Results: After 12 weeks, high fat diet in comparison with normal fat diet mediated significant decrease and increase in expression levels of miR-27a and miR-143 , respectively. These changes were modified in groups, which had received LC in a 4 weeks period. Furthermore, rats in this group gained less weight.

Conclusion: Findings of this study suggest that the changes of microRNAs expression probably play a role in pathogenesis of obesity, might be modulated by means of dietary agents and supplements and modify weight gain trend.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2016.227.232DOI Listing
November 2017

Is the pattern of dietary amino acids intake associated with serum lipid profile and blood pressure among individuals with spinal cord injury?

J Spinal Cord Med 2017 03 18;40(2):201-212. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

a Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Neuroscience Institute , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Objective: The probable effect of dietary amino acids intake pattern on serum lipid profile and blood pressure (BP) have not yet been described among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: Tertiary rehabilitation center.

Participants: People with SCI referred to Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center between 2011 and 2014.

Outcome Measures: Dietary intakes were assessed by recording consumed foods by 24-hour dietary recall interviews using Nutritionist IV 3.5.3 modified for Iranian foods. Partial correlation test with adjustment for age, weight, body mass index, total energy intake, total fat, cholesterol and carbohydrate intake, and injury-related variables was used.

Results: Dietary intake of lysine was positively related to levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride (TG), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P < 0.0001, 0.046, 0.002 and 0.009, respectively). There was a positive significant relationship between the intake of cysteine and levels of TG and SBP as well (P : 0.027 and 0.048, respectively). Higher intakes of threonine and leucine had a negative relationship with TG level (P : 0.001 and 0.026, respectively). Furthermore, tyrosine, threonine and leucine were inversely correlated to blood pressure. Total cholesterol level was only related to intake of threonine and leucine (P : 0.004 and 0.012, respectively). FPG was positively associated with intake of all amino acids except for cysteine, glutamic acid, threonine, leucine and histidine.

Conclusion: In the present study, the pattern of relationships between dietary intake of amino acids and serum lipid profile and BP has been described among people with SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10790268.2015.1109761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5430478PMC
March 2017

Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in bipolar disorder.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2016 Feb 26;254(2):365-71. Epub 2015 Mar 26.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: To compare peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) between patients with bipolar disorder and a control group by optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Methods: This prospective comparative case series included 60 eyes of 30 patients with bipolar disorder and 60 eyes of 30 age-matched healthy control subjects. Using OCT, peripapillary RNFLT of the 4 quadrants and the mean of them was compared between the two groups. Variables such as age of onset, duration, smoking, psychosis, mania and depression episodes in the case group and their relationships with RNFLT were evaluated by OCT.

Results: Mean RNFLT was 99 ± 8 in the case group, significantly less than the 106 ± 8 mμ in the control group (p = 0.001). The inferior, superior, and nasal quadrants in the case and control groups showed significant difference in RNFLT (p < 0.001) (p = 0.040) (p = 0.005); however, the temporal quadrant was not reduced significantly, compared to the control value (p = 0.907). Moreover, the only variable showing significant relation with RNFLT was duration of bipolar disorder (p = 0.040).

Conclusion: Reduction of peripapilary RNFLT occurs in patients with bipolar disorder, and is related to the duration of disease. RNFLT can be a beneficial value for studying neurodegenerative changes over time towards detecting the severity and duration of disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-015-2981-7DOI Listing
February 2016

Laccase immobilization on the electrode surface to design a biosensor for the detection of phenolic compound such as catechol.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2015 Jun 28;145:130-138. Epub 2015 Feb 28.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Biosensors based on the coupling of a biological entity with a suitable transducer offer an effective route to detect phenolic compounds. Phenol and phenolic compounds are among the most toxic environmental pollutants. Laccases are multi-copper oxidases that can oxide phenol and phenolic compounds. A method is described for construction of an electrochemical biosensor to detect phenolic compounds based on covalent immobilization of laccase (Lac) onto polyaniline (PANI) electrodeposited onto a glassy carbon (GC) electrode via glutaraldehyde coupling. The modified electrode was characterized by voltammetry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The results indicated that laccase was immobilized onto modified GC electrode by the covalent interaction between laccase and terminal functional groups of the glutaraldehyde. The laccase immobilized modified electrode showed a direct electron transfer reaction between laccase and the electrode. Linear range, sensitivity, and detection limit for this biosensor were 3.2 × 10(-6) to 19.6 × 10(-6)M, 706.7 mAL mol(-1), 2.07 × 10(-6)M, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2015.01.126DOI Listing
June 2015

Risk factors for increased multiple sclerosis susceptibility in the Iranian population.

J Clin Neurosci 2014 Dec 28;21(12):2207-11. Epub 2014 Jul 28.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease with increasing prevalence. Many factors have been assessed in relation to its development and its worldwide geographical and racial distribution. Therefore, we decided to conduct a nationwide case-control matched study to estimate the possible influence of putative risk factors on MS status in an Iranian MS population. Between January 2008 and September 2013, 1403 patients diagnosed with MS according to the Poser or McDonald criteria and 883 controls were studied. Of all patients, there were 921 women and 296 men (ratio 3.1:1) with a mean age of 32.6 ± 8.7 years. In the multivariate model adjusted for sex and age (±2years), we found associated risk factors of MS to be: history of any allergic condition (Odds ratio (OR): 1.92, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.55-2.47, p<0.001), and smoking (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.31-2.73, p<0.001). Sunlight exposure ⩾ 3 hours was found to be associated with a reduced risk of MS (OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.15-0.31, p<0.001). As expected, cases were more likely to have a positive family history of MS than controls (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.33-2.75, p<0.001). A significant association was found between family history of other autoimmune diseases and MS risk (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.18-2.09, p=0.002). These results support the hypothesis that sun exposure is associated with a decreased risk of MS while smoking, autoimmune family history, MS family history, and personal allergy history are risk factors for MS susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2014.04.020DOI Listing
December 2014

Deep vein thrombosis following below knee immobilization: the need for chemoprophylaxis.

Trauma Mon 2013 15;17(4):367-9. Epub 2013 Jan 15.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: There is controversy regarding routine prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients treated via a short leg cast or splint following lower extremity trauma.

Objectives: The main aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of DVT and need for chemoprophylaxis in these patients.

Materials And Methods: Patients with ankle sprains or stable foot/ankle fractures were entered in this cross-sectional study. Serum D-dimer levels were measured 2 weeks following fixation. If the D-dimer levels were above 0.2 micrograms/ml the test was considered positive and the patient was referred for Doppler ultrasound examination (DUE) to confirm or rule out the diagnosis of DVT. Finally, the incidence of DVT was calculated and the role of predisposing factors was investigated.

Results: There were 95 patients with an average age of 38 ± 13.7 (77.9% males); 46 patients had at least one risk factor for DVT. The D-dimer test was positive in 21(22.1%) patients. DVT was confirmed by DUE in 3 patients (3.1%). The incidence of DVT significantly increased in the presence of 3 or more risk factors (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: It seems that DVT is not a common complication of below knee fixation and chemoprophylaxis is not necessary when the patient has less than 3 predisposing factors. With 3 or more risk factors chemoprophylaxis and periodic follow-ups must be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/traumamon.9158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3860667PMC
December 2013

Assessment of safety culture in isfahan hospitals (2010).

Mater Sociomed 2013 ;25(1):44-7

School of Management and Medical Information, Isfahan University of Medical sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: Many internal and external risk factors in health care organizations make safety important and it has caused the management to consider safety in their mission statement. One of the most important tools is to establish the appropriate organizational structure and safety culture.

The Goal: The goal of this research is to inform managers and staff about current safety culture status in hospitals in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of health services.

Methods: This is a descriptive-survey research. The research population was selected hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. Research tool was a questionnaire (Cronbach alpha 0.75). The questionnaire including 93 questions (Likert scale) classified in 12 categories: Demographic questions, Individual attitude, management attitude, Safety Training, Induced stress, pressure and emotional conditions during work, Consultation and participation, Communications, Monitoring and control, work environment, Reporting, safety Rules, procedures and work instructions that distributed among 45 technicians, 208 Nurses and 62 Physicians. All data collected from the serve was analysis with statistical package of social science (SPSS). In this survey Friedman test, Spearman correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and factor analysis have been used for data analyzing.

Results: The score of safety culture dimensions was 2.90 for Individual attitude, 3.12 for management attitude, 3.32 for Safety Training, 3.14 for Induced stress, pressure and emotional conditions during work, 3.31 for Consultation and participation, 2.93 for Communications, 3.28 for Monitoring and control, 3.19 for work environment, 3.36 for Reporting, 3.59 safety Rules, procedures and work instructions that Communication and individual attitude were in bad condition. Safety culture among different hospitals: governmental and educational, governmental and non-educational and non-governmental and different functional groups (physicians, nurses, diagnostic) of studied hospitals showed no significant differences. There was no relationship between safety culture and demographic data.

Conclusion: It was concluded that is no different among governmental and educational, governmental and non-educational and non-governmental in level of safety culture, all of them were on intermediate level so it is essential to attention to the safety culture in hospitals and planning to improve it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/msm.2013.25.44-47DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3655732PMC
May 2013
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